8th (The King's) Regiment of Foot
See List of battalions of the King's Regiment The 8th Regiment of Foot referred to in short as the 8th Foot and the King's, was an infantry regiment of the British Army, formed in 1685 and retitled the King's on 1 July 1881. As infantry of the line, the 8th peacetime responsibilities included service overseas in garrisons ranging from British North America, the Ionian Islands and the British West Indies; the duration of these deployments varied sometimes exceeding a decade. The regiment served in numerous conflicts during its existence, notably in the wars with France that dominated the 18th and 19th centuries, the American Revolution, the War of 1812, the Indian rebellion of 1857; as a consequence of Childers reforms, the 8th became. A pre-existing affiliation with the city had derived from its depot being situated in Liverpool from 1873 because of the earlier Cardwell reforms; the regiment formed as the Princess Anne of Denmark's Regiment of Foot during a rebellion in 1685 by the illegitimate son of King Charles II against King James II.
After James was deposed during the "Glorious Revolution" that installed William III and Mary II as co-monarchs, the regiment's commanding officer, the Duke of Berwick, decided to join his royal father in exile. His replacement as commanding officer was Colonel John Beaumont, who had earlier been dismissed with six officers for refusing to accept a draft of Catholics, it took part in the Siege of Carrickfergus in Ireland in 1689 and in the Battle of the Boyne the following year. Further actions, while under the command of John Churchill took place that year involving the regiment during the sieges of Limerick and Kinsale. For a decade, the regiment undertook garrison duties in England and the Dutch United Provinces, where it paraded for King William on Breda Heath in September 1701. On the accession of Princess Anne to the throne in 1702, the regiment became the Queen's Regiment of Foot, although it continued to be referred to as Webb's Regiment per an unofficial army convention that had a unit known by the name of its colonel.
The War of the Spanish Succession, predicated on a dispute between a "Grand Alliance" and France over who would succeed Charles II of Spain, reached the Low Countries in April 1702. While Dutch marshal Prince Walrad took the initiative and besieged Kaiserswerth, the French Marshal duc de Boufflers forced Walrad's colleague, the Earl of Athlone, to withdraw deep into the Dutch Republic. Supporting Athlone's army, the Queen's Regiment fought near Nijmegen in a rearguard action during the Dutch Army's retreat between the Maas and Rhine rivers. John Churchill, Earl of Marlborough, ranked as Captain-General with limited authority over Dutch forces, arrived in the Low Countries soon afterwards to assume control of a multi-national army organised by the Grand Alliance, he invaded the French-controlled Spanish Netherlands and presided over a series of sieges at Venlo, Stevensweert, Liège, in which the regiment's grenadier company breached the citadel. After a lull during the winter, Marlborough struggled to retain the cohesion of his army against the inclination of Dutch generals to divide his resources, while the army itself experienced a reverse at Liège in 1703.
In the year, the regiment assisted in the capture of Huy and Limbourg, but the campaigns in 1702 and 1703 "were indecisive". To aid the beleaguered Austrian Habsburgs and preserve the alliance, Marlborough sought to engage the French in a definitive set-piece battle in 1704 by advancing into Bavaria, an ally of France, combining his force with that of Prince Eugene; as an army of 40,000 men assembled, Marlborough's elaborate programme of deception concealed his intentions from the French. The army invaded Bavaria on 2 July and promptly captured the Schellenberg after a devastating assault that included a contingent from the Queen's. On 13 August, the Allies encountered a Franco-Bavarian army under the overall command of the duc de Tallard, beginning the Battle of Blenheim; the Queen's Regiment, led by Lieutenant-Colonel Richard Sutton, supported General Lord Cutts' left wing, opposite to French-held Blenheim. According to a contemporary account by Francis Hare, Chaplain-General of Marlborough's army, the Queen's secured a French-constructed "barrier" to prevent it being used as a route of escape, taking hundreds prisoner in its vicinity.
