SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

1074

Year 1074 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. Spring – Norman mercenaries led by Roussel de Bailleul proclaim John Doukas emperor of the Byzantine Empire, his nephew, Emperor Michael VII, forms an alliance with Seljuk chieftain Suleiman ibn Qutulmish, raiding in the eastern regions of Anatolia. The Seljuk Turks ambush the Norman forces and John are defeated and captured, but a ransom, raised by Roussel's wife, allows him to return to Amaseia. February 2 – Treaty of Gerstungen: Emperor Henry IV is forced to restore the peace with Duke Otto of Nordheim, he signs a treaty in Gerstungen castle on the River Werra in Thuringia. February 7 – Battle of Montesarchio: Prince Pandulf IV, co-ruler of Benevento, is killed while fighting the Normans in southern Italy. March 14 – Battle of Mogyoród: King Solomon is defeated by his cousins, Duke Géza I and Ladislaus I, he is dethroned and Géza becomes the new ruler of Hungary. Spring – Badr al-Jamali becomes Chief Wazir and military dictator of the Fatimid Caliphate under Caliph Al-Mustansir Billah in Egypt.

Magreb unites the Tengizi Islands in the Caspian Sea, becomes the first king of the Kingdom of Tengiz. Emperor Shen Zong of the Song Dynasty establishes a Marine Office and a Goods Control Bureau north-west of Shanghai, allowing for the loading and unloading of freight. Pope Gregory VII temporarily excommunicates the Norman nobleman Robert Guiscard. February 12 – Conrad II, king of Germany September 16 – Al-Musta'li, Fatimid caliph Abu Mansur Mauhub al-Jawaliqi, Arab philologist Edgar, king of Scotland Hugh I, count of Champagne Ibn al-Tilmidh, Syriac physician and poet Maud, queen of Scotland February 7 – Pandulf IV, Lombard prince April 25 – Herman I, margrave of Baden May 6 – Dúnán, bishop of Dublin October 25 – Shōshi, empress of Japan Ibn al-Wafid, Andalusian pharmacologist Joseph Tarchaneiotes, Byzantine general Peter Krešimir IV, king of Croatia Ralph IV, French nobleman Wugunai, Chinese chieftain Yang Wenguang, Chinese general

International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families

The International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families is a United Nations multilateral treaty governing the protection of migrant workers and families. Signed on 18 December 1990, it entered into force on 1 July 2003 after the threshold of 20 ratifying States was reached in March 2003; the Committee on Migrant Workers monitors implementation of the convention, is one of the seven UN-linked human rights treaty bodies. "It is time to take a more comprehensive look at the various dimensions of the migration issue, which now involves hundreds of millions of people, affects countries of origin and destination. We need to understand better the causes of international flows of people and their complex interrelationship with development." United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan, from his report on strengthening the Organization, 9 November 2002. The United Nations Convention constitutes a comprehensive international treaty regarding the protection of migrant workers' rights.

It emphasizes the connection between migration and human rights, becoming a crucial policy topic worldwide. The Convention aims at protecting migrant members of their families. In the Preamble, the Convention recalls conventions by International Labour Organization on migrant workers: Migration for Employment Convention, 1949, Migrant Workers Convention, 1975, on forced labour; the primary objective of the Convention is to foster respect for migrants' human rights. Migrants are not only workers, they are human beings; the Convention does not create new rights for migrants but aims at guaranteeing equality of treatment, the same working conditions, including in case of temporary work, for migrants and nationals. The Convention innovates because it relies on the fundamental notion that all migrants should have access to a minimum degree of protection; the Convention recognizes that regular migrants have the legitimacy to claim more rights than irregular immigrants, but it stresses that irregular migrants must see their fundamental human rights respected, like all human beings.

In the meantime, the Convention proposes that actions be taken to eradicate clandestine movements, notably through the fight against misleading information inciting people to migrate irregularly, through sanctions against traffickers and employers of undocumented migrants. Article 7 of this Convention protects the rights of migrant workers and their families regardless of "sex, colour, religion or conviction, political or other opinion, ethnic or social origin, age, economic position, marital status, birth, or other status"; this Convention is recalled by the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities at the Preamble. The Convention required a minimum of 20 ratifications; when El Salvador and Guatemala ratified it on 14 March 2003, this threshold was reached. As of December 2019, the following 55 states have ratified the Convention: Albania, Algeria, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Benin and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Colombia, Congo-Brazzaville, East Timor, Egypt, El Salvador, Gambia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Kyrgyzstan, Libya, Mali, Mexico, Mozambique, Niger, Paraguay, Philippines, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Tajikistan, Uganda and Venezuela.

In addition, several countries have signed the Convention but not yet ratified it. This means that their government has expressed the intention of adhering to the Convention but is not yet bound to do so by international law; these countries are: Armenia, Cambodia, Chad, Gabon, Liberia, Palau and Montenegro, Sierra Leone, Togo. Thus far, countries that have ratified the Convention are countries of origin of migrants. For these countries, the Convention is an important vehicle to protect their citizens living abroad. In the Philippines, for example, ratification of the Convention took place in a context characterized by several cases of Filipino workers being mistreated abroad: such cases hurt the Filipino population and prompted the ratification of the Convention. However, these countries are transit and destination countries, the Convention delineates their responsibility to protect the rights of migrants in their territory, they have done little to protect those at home. No migrant-receiving state in Western Europe or North America has ratified the Convention.

Other important receiving countries, such as Australia, Arab states of the Persian Gulf and South Africa have not ratified the Convention. Immigration Migrant workers International Labour Organization International Migrants Day International Organization for Migration Migration for Employment Convention, 1949 Migrant Workers Convention, 1975 Convention on domestic workers Full text of the Convention Full text of the Convention Signatures and ratifications The Committee on Migrant Workers The 2002 International Migration Report published by the Unit

Margus Tsahkna

Margus Tsahkna is an Estonian politician, former leader of the Pro Patria and Res Publica Union, former Minister of Defence in Jüri Ratas' cabinet and Minister of Social Protection in Taavi Rõivas' second cabinet. Tsahkna was born in Estonia. After graduating high school in Tartu in 1995, he studied theology and law at the University of Tartu, from 1996 to 2002 and international law at the University of Toronto, from 1999 to 2000. In 2000, he joined the "Pro Patria" party. From 2001 to 2004 he was the party's youth organisation. From 2001 to 2003 he was a member of Tartu city council. From 2003 to 2006 he was the party's political secretary. After the affiliation of the "Pro Patria" and "Res Publica" parties, to form the "Pro Patria ja Res Publica Liit" party, he was secretary general from 2007 to 2010, political secretary from 2010 to 2013. In 2013 he became assistant chairman, he has been a member of the Estonian parliament since 2007, the member of the parliaments finance committee and social committee.

He has acted as a chairman of the parliaments social committee from 2011-2014. In 2000, he founded the Christian Adolescent Home in Tartu, he is a member of the General Johan Laidoner Society and of the Korp! Sakala student society. In 2009, he won second place in the Estonian television singing competition Laulud tähtedega, he sang with winner of the Eesti otsib superstaari. In 2015 parliamentary election, Tsahkna was re-elected to the parliament with 2,267 individual votes, he was chosen the chairman of the Pro Patria and Res Publica Union on 6 June 2015. In April 2017, Tsahkna announced, he was followed by Helir-Valdor Seeder on 13 May 2017. Tsahkna left the party on 26 June 2017. Tsahkna speaks Estonian and Russian, he is married and has four children