SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

1085

Year 1085 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. May 25 – King Alfonso VI recaptures Toledo from the Moors and occupies other cities such as Madrid and Talavera. Alfonso moves his capital to Toledo and consolidates his power between Sistema Central and the Tagus River, from where he launches more attacks against the taifas of Córdoba, Seville and Granada. Summer – Robert Guiscard heads for the Ionian Islands despite epidemic among troops on Corfu, his son, Roger Borsa, lands on Cephalonia but Guiscard falls sick as his ship approaches the northernmost headland and is carried ashore, where he dies of fever. Emperor Henry IV declares the Peace of God in all the imperial territories of the Holy Roman Empire to quell any sedition. June 15 – Vratislaus II, a son of Duke Bretislav I, becomes the first king of Bohemia and is elevated'for life' by Henry IV. Katedralskolan in Lund, the oldest school in Scandinavia, is founded by King Canute IV of Denmark; the Domesday survey is commissioned by King William I prompted by the abortive invasion of Canute IV, to ensure proper taxation and levies.

April 1 – Emperor Zhe Zong ascends the throne at the age of 8 under the supervision of his grandmother, Grand Empress Dowager Gao. She cancels the reform policy of Chancellor Wang Anshi; the output of copper currency for the Chinese Song Dynasty reaches 6 billion coins a year, prompting the Chinese government to adopt the world's first paper-printed money in the 1120s. September 19 – Maria Komnene, Byzantine princess Ahmad Sanjar, Seljuk ruler of Khorasan Alberich of Reims, archbishop of Bourges Avempace, Andalusian polymath and philosopher Constantine Komnenos, Byzantine aristocrat Elizabeth of Vermandois, English countess Floris II, count of Holland Imad ad-Din Zengi, Seljuk ruler of Mosul Otto II, Moravian prince Ralph I, count of Vermandois Robert fitz Martin, Norman knight and nobleman Stephen of Obazine, French priest and hermit Waleran II, duke of Lower Lorraine William of Montevergine, Italian monk and abbot Zhang Zeduan, Chinese landscape painter Zhu Bian, Chinese diplomat and writer January 3 – Williram of Ebersberg, German abbot April 1 – Shen Zong, emperor of the Song Dynasty May 25 – Gregory VII, pope of the Catholic Church May 27 – Gundred, English noblewoman June 19 – Vitalis of Bernay, Norman monk and abbot July 17 – Robert Guiscard, Norman warrior and nobleman August 19 – Al-Juwayni, Persian scholar and imam September 20 – Hermann II, German nobleman Alfanus I, Italian physician and archbishop Al-Lakhmi, Fatimid scholar and writer Cheng Hao, Chinese neo-Confucian philosopher Maitripada, Indian Buddhist philosopher Osbern Giffard, Norman nobleman Wang Gui, Chinese official and chancellor Yūsuf Balasaguni, Karakhanid statesman

Victoria Station (play)

Victoria Station is a short play for two actors by the English playwright Harold Pinter. Victoria Station consists of a radio dialogue between a minicab controller and a driver, stopped by the side of "a dark park" in Crystal Palace waiting further instructions; the stage directions Lights up on office. CONTROLLER sitting at microphone and Lights up on DRIVER in car alternate between these settings; the controller attempts to instruct the driver to pick up a client from Victoria Station, but the driver declines to move, focusing on his current client. The Controller's mood shifts through various degrees of mystification towards irritation and possibly compassion masking some more nefarious intention of what to do with this Driver. Lasting fewer than ten minutes, the play's tone is comic, as the Controller becomes more and more frantic at the Driver's recalcitrance. Drop your passenger at his chosen destination and proceed to Victoria Station. Otherwise I'll destroy you bone by bone. I'll blow you out in little bubbles.

I'll chew your stomach out with my own teeth. I'll eat all the hair off your body. You'll end up looking like a pipe cleaner? Get me?". But Driver reveals that this client is a young female with whom he has "fallen in love" and from whom he refuses to part, imagining that he will marry her and that they will "die together in this car", despite the previous admission that he is married to a wife "asleep in bed" and the father of "a little daughter"—"Yes, I think that's what she is"; the play becomes more somber in tone, as the Controller tries to assure the fearfully insecure Driver that all will be fine cajoling him to "stay where" he is, as the Controller prepares to leave "this miserable freezing fucking office"—obsessed in turn by the Driver and the fact that "nobody loves me"—in search of him, saying that he imagines them sharing a holiday together on Barbados. In response to the Driver's repeated plea, "Don't leave me", the Controller may be prepared to "help" him, but one may still wonder if he might retain some more menacing possibility.