Blenheim had become wounded. About 13,000 French soldiers surrendered, including Tallard, while the collective carnage caused more than 30,000 soldiers to become casualties; the effective collapse of Bavaria as a French ally and the capture of its most significant fortresses followed Blenheim by year's end. After a period of recuperation and reinforcement in Nijmegen and Breda, the Queen's returned to active service during the Allies' attempted invasion of France, via the Moselle, in May 1705. In June, French Marshal Villeroi captured Huy and besieged Liège, forcing Marlborough to abort a campaign that lacked appreciable Allied support; the regiment became detached from Marlborough's army to assist in the retaking of Huy before rejoining for the subsequent attack on the Lines of Brabant Although the lines were overcome, French resistance, combined with opposition among some Dutch generals and adverse weather conditions, prevented much exploitation. The Queen's helped to seize Neerwinden and the bridge at Elixheim.
In May 1706, pressured by King Louis XIV to atone for France's earlier defeats, init
The Lancashire Fusiliers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army that saw distinguished service through many years and wars, including the Second Boer War, World War I and World War II, had many different titles throughout its 280 years of existence. In 1968 the regiment was amalgamated with the other regiments of the Fusilier Brigade–the Royal Northumberland Fusiliers, Royal Warwickshire Fusiliers and the Royal Fusiliers –to form the current Royal Regiment of Fusiliers. By a commission dated 20 November 1688, the regiment was formed in Torbay, Devon under Sir Richard Peyton as Peyton's Regiment of Foot; the regiment served in the Glorious Revolution under King William III and at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690 and the Battle of Aughrim in 1691. During the War of the Spanish Succession, it aided in the capture of Spanish galleons at Battle of Vigo Bay in 1702; the regiment distinguished itself at the Battle of Dettingen in June 1743 and at the Battle of Fontenoy in May 1745. It served at the Battle of Culloden in April 1746 during the Jacobite rising of 1745.
In 1751, the regiment became the 20th Regiment of Foot written in Roman numerals'XX Foot'. During the Seven Years' War the regiment earned honour at the Battle of Minden on 1 August 1759, when, as an infantry formation, they stood fast and broke a French cavalry charge. During the American Revolutionary War, the regiment was sent to Quebec in April 1776 and assisted in the relief of Quebec in May 1776. Serving under General John Burgoyne for the remainder of the Canadian campaign, they surrendered along with General Burgoyne at Saratoga; the 20th Regiment of Foot was designated the 20th Regiment of Foot in 1782. The regiment embarked for Holland in August 1799 to take part in the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland and fought at the Battle of Krabbendam in September 1799 and the Battle of Alkmaar in October 1799, it next departed for Egypt in spring 1801 and saw action at the Battle of Alexandria in March 1801 during the French Revolutionary Wars. After moving to Calabria it took part in the Battle of Maida in July 1806 during the War of the Third Coalition.
The regiment embarked for Portugal in 1808 for service in the Peninsular War. It saw action at the Battle of Vimeiro in August 1808 and the Battle of Corunna in January 1809 before being evacuated home that month; the regiment returned to the Peninsula and fought at the Battle of Vitoria in June 1813, where it formed part of the "backbone" of the Duke of Wellington's forces. It pursued the French Army into France at took part in the Battle of the Pyrenees in July 1813, the Battle of Nivelle in November 1813 and the Battle of Orthez in February 1814 as well the Battle of Toulouse in April 1814. During the Crimean War, the regiment took part in the Battle of Alma in September 1854 and the Battle of Inkerman in November 1854; the 2nd Battalion was raised in 1858. The regiment was not superficially affected by the Cardwell Reforms of the 1870s – as it possessed two battalions, there was no need for it to amalgamate with another regiment. However, in setting its depot at Wellington Barracks in Bury from 1873, it lost its West Country affiliations.
