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1087

Year 1087 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. Summer – The Taifa of Valencia falls under the domination of Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar, he stabilizes the region around Valencia, which has revolted against the Moorish puppet ruler Al-Qadir. Inge the Elder returns to Svealand and kills his brother-in-law Blot-Sweyn after a 3-year reign. Inge again proclaims himself king of Sweden. September 9 – King William I dies in Rouen after a fall from his horse, he is succeeded by his third son William II. A fire in London destroys much including St. Paul's Cathedral. Bishop Maurice starts the rebuilding of a much larger cathedral. Mahdia campaign: The navies of Genoa and Pisa take the capital of the Zirids, occupy Mahdia for a year. Subsequently, both republics obtain trading privileges. January 3 – Emperor Shirakawa abdicates in favor of his 7-year-old son Horikawa after a 14-year reign, he exerts his personal power to set the cloistered rule system further in motion. May 9 – The relics of Saint Nicholas, patron saint of seafarers, are stolen by Italian sailors from his church in Myra and transported to Bari in southern Italy.

September 16 – Pope Victor III dies after a 1-year pontificate at Monte Cassino. He is buried in the abbey's chapter house. September 13 – John II Komnenos, Byzantine emperor Reginald III, count of Burgundy Theoderich I of Are, German nobleman June 9 – Otto I, prince of Olomouc June 27 – Henry I, margrave of the Nordmark September 9 – William I, king of England September 16 – Victor III, pope of the Catholic Church September 25 – Simon I, French nobleman November 12 – William I, French nobleman December 13 – Maria Dobroniega, duchess of Poland December 27 – Bertha of Savoy, Holy Roman Empress Abu Bakr ibn Umar, military leader of the Almoravids Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī, Arab astrologer Arnold of Soissons, French bishop Asma bint Shihab, queen and co-regent of Yemen Blot-Sweyn, king of Svealand Eustace II, count of Boulogne Leo Diogenes, Byzantine co-emperor Solomon, king of Hungary Yaropolk Izyaslavich, prince of Turov and Volhyn

Skeiðarársandur

Skeiðarársandur is an Icelandic outwash plain, a vast expanse of sand generated by the transport of debris by the Skeiðará and other rivers, whose flow is generated by the Skeiðarárjökull glacier and fed by the volcanic systems of Grímsvötn and Öræfajökull. The coastline of the Sandur is 56 km long. From Skeiðarárjökull, the valley glacier of Vatnajökull, to the sea is 20-30 km; the Skeiðará was the most important obstacle in the construction of Iceland's Route 1. It was not until 1974 that it could be closed by a 904 m long bridge; this is the longest bridge in Iceland. It was temporarily destroyed by water masses and blocks of ice during the last major glacial outburst flood in 1996, triggered by an eruption of the Grímsvötn volcano, but was restored; the outwash plain originated as alluvial land, i.e. as an accumulation of sediments from the rivers. The sediments deposited here in the Holocene alone range from 100 to 200 km³. However, volcanic eruptions of the volcanic systems of Grímsvötn and Öræfajökull have added to these sediment deposits.

The sediments are carried during glacial floods with the glacier water, which thaws during volcanic eruptions, but through ash deposits. The outwash plain does not consist of modern sediments. For example, there is a cliff. In addition, through seismological experiments geologists discovered a 100-150 m deep valley in the bedrock below the modern sediment layers, milled out by glacial rivers of the Ice Age. Over the last 10,000 years, the outwash plain has grown at a speed of about 1 km³/century. Geography of Iceland List of volcanoes in Iceland

M-311 (Michigan highway)

M-311 is a 13.7-mile-long state trunkline highway in Calhoun County in the US state of Michigan that runs from the intersection of M-60 in Burlington north to Interstate 94 at exit 104 in Emmett Township. It was an unsigned state trunkline, meaning that no reassurance markers were used to identify the highway; the route consists of 11 Mile Road, a county road prior to the 1998 rationalization process. M-311 follows 11 Mile Road between M-60 and I-94. In the village of Burlington, M-311 is known as Marshall Street. There is a jog in 11 Mile Road as it runs northwesterly between O Drive. At N Drive, M-311/11 Mile Road turns along N Drive a short distance before turning back northward. Near D Drive, 11 Mile Road passes Hyde Lake. M-311 crosses the Kalamazoo River just south of I-94. All of M-311 is two-lane, rural highway in forest lands and farm fields, none of it is listed on the National Highway System. M-311 was created on October 1998 as a part of Governor John Engler's Rationalization process.

The original routing started at Raymond Avenue. It followed Raymond Avenue to Emmet Street before turning east to Cooper Avenue. From Cooper Avenue, M-311 turned east again on N Drive North until meeting 11 Mile Road. There it followed 11 Mile Road south to M-60 in Burlington. Since the original transfer, all of M-311 north of I-94 was returned to Calhoun County control; this eliminated the section that made a "U-turn". Since December 2009, the highway has been signed in the field; the entire highway is in Calhoun County. Michigan Highways portal M-311 at Michigan Highways Rationalization process at Michigan Highways M-311 at CanHighways.com