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1084

Year 1084 was a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. March 31 – Emperor Henry IV besieges Rome and enters the city, he receives the patrician authority. May – Sack of Rome: Duke Robert Guiscard leads an Norman army north and enters Rome, the city is sacked and Henry IV is forced to retreat. Robert Guiscard returns with 150 warships in Illyria, occupies Corfu and Kefalonia with the support of Ragusa and the Dalmatian cities. King Halsten Stenkilsson is killed and his brother Inge the Elder is deposed in Svealand. Inge is replaced by his brother-in-law Blot-Sweyn; the Seljuk Turks under Sultan Malik-Shah I conquer Byzantine Antioch, held by Philaretos Brachamios, an Armenian general, who seize power as a usurper. Sima Guang, Chinese chancellor and historian, completes with a group of scholars the Zizhi Tongjian, an chronicle of the universal history of China. April 21 – King Kyansittha begins his reign as ruler of the Pagan Kingdom in Burma. Pope Gregory VII, imprisoned by Henry IV in Castel Sant'Angelo, is freed by Robert Guiscard.

He restores papal authority in Rome. Bruno of Cologne founds the Carthusian Order which includes both nuns, he builts an hermitage in the French Alps. Building work starts on Worcester Cathedral. Orchestrated by Bishop Wulfstan. August 1 – Heonjong, Korean king of Goryeo Charles I, count of Flanders David I, king of Scotland Li Qingzhao, Chinese female poet and writer Rainier, margrave of Montferrat Rechungpa, Tibetan founder of the Kagyu school Wang, Chinese empress of the Song Dynasty February 16 – Siegfried I, archbishop of Mainz June 28 – Ekkehard of Huysburg, German abbot October 10 – Gilla Pátraic, bishop of Dublin November 20 – Otto II, margrave of Montferrat Aghsartan I, Georgian king of Kakheti and Hereti Fujiwara no Kenshi, Japanese empress Halsten Stenkilsson, king of Sweden Herfast, Norman Lord Chancellor Hoël II, duke of Brittany Saw Lu, king of the Pagan Kingdom

Le Griffon

Le Griffon was a sailing vessel built by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle in 1679. Le Griffon was constructed and launched at or near Cayuga Island on the Niagara River and was armed with seven cannon; the exact size and construction of Le Griffon is not known but many researchers believe she was a 45-ton barque. She was the largest sailing vessel on the Great Lakes up to that time. La Salle and Father Louis Hennepin set out on Le Griffon's maiden voyage on 7 August 1679 with a crew of 32, sailing across Lake Erie, Lake Huron and Lake Michigan through uncharted waters that only canoes had explored; the ship landed on an island in Lake Michigan where the local tribes had gathered with animal pelts to trade with the French. La Salle disembarked and on 18 September sent the ship back toward Niagara. On its return trip from the island, said to be located in the mouth of the body of water, now known as Green Bay, it vanished with all six crew members and its load of furs. While there have been many theories over the years, there is no clear consensus as to the fate or current location of Le Griffon.

Le Griffon was the largest fixed-rig sailing vessel on the Great Lakes up to that time, led the way to modern commercial shipping in that part of the world. Historian J. B. Mansfield reported that this "excited the deepest emotions of the Indian tribes occupying the shores of these inland waters". French explorer René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, sought a Northwest Passage to China and Japan to extend France's trade. Creating a fur trade monopoly with the Native Americans would finance his quest and building Le Griffon was an "essential link in the scheme". While work continued on Le Griffon in the spring of 1679 as soon as the ice began to break up along the shores of Lake Erie, La Salle sent out men from Fort Frontenac in 15 canoes laden with supplies and merchandise to trade with the Illinois for furs at the trading posts of the upper Huron and Michigan Lakes. Le Griffon may or may not be considered the first ship on the Great Lakes, depending on what factors one deems necessary to qualify a vessel for that designation.

Decking, permanent masts, bearing a name are a few of the criteria one might use. Before 1673, the most common vessel on the lakes was the canoe. While smaller canoes were used on rivers and streams, lake canoes were more larger vessels measuring up to about 35 feet long. While some of these were made from a single carved log, most were bark canoes. Bateaux were common, they were open vessels made of wood measuring up to about 35 feet long and capable of carrying three or four tons of cargo. While they were at times fitted with mast and sails, their primary propulsion was either oars or poles; the sails were supplemental for traveling down wind. Their inefficiency at beating to windward made them impractical as sailing vessels, they were not safe in open water. James Mansfield says that in the fall of 1678, La Salle built a vessel of about 10 tons burden at Fort Frontenac and that this vessel, named Frontenac, was the first real sailing vessel on the Great Lakes. Many authors since Mansfield have followed suit.