This was exacerbated by the Childers reforms of 1881. Under the reforms the regiment became The Lancashire Fusiliers on 1 July 1881. Under the new arrangements each county regiment had two Militia battalions attached to it: these were found by the 7th Royal Lancashire Militia, raised in 1855 and recruited from Bury and Salford; this formed the 4th Battalions of the Lancashire Fusiliers. In addition, Rifle Volunteer Corps were attached to their local regiments. In 1883 the 8th Lancashire Rifle Volunteers became the 1st Volunteer Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers, the 12th Lancashire Rifle Volunteers became the 2nd Volunteer Battalion. In 1886 the 56th Lancashire Rifle Volunteers was transferred from the Manchester Regiment to become the 3rd Volunteer Battalion. In common with other regiments recruited from populous urban areas, the Lancashire Fusiliers raised two further regular battalions, the 3rd in 1898, the 4th in March 1900; this necessitated adjustments to the numbers of the Militia battalions, which became the 5th and 6th battalions.
However, the 3rd and 4th Regular battalions were disbanded in 1906. The 1st Battalion was stationed in Ireland from 1881 to September 1885, again from April 1891 to 1897. In 1899 it was posted to Crete, from 1901 at Malta; the 2nd Battalion was stationed in British India from 1881 to 1898, when it took part in Kitchener's campaign to reconquer the Sudan and fought at the Battle of Omdurman. After a year at Malta, the battalion was posted to South Africa in December 1899, following the outbreak of the Second Boer War two months earlier. During the Second Boer War, the 2nd Battalion saw action at the Battle of Spion Kop in January 1900 and took part in the Relief of Ladysmith in February 1900; the battalion served in South Africa throughout the war, which ended with the Peace of Vereeniging in June 1902. About 570 officers and men left Cape Town on the SS Britannic in October that year, was stationed at Aldershot after their return to the United Kingdom; the 6th Battalion served in the war, leaving for South Africa with 650 men on 10 February 1900.
All three Volunteer Battalions found'service companies' of volunteers who served alongside the Regulars, gained the battle honour South Africa 1900–1902 for their battalions. Under the Haldane Reforms of 1908, the Militia were redesignated Special Re
The Devonshire Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army which served under various titles and served in many wars and conflicts from 1685 to 1958, such as the Second Boer War, the First World War and the Second World War. In 1958 the regiment was amalgamated with the Dorset Regiment to form the Devonshire and Dorset Regiment which, in 2007, was amalgamated with the Royal Gloucestershire and Wiltshire Regiment, the Royal Green Jackets and The Light Infantry to form a new large regiment, The Rifles. In June 1667 Henry Somerset, Marquess of Worcester, was granted a commission to raise a regiment of foot, The Marquess of Worcester's Regiment of Foot; the regiment was disbanded in the same year. It was re-raised in January 1673 and again disbanded in 1674. In 1682, Henry Somerset was created Duke of Beaufort, in 1685 he was again commissioned to raise a regiment, The Duke of Beaufort's Regiment of Foot, or Beaufort Musketeers, to defend Bristol against the Duke of Monmouth's rebellion.
The regiment was not required to fight at the time of its formation since the Duke of Monmouth was drawn away from Bristol. Its first action came in Ireland at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690 and the Siege of Limerick in August 1691 when it fought for William III against the Irish Army of the deposed James II, it joined the armies of the Duke of Marlborough in Holland in the War of Spanish Succession in 1703, fought in the Iberian Campaign, being captured by the French at Portalegre in 1704 and part of the British army defeated at the Battle of Almansa in April 1707. Back in the United Kingdom, it helped put down the Jacobite rising of 1715, fighting the rebels at the inconclusive Battle of Sheriffmuir in November 1715 and at the Battle of Glen Shiel in June 1719; the regiment was deployed to Flanders in summer 1742 for service in the War of Austrian Succession and took part in the Battle of Dettingen in June 1743, the Battle of Fontenoy in May 1745 and the Battle of Rocoux in October 1746.
