Year 1089 was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. King Demetrius Zvonimir of Croatia dies after a 12-year reign, is succeeded by Stephen II. Zvonimir's widow, Queen Helena plots the inheritance of the Croatian crown for her brother, King Ladislaus I of Hungary. June 24 – Viscount Gaston IV of Béarn reconquers the Aragonese city of Monzón, from Emir Al-Mustain II of the Taifa of Zaragoza. August 18 – Emperor Henry IV marries Eupraxia at Cologne, she assumes the name Adelaide. King George II abdicates the throne in favor of his 16-year-old son David IV who becomes ruler of Georgia. Northumbria is divided by King William II into the counties of Northumberland, County Palatine of Durham, Yorkshire and Lancashire. August 11 – A powerful earthquake is recorded in England. March 21 – Cîteaux Abbey, the first Cistercian monastery, is established by a group of French monks under Robert of Molesme in southern France. September – The Synod of Melfi led by Pope Urban II issues decrees against simony and clerical marriage.
September – A church council, held in Constantinople discuses relations between Eastern and Western Christianity. Abraham ibn Ezra, Jewish rabbi and philosopher Dahui Zonggao, Chinese Zen Buddhist monk Han Shizhong, Chinese general Mahsati, Persian female poet and writer Richard de Luci, Norman High Sheriff of Essex Sigurd I, king of Norway May 24 – Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury May 31 – Sigwin of Are, archbishop of Cologne October 6 – Adalbero, bishop of Würzburg November 11 – Peter Igneus, Italian cardinal-bishop December 22 – William the Walloon, French abbot Agnes of Aquitaine, Italian countess of Savoy Demetrius Zvonimir, king of Croatia and Dalmatia Donnchad mac Domnaill Remair, king of Dublin Durandus of Troarn, French monk and theologian Isaac ibn Ghiyyat, Jewish rabbi and philosopher Mieszko Bolesławowic, Polish prince of Kraków Renauld II, French count of Nevers and Auxerre Theobold III, French nobleman Siecienski, Anthony Edward; the Filioque: History of a Doctrinal Controversy.
Oxford University Press
Video & Arcade Top 10 was a Canadian game show broadcast on YTV from 1991 to 2006. Filmed in Toronto, Ontario, it was a competitive game show in which contestants played against each other in video games for prizes, with assorted review and profile segments on current games and movies featured as well. V&A Top 10 is one of a select few English language Canadian game shows to run nationally for 16 years, joining Front Page Challenge, Reach For The Top, Definition in that category. Reruns of the series from the late 1990s and 2000s have aired on GameTV; the series was hosted by then-YTV PJ Gordon Michael Woolvett in its first season, after which he was replaced by then-CFNY radio DJ Nicholas Schimmelpenninck, who had presented the previous season's music review segments. Picholas served as host for the remainder of V&A's run, would be joined by three other on-air personalities: one serving as a primary co-host alongside him, two more to present other segments. Past co-hosts have included Lexa Doig, David J. Phillips, Liza Fromer, among many others, while Leah Windisch was Picholas' final primary co-host.
The main portions of each episode would have four contestants playing one player modes of video games against each other from Nintendo consoles supported at the time of filming. Two separate games on the same console were played on each episode by two different groups of contestants, with the hosts explaining what needs to be done in order to win each round before gameplay began. Scoring was calculated by having the contestants try and either get the highest score, collect the most of something, maintain the most health, or get the best time in their game, depending on the genre, with a tie-breaking method emphasized on the air in case it was needed. For example, in WWE WrestleMania X8 on the Nintendo Gamecube, they had to pin the most people, while in Super Mario 64 for the Nintendo 64, they had to collect the most stars. During gameplay, Nicholas & the main co-host would tell the audience about the games' rules, special moves, sometimes secrets or codes while assorted gameplay footage was shown on screen, though specific coverage of the contestant's progress and scores weren't revealed to the home audience.
