Year 1061 was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. Spring – Robert de Grandmesnil, his nephew Berengar, half-sister Judith, eleven monks of the Abbey of Saint-Evroul, are banished by Duke William II of Normandy for violence, travel to Southern Italy. Summer – Norman forces led by Duke Robert Guiscard and his brother Roger I invade Sicily, they surprise the Saracen army. Guiscard conquers marches into central Sicily. June 28 – Count Floris I is ambushed on a retreat from Zaltbommel and killed by German troops at Nederhemert. Most of West Frisia is annexed by the Holy Roman Empire. Sosols destroy the Kievan Rus' fortification of Yuryev in Tartu, carry out a raid on Pskov. Sultan Yusuf ibn Tashfin succeeds to the throne following the Almoravid conquest. July 27 – Pope Nicholas II dies after a 2-year pontificate at Florence, he is succeeded by Alexander II as the 156th pope of the Catholic Church in Rome. The Speyer Cathedral is consecrated in Speyer. Al-Maziri, Zirid imam and scholar Al-Tughrai, Persian poet and alchemist Roger Borsa, duke of Apulia and Calabria William II, count of Burgundy Wuyashu, chieftain of the Wanyan tribe January 28 – Spytihněv II, duke of Bohemia May 5 – Humbert of Moyenmoutier, French cardinal June 28 – Floris I, count of Friesland July 13 – Beatrice I, German abbess of Quedlinburg July 27 – Nicholas II, pope of the Catholic Church Abu Sa'id Gardezi, Persian geographer and historian Adelmann, bishop of Brescia Ali ibn Ridwan, Arab physician and astronomer Burkhard I, German nobleman Conrad III, German nobleman Henry I, German count palatine Rajaraja Narendra, Indian ruler Rúaidhri Ua Flaithbheartaigh, king of Iar Connacht Song Qi, Chinese statesman and historian
Starr County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 60,968, its county seat is Rio Grande City. The county was created in 1848, it is named for James Harper Starr, who served as Secretary of the Treasury of the Republic of Texas. Starr County comprises the Rio Grande City, TX Micropolitan Statistical Area, included other small cities as well, which itself is part of the larger Rio Grande Valley region, it is northeast from the Mexican border. From 2000 to 2010 the population of Starr County increased from 53,597 to 60,968. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,229 square miles, of which 1,223 square miles is land and 5.9 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 83 Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 60,968 people living in the county. 0.4% were Non-Hispanic White, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% Native American, 0.1% Black or African American, 3.0% of some other race and 0.5% of two or more races.
95.7 % were Latino. According to the Census Bureau, Starr County had the highest percentage of Hispanic residents of any county in the United States; as of the census of 2000, there were 53,597 people, 14,410 households, 12,666 families living in the county. The population density was 44 people per square mile. There were 17,589 housing units at an average density of 14 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 87.92% White, 0.15% Black or African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.28% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 9.91% from other races, 1.46% from two or more races. There were 14,410 households out of which 54.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.50% were married couples living together, 17.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 12.10% were non-families. 11.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.69 and the average family size was 4.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 37.40% under the age of 18, 11.00% from 18 to 24, 27.10% from 25 to 44, 16.30% from 45 to 64, 8.20% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 26 years. For every 100 females there were 94.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $16,504, the median income for a family was $17,556. Males had a median income of $17,398 versus $13,533 for females; the per capita income for the county was $7,069, the third-lowest in the United States. About 47.40% of families and 50.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 59.40% of those under age 18 and 43.30% of those age 65 or over. As of 2009 the median household income was $22,418. In the 1970s and into the 1980s, federal law enforcement officials concentrated their anti-drug smuggling efforts on Starr County. On May 1, 2009, the former sheriff of Starr County, Reymundo Guerra, a Democrat, pleaded guilty in federal court to a narcotics conspiracy charge. In April 2016, Starr County Justice of the Peace Salvador Zarate Jr. faced up to twenty years imprisonment and a $10,000 fine on two counts of bribery for accepting a $500 bribe in exchange for reducing bond on two persons arrested on narcotics charges in an incident on Christmas Eve 2014.
He was found not guilty of possession of a controlled substance. Zarate is expected to appeal any sentence rendered. Starr County has long been a Democratic county but suffers from low voter turnout with only twenty percent of its 53,000 residents voting. No Republican has won the county for President since incumbent Benjamin Harrison in 1892 – as of 2017 Starr has the longest streak of voting for Democrats in the entire country. In 1988 the county gave Michael Dukakis his highest percentage in the nation. Starr County is one of only 17 counties in Texas that gave the majority of their votes to Senator John Kerry of Massachusetts, who received 7,199 votes while George W. Bush received 2,552 votes. In 2008, Illinois Senator Barack H. Obama did still better than Kerry in Starr County, receiving 8,233 votes. Arizona Republican Senator John McCain received 1,488 votes. Residents of eastern Starr County are zoned to schools in the Rio Grande City Consolidated Independent School District. Immaculate Conception School, located in Rio Grande City and founded in 1884, is the only Catholic school in Starr County and provides a faith-based pre-K through eighth-grade education to 250 students each year.