The regiment embarked for the continent in spring 1760 for service in the Seven Years' War. After the war, it garrisoned the island of Menorca; the regiment served under the name of its various Colonels until it was numbered as the 11th Regiment of Foot when the numerical system of regimental designation was adopted in 1751. It was given the additional county title of 11th Regiment of Foot in 1782; the 11th Regiment spent the early years of the French Revolutionary Wars serving as detachments in the Mediterranean with the Royal Navy. It took part in an abortive raid on the port of Ostend in 1798, it was deployed to the West Indies in 1801 where it captured Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin that year. A 2nd Battalion took part in the disastrous Walcheren Campaign; the 1st battalion returned to Europe in July 1809 to fight in the Peninsular War. It took part in the Battle of Bussaco in September 1810 and fell back to the Lines of Torres Vedras, it took part in the Siege of Badajoz in April 1811, the Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo in January 1812 and earned its nickname, The Bloody Eleventh, at the Battle of Salamanca in July 1812.
It fought at the Siege of Burgos in September 1812 and pursued the French Army into France taking part in the Battle of the Pyrenees in July 1813, the Battle of Nivelle in November 1813 and the Battle of the Nive in December 1813 as well as the Battle of Orthez in February 1814 and the Battle of Toulouse in April 1814. In the 19th century, the regiment spent most of the 19th Century on garrison duty throughout the Empire; the regiment was not fundamentally affected by the Cardwell Reforms of the 1870s, which gave it a depot at Topsham Barracks in Exeter from 1873, or by the Childers reforms of 1881 – as it possessed two battalions, there was no need for it to amalgamate with another regiment. Under the reforms the regiment became the Devonshire Regiment on 1 July 1881. At the same time it merged with the rifle volunteer units of the county of Devon, it took part in the Tirah Campaign in 1897 and the Second Boer War in 1899. The 2nd Battalion fought in the Second Anglo-Afghan War, the Anglo-Ashanti wars and the Second Boer War.
In 1908, the Volunteers and Militia were reorganised nationally, with the former becoming the Territorial Force and the latter the Special Reserve. The 1st Battalion, Devonshire Regiment was a Regular Army unit and, after absorbing some 500 reservists, departed for France, landing at Le Havre on 21 August 1914, just 17 days since Britain's entry into the war, as part of the British Expeditionary Force; the battalion joined the 8th Brigade of the 3rd Division in early September 1914, transferred to the 14th Brigade of the 5th Division in the month. The battalion served on the Western Front throughout the war, seeing action first during the Battle of La Bassée in October where they helped in the capture of Givenchy Ridge, followed by the First Battle of Ypres, where the battalion, in common with most of the rest of the British Regular Army, sustained heavy casualties; the 1st Devons lost in the battle a third of the other ranks. The battalion took part in the Winter operations 1914–1915, occupying trenches in deep mud and snow before, in April 1915, suffering 200 casualties from shelling and German counterattacks after holding Hill 60 after its capture a few days before.
The 2nd Battalion, assigned to the 23rd Brigade, 8th Division, was another Regular Army unit, th
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry and tank forces. Known as foot soldiers, infantry traditionally relies on moving by foot between combats as well, but may use mounts, military vehicles, or other transport. Infantry make up a large portion of all armed forces in most nations, bear the largest brunt in warfare, as measured by casualties, deprivation, or physical and psychological stress; the first military forces in history were infantry. In antiquity, infantry were armed with an early melee weapon such as a spear, axe or sword, or an early ranged weapon like a javelin, sling, or bow, with a few infantrymen having both a melee and a ranged weapon. With the development of gunpowder, infantry began converting to firearms. By the time of Napoleonic warfare, infantry and artillery formed a basic triad of ground forces, though infantry remained the most numerous. With armoured warfare, armoured fighting vehicles have replaced the horses of cavalry, airpower has added a new dimension to ground combat, but infantry remains pivotal to all modern combined arms operations.