There is reason, however. Justin Windsor notes that Count Frontenac by 1 August 1673, "had ordered the construction of a vessel on Ontario to be used as an auxiliary force to Fort Frontenac." He says that at Fort Frontenac in 1676, La Salle "laid the keels of the vessels which he depended on to frighten the English." J. C. Mills quotes a letter from La Salle to the Minister of Marine that says, "The fort at Cataraqui with the aid of a vessel now building, will command Lake Ontario..." While no date is given for the letter, the location of Mill's reference to it suggests that it was sent before 1677 as early as 1675. Francis Parkman says that by 1677, "four vessels of 25 to 40 tons had been built for the lake Ontario and the river St. Lawrence." H. W. Beckwith says that in September 1678, La Salle "already had three small vessels on Lake Ontario, which he had made use of in a coasting trade with the Indians." None of these sources ascribe a name to any of these vessels. While the journals of Tonti, LeClercq do mention a little vessel of 10 tons, none of them apply a name to it.

La Salle's prime focus in 1678 was building Le Griffon. Arriving at Fort Frontenac in late September, he had neither the time for nor the interest in building a vessel at Fort Frontenac to transport building materials, some of which he had obtained in France, to a site above Niagara Falls where he could build his new ship. Beckwith's conclusion was that he chose one of his existing vessels, one of about ten tons burden, for sending the first group of men to Niagara; some of La Salle's associates called this vessel a brigantine. The accounts agree. On 18 November 1678, after just over a month of preparations at Fort Frontenac, La Salle dispatched Captain La Motte and Father Louis Hennepin together with 15 men and supplies in a vessel of 10 tons, their mission was to begin selecting a site for the construction of Le Griffon and to erect necessary structures for shelter and defense. Because the wind was strong from the north, they sailed close to the north shore of the lake, putting in for the nights in various bays along the way.

Somewhere near present-day Toronto they had to chop their way out of the ice. From there they struck out across the lake toward the mouth of the Niagara River, they arrived late on 5 Dec

Nevio Orlandi

Nevio Orlandi is an Italian football manager. Orlandi spent his career playing for several amateur teams, including Akragas throughout the 1970s and the 1980s, being nicknamed l'agricoltore because of his particular running style. After a short experience working as youth team coach for Vicenza, Orlandi joined Reggina in 1989, becoming their Allievi Nazionali head coach, being promoted at the helm of the Primavera soon and successively serving as assistant manager to Franco Colomba during the amaranto's 2000–2001 campaign. On he had a few other experiences at the helm of amateur teams Potenza and Vittoria, where he won the Serie C2 playoffs in 2004 and headed the Sicilian team during the first five weeks of the following season, in Serie C1, he returned at Reggina, where he served as youth team coach, as club scout for Latin America. On March 3, 2008, he was appointed to replace Renzo Ulivieri at the helm of Reggina's first team. During his stint as first team coach, results improved and Reggina managed to mathematically save themselves from relegation in advance of one week.

He was confirmed at the helm of Reggina for the 2008–09 season. In his second season as Reggina coach, the team struggled to achieve positive results, this led to Orlandi being dismissed from his post on December 16, two days after a home 0–2 loss to Sampdoria, leaving the team in second-last place with 12 points achieved in 16 games, he was replaced by Giuseppe Pillon. On January 25, 2009, he was reinstated back at the helm of the amaranto following the club's decision to dismiss Pillon due to poor results, but did not manage to save his club from relegation and left the club in June, he returned into management in 2013 as head coach of Barletta from March 2013 to April 2014. He served as Grosseto head coach in the Serie D league from February to June 2016, before taking over at Chieti that same year in July. However, on January 2017 he found himself without a team after Chieti was excluded from the Serie D league due to financial issues. On 17 November 2017, he was named head coach of Serie D club Vibonese, guiding the club to promotion in the 2017–18 Serie D season, a mid-table placement in the subsequent 2018–19 Serie C campaign