It was first performed at the National Theatre, London, on 14 October 1982. The performers were Paul Rogers as the Martin Jarvis as the Driver; the same cast recorded a radio version for BBC Radio 3, directed by John Tydeman and first transmitted on 15 August 1986. The sketch is published in Other Places: Three Plays, including A Kind of Alaska and Family Voices, in Other Places: Four Plays by Harold Pinter. Douglas Hodge directed Robert Glenister and Rufus Sewell in a 15-minute film version, released in 2003 by Alcove Entertainment. Victoria Station was among the short works included in a 2007 London production entitled Pinter's People, in which Bill Bailey played the minicab controller and Kevin Eldon played the cab driver. According to Benedict Nightingale's negative review of Pinter's People in the Times, Victoria Station, was among the few sketches performed effectively. Pinter, Harold. Other Places: Four Plays. New York: Dramatists Play Service, 1984. ISBN 0-8222-0866-0. –––. Other Places: Three Plays.

Pbk edn, New York: Grove Press, 1983. ISBN 0-8021-5189-2 Other Places – Listed in "Plays" section of haroldpinter.org. Other Places: Four Plays by Harold Pinter. Google Books limited preview. Victoria Station – In the "Plays" section of haroldpinter.org

Interpersonal relationship

An interpersonal relationship is a strong, deep, or close association or acquaintance between two or more people that may range in duration from brief to enduring. The context can vary from family or kinship relations, marriage, relations with associates, clubs and places of worship. Relationships may be regulated by law, custom, or mutual agreement, form the basis of social groups and of society as a whole; this association may be based on inference, solidarity, regular business interactions, or some other type of social connection or commitment. Interpersonal relationships thrive through equitable and reciprocal compromise, they form in the context of social and other influences; the study of interpersonal relationships involves several branches of the social sciences, including such disciplines as sociology, communication studies, psychology and social work. Interpersonal ties are a subject in mathematical sociology; the scientific study of relationships evolved during the 1990s and came to be referred to as "relationship science", which distinguishes itself from anecdotal evidence or from pseudo-experts by basing conclusions on data and on objective analysis.

Romantic relationships have been defined in countless ways, by writers, religions, in the modern day, relationship counselors. Two popular definitions of love are Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love and Fisher's theory of love. Sternberg defines love in terms of intimacy and commitment, which he claims exist in varying levels in different romantic relationships. Fisher defines love as composed of three stages: attraction, romantic love, attachment. Romantic relationships may exist among a group of people; the single defining quality of a romantic relationship is the presence of love. Love is therefore difficult to define. Hazan and Shaver define love, using Ainsworth's attachment theory, as comprising proximity, emotional support, self-exploration, separation distress when parted from the loved one. Other components agreed to be necessary for love are physical attraction, similarity and self-disclosure. An intimate but non-romantic relationship is known as a platonic relationship. Early adolescent relationships are characterized by companionship and sexual experiences.

As emerging adults mature, they begin to develop attachment and caring qualities in their relationships, including love, bonding and support for partners. Earlier relationships tend to be shorter and exhibit greater involvement with social networks. Relationships are marked by shrinking social networks, as the couple dedicates more time to each other than to associates. Relationships tend to exhibit higher levels of commitment. Most psychologists and relationship counselors predict a decline of intimacy and passion over time, replaced by a greater emphasis on companionate love. However, couple studies have found no decline in intimacy nor in the importance of sex and passionate love to those in longer or later-life relationships. Older people tend to be more satisfied in their relationships, but face greater barriers to entering new relationships than do younger or middle-aged people. Older women in particular face social and personal barriers; the term significant other gained popularity during the 1990s, reflecting the growing acceptance of'non-heteronormative' relationships.

It can be used to avoid making an assumption about the gender or relational status of a person's intimate partner. Cohabiting relationships continue to rise, with many partners considering cohabitation to be nearly as serious as, or a substitute for, marriage. LGBT, on the other hand, face unique challenges in establishing and maintaining intimate relationships; the strain of'internalized homo-negativity' and of presenting themselves in line with acceptable gender norms can reduce the satisfaction and emotional and health benefits they experience in their relationships. LGBT youth lack the social support and peer connections enjoyed by hetero-normative young people. Nonetheless, comparative studies of homosexual and heterosexual couples have found few differences in relationship intensity, satisfaction, or commitment. Although nontraditional relationships continue to rise, marriage still makes up the majority of relationships except among emerging adults, it is still considered by many to occupy a place of greater importance among family and social structures.

In ancient times, parent-child relationships were marked by fear, either of rebellion or abandonment, resulting in the strict filial roles in, for example, ancient Rome and China. Freud conceived of the Oedipal complex, the supposed obsession that young boys have towards their mother and the accompanying fear and rivalry with their father, the Electra complex, in which the young girl feels that her mother has castrated her and therefore becomes obsessed with her father. Freud's ideas influenced thought on parent-child relationships for decades. Another early conception of parent-child relationships was that love only existed as a biological drive for survival and comfort on the child's part. In 1958, Harry Harlow’s study comparing rhesus’ reactions to wire “mothers” and cloth “mothers” demonstrated the depth of emotion felt by infants; the study laid the groundwork fo