Siege of Jerez (1261)

The Siege of Jerez by King Alfonso X of Castile took place in 1261 in the late spring or early summer. It resulted in the incorporation of Jerez de la Frontera into the Crown of Castile. At the time of the siege, Jerez was one of several autonomous Muslim enclaves left over after the collapse of Ibn Hud's principality and the successful reconquista campaigns of Alfonso's father, Ferdinand III. Besides the large kingdoms of Granada and Niebla, several small city-states had maintained a precarious independence. At the time of its conquest, Jerez was ruled by Ibn Abit, whom Castilian sources call Abén Habit and style señor of Jerez. Shortly after Alfonso succeeded his father in 1252, several of the autonomous towns—Arcos, Lebrija, Medina Sidonia and Vejer—that had submitted to Ferdinand and agreed to pay tribute after the fall of Seville in 1248, refused to continue payments to Alfonso. By 1253, Alfonso had forced Jerez to resume tribute and his brother Henry had forced Arcos and Lebrija to surrender.

Alfonso refused, however. His brother rebelled, tried to conquer Niebla, was defeated by Nuño González de Lara near Lebrija in 1255 and went into exile. In late 1260, Alfonso X summoned the cortes to meet at Seville to advise "concerning the affair of Africa", that is, the next step in the planned African crusade after the failed crusade of Salé. According to the Chronicle of Alfonso X, which erroneously compresses the events of 1253 and 1261 into the year 1255, the king told the assembly that he desired "to serve God by doing harm to the Moors to seize their lands those near the city of Seville." He asked the assembly whether he should first attack Niebla or Jerez. The latter was chosen because of its strategic importance to the landward defence of the newly developed port of El Puerto de Santa María, it is probable that the cortes authorised a tax to pay for both the campaign against Jerez and the one to follow against Niebla, since Alfonso was still collecting arrears fifteen years later.

Alfonso, with the help of the king of Granada, Muḥammad I, besieged Jerez for one month before the citizens opened negotiations on their own initiative. Fearing that the valuable orchards and olive groves around the city might be damaged by prolonged warfare, they offered to submit to Castilian rule and pay Alfonso the tribute they had annually given to Ibn Abit if Alfonso left them in control of their property. Since he was still having difficulty bringing Christian settlers to Seville, Alfonso granted the citizens their request; the citizenry gave Ibn Abit, who had remained in the alcázar, an ultimatum: come to terms with Alfonso or leave. The lord of Jerez negotiated the surrender of the citadel and a safe conduct for him and all his property. After the surrender, Alfonso placed Nuño González de Lara in charge of the alcázar with the title of alcaide. Nuño delegated his authority to a knight named García Gómez Carrillo; the alcázar was resupplied with food and weapons. The Muslims of Jerez remained in possession of their homes and properties inside and outside the walls

Primrose Hill railway station

Primrose Hill was a railway station in Primrose Hill, in the London Borough of Camden opened by the North London Railway as Hampstead Road in 1855. It was named Chalk Farm from 1862 until 1950. From the 1860s to 1915, it was linked with a separate station opened by the London and North Western Railway in 1852; the station closed in 1992, the platform buildings and canopies were removed in 2008. The North London Railway opened the station as Hampstead Road on 5 May 1855 replacing an earlier station of the same name to the east; the station was renamed Chalk Farm on 1 December 1862, resited to the west with four new platforms completed on 24 May 1872.. The London and North Western Railway opened its station as Camden on 1 May 1852, it replaced an earlier station of the same name to the south that had opened on 1 November 1851. The station was the first station out of Euston on the West Coast Main Line. In 1866, the LNWR's station's name was changed to Camden and it was resited to the north on 1 April 1872 to provide a better connection to the NLR's station.

In 1876, the name was changed to Chalk Farm to match the NLR's station. From the 1860s the two stations were linked with a footbridge across the tracks; the LNWR platforms closed on 10 May 1915 and the NLR platforms closed on 1 January 1917 for wartime economy measures. Two of the NLR station's platforms reopened on 10 July 1922. On 25 September 1950, the station was renamed Primrose Hill. After the station's reopening in 1922, the passenger service was provided during peak hours only running between Broad Street and Watford Juncton. After Broad Street closed in 1986 the service ran from Liverpool Street; the service was scheduled to close when the Liverpool Street to Watford Junction service was discontinued, but ended early due to flooding. The last eastbound train called at Primrose Hill on 18 September 1992 and the last westbound train called on 22 September 1992; the area is served by the nearby Chalk Farm station on the London Underground's Northern line. The station building is occupied by a business.

It is on Regent's Park Road at one end of the pedestrianised bridge over the railway tracks. The platform canopies and the buildings supporting them were demolished by Network Rail in December 2008. List of closed railway stations in London North London Railway West Coast Main Line London Overground Brown, Joe. London Railway Atlas. Ian Allan Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7110-3819-6. Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt and stopping place and present. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199. Media related to Primrose Hill railway station at Wikimedia Commons London's Abandoned Stations - Primrose Hill BR - photos of the station