Though Nintendo consoles were the most used systems on Video & Arcade Top 10, games for Nintendo's Game Boy handheld systems were featured either being played through the Super Game Boy peripheral on the Super NES, or the Wide-Boy 64 adapter for the Nintendo 64. Seasons occasionally featured games on the Sony PlayStation consoles; as they didn't have TV connectivity at the time, games for Nintendo's Virtual Boy and Nintendo DS systems were not played on episodes. At the end of the round, the winning contestant won a copy of the game that they just played, a second small prize a Timex watch in seasons; some seasons featured an additional first-place prize from a show sponsor, like a Toronto Blue Jays prize pack or a KFC Big Crunch meal. By the end of the series' run, first-place winners received a title from the show's "video game library" rather than the game they played on that episode; each losing contestant would win a consolation prize of their own. For example seasons saw the 2nd-place finisher win dinner passes for the Medieval Times dinner theatre in Toronto, while the third & fourth place contestants each won a Video & Arcade Top 10 T-shirt, or by the last season, an Air Hogs helicopter toy.
Each contestant was paired up with a viewer at home that sent in a postcard & an attendee in the studio audience that would each win the game that their assigned contestant won if they came in first place. The show was aired abridged, editing out some host bloopers and portions of the show that didn't impact the final results; as a result, contestants had much more time than what was shown to reach their goals in the featured games. At least six shows were shot sequentially, the same audience was used for three shows in a row, meaning that they would have to be present for several hours during the taping. After each round, the winner would go to the show's bonus round, The Top 10 Bonus Wall, to win another prize. Here, they were blindfolded and spun around three times, after which they would put their hand in a container of 11 balls with numbers corresponding with the prizes to be won. If the player pulled a white ball, the number on it indicated the prize with the matching number that they won.
If they pulled the red ball they could choose any prize that they wanted from the bonus wall. Bonus round prizes included video game peripherals, action figures, board games, educational prizes, passes to Toronto-area tourist attractions, among numerous others; these prizes were provided by sponsors for the show, advertisements were common during commercial breaks. Aside from the main gameplay, a number of segments and contests were featured to profile other new video games and popular media for the home audience or respond to viewer letters and after each round. Many of these had an attached contest where viewers could send in a postcard or letter to try and win a prize, with the mailing address for these contests shown on-screen on each episode. V&A Update: One of the secondary co-hosts highlights information and tips for a released video game not otherwise featured on that day's episode, while emphasizing that home viewers should write down the provided tips; this segment took place twice on each episode, profiling a different game for each, though from the same console.
Music Review: The other secondary co-host
Fan Llia is a subsidiary summit of Fan Fawr in the Fforest Fawr section of the Brecon Beacons National Park, Wales. In common with other peaks in the Fforest Fawr uplands it lies within the county of Powys; the hill has the form of a broad ridge aligned south-south-west to north-north-east peaking at an altitude of 632 m. It has a subsidiary top to the north, known as Fan Dringarth and which attains a height of 617 m, its broad northern ridge is truncated by the cliffs of Craig Cwm-du. A number of features of archaeological interest are to be found on its flanks including several house platforms; the hill is formed from sandstones of the Brownstones Formation of the Old Red Sandstone dating from the Devonian period. Its southernmost slopes are formed in Plateau Beds Formation sandstones and an area in the north-east is underlain by sandstones and mudstones of the Senni Beds Formation. Rock exposures are infrequent − the hill being draped with glacial accumulations of peat; the most significant feature is a post-glacial landslip which extends from near the summit of Fan Dringarth down its eastern slopes to the Afon Dringarth and which may be responsible for the name of this subsidiary peak.
Craig Cwm-du to the north hosted a small glacier in the ice age. The hill is drained to the west by a number of streams flowing into the Afon Llia and to the east by streams flowing into the Afon Dringarth, part of, impounded directly to the east of the hill as Ystradfellte Reservoir; the hill is within the Fforest Fawr Geopark designated in 2005 in recognition of the area's geological heritage. The entire hill is designated as open country so walkers may wander at will though most choose to ascend the hill from the Forestry Commission car park at Blaen Llia just off the minor road between the villages of Ystradfellte and Heol Senni; this ridge route is followed by the Beacons Way long-distance footpath. Images of Fan Llia on Geograph website