Residents of western Starr County are zoned to schools in the Roma Independent School District. Residents of northeastern Starr County are zoned to schools in the San Isidro Independent School District. South Texas College Founded in 1993, South Texas College is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to award baccalaureate and associate degrees. More than 29,000 students attend STC and a faculty and staff of more than 1,600 serve STC’s five campuses, including a full-service campus located in Rio Grande City in Starr County; the county holds one seat on the college's seven member Board of Directors. The seat is filled by Rose Benavidez; the college offers more than 100 degree and certificate program options, including associate degrees in a variety of art, technology, allied health and advanced manufacturing fields of study. The college offers eight online associate degrees options. STC offers a Bachelor of Applied Technology degree in Technology Management, as well as a Bachelor of Applied Technology in Computer and Information Technologies.
The college is one o
Around 6 million Polish citizens perished during World War II: about one fifth of the pre-war population. Most were civilian victims of the war crimes and crimes against humanity during the occupation by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. Statistics for Polish World War II casualties are contradictory; this article provides a summarization of these estimates of Poland's human losses in the war and their causes. The official Polish government report on war damages prepared in 1947 put Poland's war dead at 6,028,000; this figure was disputed when the communist system collapsed by the Polish historian Czesław Łuczak who put total losses at 6.0 million. In 2009 the Polish government-affiliated Institute of National Remembrance published the study "Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami" that estimated Poland's war dead at between 5.6 and 5.8 million Poles and Jews, including 150,000 during the Soviet occupation. Poland's losses by geographic area include about 3.5 million within the borders of present-day Poland, about two million in the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union.
Contemporary Russian sources include Poland's losses in the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union with Soviet war dead. In Poland this is viewed as inflating Soviet casualties at Poland's expense. Todays scholars of independent Poland believe that 1.8 to 1.9 million Polish civilians and 3 million Polish Jews were victims of German Occupation policies and the war." Most Polish citizens who perished in the war were civilian victims of the war crimes and crimes against humanity during the occupation by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. The Polish Institute of National Remembrance estimates total deaths under the German occupation at 5,470,000 to 5,670,000 Jews and Poles, 2,770,000 Poles, 2.7 to 2.9 million Polish Jews According to IPN research there were 150,000 victims of Soviet repression. Jewish Holocaust deaths Approximately. In 2009 the Polish Institute of National Remembrance put the total of Jewish deaths at 2.7 to 2.9 million. Polish researchers estimate that 1,860,000 Polish Jews were murdered in the Nazi death camps, the remainder perished inside the Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland, aboard Holocaust trains, in mass shooting actions.
The Nazi extermination camp overall death toll is estimated at 2,830,000. An additional 660,000 Jews from other countries, were murdered. Over a million Jews deported from Western countries to camps and ghettos set up in occupied Poland perished in the Holocaust; the Nazi death camps located in Poland are sometimes incorrectly described as Polish death camps. Human Losses of the ethnic Polish populationAccording to the figures published by the Polish government in exile in 1941 the ethnic Polish population was 24,388,000 at the beginning of the war in September 1939; the IPN puts the death toll of ethnic Poles under the German occupation at 2,770,000 and 150,000 due to Soviet repressionThe main causes of these losses are as follows. Acts of War1939 Military Campaign-About 200,000 Polish civilians were killed in the 1939 Military Campaign. Many were killed in the Luftwaffe's terror bombing operations, including the bombing of Frampol and Wieluń, bombing of Sulejów. Massive air raids were conducted on these, other towns which had no military infrastructure.
Civilians were strafed from the air with machine gun fire in what became known as a terror bombing campaign. Columns of fleeing refugees were systematically attacked by the German fighter and dive-bomber aircraft; the Siege of Warsaw caused a huge toll of civilian casualties. From the first hours of World War II, the capital of Poland, was a target of an unrestricted aerial bombardment campaign by the German Luftwaffe. Apart from the military facilities such as infantry barracks and the Okęcie airport and aircraft factory, the German pilots targeted civilian facilities such as water works, market places and schools. Warsaw Uprising Between 150,000 and 250,000 Polish civilians died in the 1944 Warsaw Uprising from mass murders such as the Wola massacre. Murdered in Prisons or Camps, in mass executionsDuring the occupation many Non-Jewish ethnic Poles were killed in mass executions, including an estimated 37,000 Poles at the Pawiak prison complex run by the Gestapo. Polish researchers of the Institute of National Remembrance have estimate about 800,000 ethnic Polish victims during the German occupation including 400,000 in prisons, 148,000 killed in executions and 240,000 deaths among those deported to concentration camps, including 70-75,000 at Auschwitz.
During the occupation, communities were held collectively responsible for Polish attacks against German troops and mass executions were conducted in reprisal. Many mass executions took place outside camps such as the Mass murders in Piaśnica. Psychiatric patients were executed in Action T4. Farmers were murdered during pacifications of villages. Forced Labor in GermanyNon-Jewish ethnic Poles in large cities were targeted by the łapanka policy which the German occupiers utilized to indiscriminately round up civilians off the street to be sent as forced laborers to Germany. In Warsaw, between 1942