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1079

Year 1079 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. April 11 – Stanislaus of Szczepanów, bishop of Kraków, is executed on orders by King Bolesław II; the way in which his sentence is carried out causes a revolt among the Polish nobles. Bolesław, is forced to flee to take refuge at the court of King Ladislaus I of Hungary, he is succeeded by his brother Władysław I as ruler of Poland. Battle of Cabra: Moorish forces aided by Castilian knights under Rodrigo Diaz defeat and rout the invading army of Emir Abdallah ibn Buluggin of Granada near the town of Cabra. Emperor Henry IV appoints Frederick I as duke of Swabia at Hohenstaufen Castle. Henry's 7-year-old daughter Agnes of Waiblingen is betrothed to Frederick who founds the Hohenstaufen Dynasty. Upon the death of Håkan the Red, Halsten Stenkilsson returns as king of Sweden, jointly with his brother Inge the Elder. King William I establishes the New Forest in Southern England, he proclaims it as a royal forest, using it for hunting of deer.

The Seljuk Turks under Sultan Suleiman ibn Qutulmish reach and occupy the western coast of Asia Minor, an area known since the Archaic Period as Ionia. Omar Khayyam, Persian mathematician and astronomer, computes the length of the year to be 365 days and 8 leap years that includes 366 days; the most accurate calculation of his time. Khayyam, in his Treatise on Demonstrations of Problems in Algebra, produces a complete classification of cubic equations and their geometric solutions. Constance, queen of Castile and León, founds a monastery in Burgos. February 11 – Yejong, king of Goryeo August 8 – Horikawa, emperor of Japan Abū Ṭāhir al-Silafī, Fatimid scholar and writer Berardo dei Marsi, Italian cardinal and bishop Dangereuse de l'Isle Bouchard, French noblewoman Diepold III, margrave of Vohburg Gampopa, Tibetan Buddhist monk and teacher Kilij Arslan I, sultan of the Sultanate of Rum Liu, Chinese empress of the Song Dynasty Peter Abelard, French scholastic philosopher Urraca, queen of León, Castile and Galicia Zheng, Chinese empress of the Song Dynasty January 8 – Adela of France, countess of Flanders February 22 – John of Fécamp, Italian-Norman abbot April 11 – Stanislaus of Szczepanów, Polish bishop August 2 – Roman Svyatoslavich, Kievan prince August 5 – Hezilo, bishop of Hildesheim November 16 – Cao, empress of the Song Dynasty Adelaide of Savoy, duchess of Swabia Aedh Ua Flaithbheartaigh, king of Iar Connacht Al-Jayyānī, Arab scholar and mathematician Atsiz ibn Uvaq, Turkish emir of Damascus Cellach húa Rúanada, Irish chief ollam and poet Håkan the Red, king of Sweden Íñigo López, Spanish nobleman John of Avranches, French archbishop and writer Odo of Rennes and regent of Brittany Roger d'Ivry, Norman nobleman Wen Tong, Chinese painter and calligrapher

Conrad Rice Mill

The Conrad Rice Mill is an independently owned and operated rice mill located in New Iberia and produces the Konriko brand of rice varieties. Established in 1912, it is the oldest independently owned rice mill in the United States still in operation. Two of the buildings, dating back to 1914-1917 and 1930, were listed on the National Register of Historic Places on November 10, 1982. Philip Amelius Conrad began rice farming in Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana around the turn of the 20th century with his uncle Charles Conrad. Wanting to operate independently, he moved to New Iberia on the banks of the Bayou Teche, buying land on the north side of the Bayou near present-day LA Highway 87, just east of North Lewis Street, to grow rice; the harvested rice was shipped 125 miles by steamboat to New Orleans for milling, as no local rice mills existed. After several crops, in 1910, he built a small rice mill on the property to avoid the need to ship to New Orleans. In 1912 he relocated, rebuilding the mill at its current location at 307 Ann Street in New Iberia and establishing the Conrad Rice Milling and Planting Company.

He purchased additional land and moved his rice fields to the south bank of the bayou (now the location of the former Julian Conrad house at 1312 East Main St. in New Iberia. The location of the rice fields on the Bayou Teche was crucial, since water was required for irrigation of the crops. In subsequent years the company continued to acquire land for farming further to the south, to just beyond the present location of US Highway 90, accumulating a total of 575 acres. Rice farming in the early history of the mill was without any mechanical equipment; the land was harrowed using mule-drawn implements. After laying seed by hand in the fields, small levees were built with shovels of sufficient height to hold water at a depth of 1 to 1 ½ inches. Water was brought from the Bayou Teche using an irrigation system built for that purpose. Water pumps pulled water from the bayou to an elevated trough twelve feet above the bayou that angled down over 700 feet to a street-level flume, using gravity to drive the water to the fields.

