Year 1073 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. Spring – Emperor Michael VII sends an Byzantine army to deal with Seljuk raiding in Cappadocia, supported with a mixed force of Norman and French mercenary heavy cavalry under Roussel de Bailleul. Roussel declares it an independent Norman state. Michael enraged, sends another army led by his uncle, Caesar John Doukas and the veteran General Nikephoros Botaneiates to deal with the rising of the Norman threat in Asia minor, but the Byzantines are defeated and John is captured. Roussel marches with a force across Bithynia to the Bosporus and sacks Chrysopolis, near Constantinople. May 25 – King Sancho IV of Navarre and Ahmad al-Muqtadir, Muslim ruler of the Taifa of Zaragoza, conclude an alliance by treaty. Ebles II of Roucy leads a French army in Spain, to support King Sancho V of Aragon in his struggle against his Muslim neighbors. Sviatoslav II and Vsevolod I unite the Kievan forces and expel their brother Iziaslav I. Sviatoslav II becomes Grand Prince of Kiev.
October 14 – The Judicate of Arborea is recognised by Pope Gregory VII. Edgar Ætheling, last male member of the House of Wessex, joins forces with King Malcolm III of Scotland and King Philip I of France in an attempt to take the English throne. Wang Anshi, Chinese chief chancellor of the Song Dynasty, creates a new bureau of the central government, which supervises the manufacture of military armaments and ensures quality control. June 15 – Emperor Go-Sanjō dies after a 5-year reign and is succeeded by his 19-year-old son Shirakawa as the 72nd emperor of Japan. April 21 – Pope Alexander II dies after a 11½-year pontificate at Rome, he is succeeded by Gregory VII as the 157th pope of the Catholic Church. Rabbi Yitchaki Alfassi finishes writing an important work of Jewish law. John IX bar Shushan ends his term as Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch. Agnes of Waiblingen, daughter of Henry IV Alfonso I, king of Aragon Al-Tighnari, Moorish botanist and physician Anastatius IV, pope of the Catholic Church David IV, king of Georgia Ermengarde of Nevers, French noblewoman Leopold III, margrave of Austria Magnus III, king of Norway Meng, empress of the Song Dynasty Philippa, French noblewoman Shaykh Tabarsi, Persian Shia scholar Thomas of Marle, lord of Coucy Zbigniew, duke of Poland April 21 – Alexander II, pope of the Catholic Church June 15 – Go-Sanjō, emperor of Japan July 12 – John Gualbert, Italian monk and abbot December 20 – Dominic of Silos, Spanish abbot Al-Qushayri, Persian Sufi scholar and theologian Anthony of Kiev, Russian monk and saint Badis ibn Habus, Berber king of the Taifa of Granada Barisone I of Torres, Sardinian ruler of Arborea Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, king of Gwynedd Peter Damian, cardinal-bishop of Ostia Zhou Dunyi, Chinese philosopher and cosmologist
Benefits Street is a British documentary series broadcast on Channel 4. It was first aired on 6 January 2014, ran for five episodes; the show was filmed by documenting the lives of several residents of James Turner Street, Winson Green, England, United Kingdom, where newspapers including the Daily Mail and The Guardian reported that 90% of the residents claim benefits. It shows benefits claimants committing crimes, including a demonstration of how to shoplift, portrays a situation in which people are dependent on welfare payments and lack the motivation to seek reliable employment; the show was controversial, with the police, Channel 4 and the media regulator Ofcom receiving hundreds of complaints. There were Twitter death threats made against the residents of the street. Channel 4 was accused of making poverty porn. Many of those taking part claimed. Ofcom launched an investigation into whether the programme had breached the broadcasting regulations, but concluded its rules had not been broken.
The producers of Benefits Street defended the series, arguing that the reaction to it demonstrated the importance of making such a documentary. The series was mentioned in the House of Commons, prompted some political debate on the topic of welfare. A number of programmes were commissioned by other channels covering the same topic, while Channel 4 commissioned a follow up series provisionally titled Immigration Street that would follow the lives of immigrants living in the United Kingdom. Benefits Street gave Channel 4 their highest viewing figures for any show since 2012. In August 2014, Love Productions confirmed the second series of Benefits Street was being filmed in Kingston Road, Stockton-on-Tees, United Kingdom. Series two aired from 11 May 2015 for four episodes. In 2012, Love Productions approached the BBC with the idea for a programme that would feature a prominent member of the business community working with unemployed people, but the show did not come to fruition after the unnamed individual had to withdraw from it because of other commitments.