Infantry have much greater local situational awareness than other military forces, due to their inherent intimate contact with the battlefield. Infantry can more recognise and respond to local conditions and changing enemy weapons or tactics, they can operate in a wide range of terrain inaccessible to military vehicles, can operate with a lower logistical burden. Infantry are the most delivered forces to ground combat areas, by simple and reliable marching, or by trucks, sea or air transport, they can be augmented with a variety of crew-served weapons, armoured personnel carriers, infantry fighting vehicles. In English, use of the term infantry began about the 1570s, describing soldiers who march and fight on foot; the word derives from Middle French infanterie, from older Italian infanteria, from Latin īnfāns, from which English gets infant. The individual-soldier term infantryman was not coined until 1837. In modern usage, foot soldiers of any era are now considered infantrymen. From the mid-18th century until 1881 the British Army named its infantry as numbered regiments "of Foot" to distinguish them from cavalry and dragoon regiments.
Infantry equipped with special weapons were named after that weapon, such as grenadiers for their grenades, or fusiliers for their fusils. These names can persist long after the weapon speciality. More in modern times, infantry with special tactics are named for their roles, such as commandos, snipers and militia. Dragoons were created. However, if light cavalry was lacking in an army, any available dragoons might be assigned their duties. Conversely, starting about the mid-19th century, regular cavalry have been forced to spend more of their time dismounted in combat due to the ever-increasing effectiveness of enemy infantry firearms, thus most cavalry transitioned to mounted infantry. As with grenadiers, the dragoon and cavalry designations can be retained long after their horses, such as in the Royal Dragoon Guards, Royal Lancers, King's Royal Hussars. Motorised infantry have trucks and other unarmed vehicles for non-combat movement, but are still infantry since they leave their vehicles for any combat.
Most modern infantry have vehicle transport, to the point where infantry being motorised is assumed, the few exceptions might be identified as modern light infantry, or "leg infantry" colloquially. Mechanised infantry go beyond motorised, having transport vehicles with combat abilities, armoured personnel carriers, providing at least some options for combat without leaving their vehicles. In modern infantry, some APCs have evolved to be infantry fighting vehicles, which are transport vehicles with more substantial combat abilities, approaching those of light tanks; some well-equipped mechanised infantry can be designated as armoured infantry. Given that infantry forces also have some tanks, given that most armoured forces have more mechanised infantry units than tank units in their organisation, the distinction between mechanised infantry and armour forces has blurred; the terms "infantry", "armour", "cavalry" used in the official names for military units like divisions, brigades, or regiments might be better understood as a description of their expected balance of defensive and mobility roles, rather than just use of vehicles.
Some modern mechanised infantry units are termed cavalry or armoured cavalry though they never had horses, to e
Buffs (Royal East Kent Regiment)
The Buffs the 3rd Regiment of Foot, was a line infantry regiment of the British Army traditionally raised in the English county of Kent and garrisoned at Canterbury. It had a history dating back to 1572 and was one of the oldest regiments in the British Army, being third in order of precedence; the regiment provided distinguished service over a period of four hundred years accumulating one hundred and sixteen battle honours. In 1881, under the Childers Reforms, it was known as the Buffs and on 3 June 1935, was renamed the Buffs. In 1961, it was amalgamated with the Queen's Own Royal West Kent Regiment to form the Queen's Own Buffs, The Royal Kent Regiment, merged, on 31 December 1966, with the Queen's Royal Surrey Regiment, the Royal Sussex Regiment and the Middlesex Regiment to form the Queen's Regiment; this regiment was, in turn, amalgamated with the Royal Hampshire Regiment, in September 1992, to create the Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment. The origins of the regiment lay in Thomas Morgan's Company of Foot, The London Trained Bands, in existence from 1572 to 1648.
It fought in the Low Countries during the Dutch Revolt and in the Anglo Spanish War, taking part in many sieges and battles in that time. In 1665, when the Second Anglo-Dutch War started, the British and Scotch Brigades of the Dutch army were ordered to swear loyalty to the Stadtholder; those who disobeyed were cashiered. Using his own funds, Sir George Downing, the English ambassador to the Netherlands, raised the Holland Regiment from the starving remnants of those who refused to sign. In 1665, it was known by 1668 as the 4th Regiment. In 1688, it became the "4th The Lord High Admiral's Regiment" and in 1689 it became the 3rd Regiment of Foot; the regiment embarked for the Netherlands in spring 1703 for service in the War of the Spanish Succession seeing action at the Battle of Blenheim in August 1704, the Battle of Ramillies in May 1706 and the Battle of Oudenarde in July 1708. "The Buffs", a title first used in 1708, arises from the need to distinguish the regiment, commanded by Lieutenant-General Thomas Howard, from the 19th Regiment of Foot, at that time commanded by the Honourable Sir Charles Howard.