The flume traversed over a section of the city of New Iberia, being routed under streets using salvaged steam boilers. Two pumps were positioned at the bayou, one operational and one backup, driven by Fairbanks-Morse cold-start crude oil engines, each with two 9" pistons, adapted from ice house pumps that drove the refrigeration equipment, capable of pumping 1100 to 1300 gallons per minute. Initial flooding of the fields took about a week, but water had to be continually pumped to keep the fields under water until the sprouts grew above the ground. At this point, pumping was stopped, the levees were opened with shovels to drain the water to avoid injury to the young stalks; when the stalks became firm, the fields were again flooded until the rice was mature. Rice was harvested in August. Growing time was about 150 days but newer varieties of rice reduced this time to about 120 days. Irrigation and harvesting by hand required from 20 to 40 workers. Rice on its stalks was cut and assembled by hand into shocks, allowed to dry in the field for 2 to 3 days.

The harvested rice was threshed in the field by a tractor-powered thresher transported by wagon to the mill, a distance of up to several miles. At the mill the rice underwent the completion of the drying process by two to three passes in a forced air elevated chimney dryer, to reduce its moisture content from about 25% to 18% to facilitate the milling process. Mechanical equipment was introduced beginning in the 1930s. Tractors first replaced mules for plowing; the first tractors used were McCormick-Deering/International Harvester models with steel wheels and requiring hand cranking for starting. Mechanical harvesting was not introduced until just prior to World War II, when a McCormick Reaper was adapted for use with rice. Rice on its stalks was cut and bundled by the reaper, assembled by hand into shocks for the initial drying in the field. A mechanical thresher replaced the tractor-driven thresher, the introduction of rice dryers allowed the rice to be dried at the field, reducing the risk of loss to birds and rain.

In 1946, mechanical combines were introduced that were capable of both reaping and threshing, removing the rice from the stalk in the field and allowing all of the drying process to take place with rice off the stalk in dryers at the mill. The mill built on St. Ann Street in 1912 was three stories high in order to take advantage of gravity in the flow of rice throughout its processing stages; each of the stages involved processing steps on the rice as it was delivered from the third down to the second and first floors up again for the next stage. The first stage began; the bin feed into the "stone", two 5-foot-diameter stones separated enough to dehull the rice into the huller to remove the bran the "brush" for polishing. This stage produced a polished rice, popular during these years, but now has been reduced to only the first step, leaving the bran intact. From the "brush" the rice was fed into the "trumble", applying a coating of sucrose and talcum powder. After the "trumble", the rice was moved to scales for weighing and packaging in 100-pound sacks, in years bags of 10, 25 and 50 pounds.

The hullers were Engelberg hullers manufactured in Germany. Before the use of electric motors, the hullers were driven by Corliss 150 hp steam engines powered from Babcock & Wilcox boilers

Acacia loderi

Acacia loderi, known colloquially as nelia or nealie, is a species of Acacia native to Australia. Joseph Maiden described Acacia loderi in 1920 and it still bears its original name, it was named after its collector, assistant forester at Broken Hill A. C. Loder who collected it at Yancowinnia near Broken Hill in November 1907; the common name nelia and its former variants nealie and neelya are derived from the Ngyiyambaa word nhiil'i for the species. Acacia loderi grows as small tree 3 -- 8 m high, with an erect or spreading habit; the bark is grey. Like all wattles it has leaf-like structures known as phyllodes instead of leaves; these are pale grey-green to green and narrow and long, measuring 5–11 cm in length by 0.9–2.5 mm wide. The bright yellow flowers appear in spring. Acacia loderi is found in inland southeastern Australia in far western New South Wales, from White Cliffs in the north of the tip of northwestern Victoria in the south, east to Hillston and west through the Darling River basin and Broken Hill into eastern South Australia, growing in colonized brown or red soils in flat country.

It forms a dominant component of Acacia loderi shrubland, where it is found with such trees as black oak, inland rosewood and leopardwood, an understory of chenopods and grasses. Acacia loderi shrubland has been classified as an Endangered Ecological Community by the New South Wales Government. Key threats include clearing and excessive grazing by livestock