The format for the series that would become Benefits Street was suggested, but the BBC declined to commission the series because it was producing a number of other programmes concerning similar issues, such as People Like Us and Nick and Margaret: We All Pay Your Benefits. Love Productions suggested the format to Channel 4, who agreed to commission the programme. Writing in The Observer in January 2014, Nick Mirsky, head of documentaries at Channel 4, said that Love Productions intentionally selected an area where a high proportion of the residents were in receipt of welfare payments "to show the effect of benefit cuts on a community for whom they were the principal source of income"; the filming and production process took eighteen months. Both Mirsky, Ralph Lee, Channel 4's head of factual programming, said the residents of James Turner Street were consulted about the series before filming began. Cameras observed them over the course of a twelve-month period; the decision to call the series Benefits Street was taken two weeks before the programme aired.
The comedian Frank Skinner, from the West Midlands, was approached to narrate the documentary but turned it down because he had concerns about how people from Birmingham would be portrayed, did not wish to criticise the city. The voice-over was provided by former Coronation Street actor Tony Hirst instead; the first episode of Benefits Street was aired at 9:00 pm on Monday 6 January 2014, ran for five episodes. A live one-hour debate to discuss issues raised by the series was scheduled to air after the final episode, Channel 4 announcing plans for this a few days after the second episode had been transmitted. During the week following the broadcasting of the third episode, West Midlands Police charged several James Turner Street residents with drugs-related offences in connection with a raid their officers had carried out in June 2013; those facing charges included some people seen in episodes of the series. Channel 4 said. On 23 January, the Birmingham Mail reported that items of Benefits Street branded merchandise, such as mugs and T-shirts, were being produced for sale over the internet by individuals wishing to cash in on the programme.
James Turner Street is a residential street of Victorian terraced houses in the Winson Green area of Birmingham. The street is in the city's Soho Ward, part of the Ladywood constituency, has a B18 postcode, it is first recorded in local records as Osborne Street in 1877, given its present name in 1882. According to education historian Alison Wheatley, the street is named after a James Turner who taught at King Edward's School in Birmingham, the name may have been suggested by a former pupil, who became a town planner, as a way of honouring Turner's legacy. However, the Birmingham historian Carl Chinn believes the street was named for a local businessman and partner in the firm Hammond, Turner & Sons, a manufacturer of buttons. Of Winson Green, Chinn writes that it was developed as a "better-off working class district", but that by the latter part of the 20th century many of the properties in the area were falling into decay. Dr Chris Upton, reader in public history at the city's Newman University, has described the street as part of a "ribbon development" of suburban districts built as Birmingham expanded during the latter part of the 19th century.
While many of the street's original residents were locals who moved from the inner city back-to-back houses, some had moved from as far away as London and Cornwall to work in Birmingham. Upton describes them as "the respectable working class"—skilled workers who earned around 30
Victor Hubinon was a Belgian comic-book artist, best known for the series Buck Danny and Redbeard. Victor Hubinon was born in Angleur, Belgium in 1924, he studied at the Arts Academy of Liège and fled to England during World War II, where he served in the Royal Navy. After the war ended, he returned to Belgium and when he was 22, he started working as an illustrator for the newspaper La Meuse, he got a contract with businessman and journalist Georges Troisfontaines, who started the press agency "World Press". There, Hubinon met another illustrator for the agency, they first collaborated on a short comic story, but Troisfontaines created for them a new hero, Buck Danny, about a trio of fictional American pilots in World War II. Troisfontaines dropped out after he had written the first fifteen pages, whereupon Charlier and Hubinon continued it on their own. Quite soon, Charlier quit drawing and specialized in writing the stories, while Hubinon did all the artwork; the strip appeared in Spirou magazine, the comics weekly of publisher Dupuis, became over the next thirty years one of the most popular and enduring series of the magazine.
After 50 years, more than 20 million albums had been sold. Unusual about the series was that it kept securely up-to-date, with the heroes always flying in the most recent planes and participating in current events. Hubinon experimented with caricatural stories in his early years as a comics artist, he made one story about Blondin et Cirage, two heroes created by Jijé, but thereafter, the series returned to Jijé, Hubinon stuck to his realistic work, such as Buck Danny, the biographies of Surcouf and Jean Mermoz, a fictionalized retelling of the Battle of Tarawa. When Charlier, together with a few friends like René Goscinny, created the new Pilote magazine in 1959, he wrote for Hubinon the realistic pirate series Redbeard, which would continue for some twenty years; the pirate crew in this series was the inspiration for their comical counterpart in the other main series of Pilote, Asterix. In 1977, Hubinon created La Mouette, with stories by Gigi Maréchal, he died in 1979 from a heart attack. 1971: Best realistic artwork at the Prix Saint-Michel, Belgium Asteroid 301511 Hubinon, discovered by French amateur astronomer Bernard Christophe in 2009, was named in his memory.