The regiment wore coats with buff facings, whereas the 19th Regiment used coats faced in green and so became the Green Howards. The nickname, "The Old Buffs", arises from the need to distinguish the regiment from "The Young Buffs", a nickname for the 31st Regiment of Foot; the regiment fought at the Battle of Malplaquet in September 1709 before returning to England in August 1714. The regiment was sent to Ostend in August 1742 for service in the War of the Austrian Succession and fought at the Battle of Dettingen in June 1743 and at the Battle of Fontenoy in May 1745; the regiment was named, as other regiments, after the Colonel Commanding until 1744, at which point it became the 3rd Regiment of Foot, known as "Howard's Buffs". After returning home, the regiment was sent to Scotland to help suppress the Jacobite rising of 1745 and saw action at the Battle of Falkirk Muir in January 1746 and at the Battle of Culloden in April 1746, it returned to the Netherlands in April 1747 and saw action at the Battle of Lauffeld in July 1747.
It became the 3rd Regiment of Foot, "The Buffs" in 1751. The regiment embarked for the West Indies in autumn 1758 for service in the Seven Years' War and took part in the attack on Martinique in January 1759 and on Guadeloupe in the month. After returning home, it took part in the capture of Belle Île in June 1761, it moved to Portugal and fought at the Battle of Valencia de Alcántara in August 1762 before returning to England in spring 1771. The regiment was sent to the West Indies in December 1795 for service in the French Revolutionary Wars, it took part in the capture of Grenada in March 1796 and of Saint Vincent in June 1796 and the capture of Trinidad in February 1797 and of various other islands in March 1801 before returning home in autumn 1802. The regiment embarked for Portugal in August 1808 for service in the Peninsular War; the grenadier company of the regiment served under Sir John Moore at the Battle of Corunna in January 1809 before being evacuated to England that month. The rest of the regiment remained on the Peninsula and fought at the Battle of Talavera in July 1809 and the Battle of Bussaco in September 1810 before falling back to the Lines of Torres Vedras.
It saw action at Battle of Albuera in May 1811 and the Battle of Vitoria in June 1813. It pursued the French Army into France and fought at the Battle of the Pyrenees in July 1813, the Battle of Nivelle in November 1813 and the Battle of the Nive in December 1813 as well as the Battle of Orthez in February 1814 and the Battle of Toulouse in April 1814, it became part of the Army of Occupation of France in 1816 before returning home in autumn 1818. The regiment had a tour of service from 1821 until 1827 in the British colony of New South Wales. For the duration of their service, The Buffs was divided into four detachments; the first was based in Sydney from 1821. The second arrived in Hobart in 1822; the third, entitled "The Buffs' Headquarters", arrived in Sydney in 1823. The fourth, arrived in Sydney in 1824, but variously saw service throughout the colonies, being stationed at Port Dalrymple, Liverpool, Port Macquarie and Bathurst; the regiment reunited and was transferred to Calcutta in 1827.
During their service in New South Wales, The Buffs was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel W. Stewart and Lieutenant Colonel C. Cameron; the regiment saw
Somerset Light Infantry
The Somerset Light Infantry was a light infantry infantry regiment of the British Army, which served under various titles from 1685 to 1959. In 1959, the regiment was amalgamated with the Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry to form the Somerset and Cornwall Light Infantry, again amalgamated, in 1968, with the King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, the King's Shropshire Light Infantry and the Durham Light Infantry to form The Light Infantry. In 2007, The Light Infantry was amalgamated further with the Devonshire and Dorset Regiment, the Royal Gloucestershire and Wiltshire Regiment and the Royal Green Jackets to form The Rifles; the regiment was one of nine regiments of foot raised by James II when he expanded the size of the army in response to the Monmouth Rebellion. On 20 June 1685, Theophilus Hastings, 7th Earl of Huntingdon was issued with a warrant authorising him to raise a regiment, accordingly the Earl of Huntingdon's Regiment of Foot was formed recruiting in the county of Buckinghamshire.
The regiment remained in existence when William III came to the throne in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. Ferdinando Hastings took over the colonelcy of the regiment, which accordingly became Hastings's Regiment of Foot. Hastings's Regiment first saw action at the Battle of Killiecrankie, where they failed to halt the advance of Jacobite rebels, although they were defeated at the Battle of Dunkeld; the regiment accompanied William to Ireland in the following year, fighting in the decisive Williamite victories at the Boyne and Cork. The Jacobite struggles in Scotland and Ireland were part of a wider European conflict that became known as the Nine Years' War. In 1692, Hastings' Regiment sailed to Flanders and, in 1694, took part in the disastrous amphibious assault at Camaret on the French coast. In 1695, Colonel Fernando Hastings was found guilty of extortion, dismissed. Sir John Jacob became the colonel, it was as Jacob's Regiment of Foot that they returned to England at the end of the war in 1697.
After a period of garrison duty in Ireland, Jacob's Regiment returned to Flanders in 1701. In the following year, the colonelcy again changed, with Sir John Jacob choosing to retire, he sold the colonelcy to his brother-in-law, Lieutenant-General James Barry, 4th Earl of Barrymore, for 1,400 guineas. With the outbreak of the War of the Spanish Succession, the Earl of Barrymore's Regiment of Foot saw action at the sieges or battles of Kaiserwerth, Roermond, Limburg and Liège. In 1704, Barrymore's Regiment moved to the Iberian Peninsula taking part in the defence of the recently-captured Gibraltar and the Siege of Barcelona. In 1706, the bulk of the regiment was converted into a regiment of dragoons due to a shortage of cavalry. Barrymore returned to England with a small cadre; the unit fought at the Battle of Almanza, the Battle of La Caya, the Battle of Tortosa and the Battle of St Mateo. In 1711, the regiment started a long period of garrison duty at Gibraltar. In 1715, they became Cotton's Regiment of Foot.
When war broke out with Spain in 1727, Cotton's were part of the force that resisted the Spanish Siege of Gibraltar. The regiment returned to England in the following year, it remained there until 1742, with the name changing with the colonelcy: Kerr's Regiment of Foot in 1725, Middleton's Regiment of Foot in 1732 and Pulteney's Regiment of Foot in 1739. In 1742, Pulteney's Regiment sailed to Flanders, in the following year was part of the joint British and Austrian force that secured a victory over the French at the Battle of Dettingen in June 1743. In May 1745, the situation was reversed when they were part of the allied army decisively defeated at the Battle of Fontenoy. In 1745, Pulteney's Regiment returned to Britain, moving to Scotland to suppress the Jacobite rising of 1745, they formed part of the defeated forces at the Battle of Falkirk in January 1746. Three months they took part in the final defeat of the Jacobites in Culloden. Following the ending of the Jacobite rising, Pulteney's Regiment returned to Flanders, where they fought at the Battle of Rocoux and the Battle of Lauffeld or Val.
In both cases, the allied forces were defeated by the French. The regiment returned to England in 1747, the war was formally ended by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748. By the late seventeenth century, each regiment of the standing army had been allotted a "rank" in the order of precedence; these numbers came to be used until a royal warrant of 1751 decreed that regiments should in future be known by their numbers only. Accordingly, Pulteney's Regiment became the 13th Regiment of Foot; the redesignated 13th Foot entered a thirty-year period of garrison service in England, Ireland and Minorca. In 1775, the American Revolutionary War broke out, widening into war with France from 1778 and Spain in 1779; the 13th Foot sailed for the West Indies. They saw little active service, returning to England in 1782, moving on to Ireland in 1783, it was at this time. On 21 August 1782, the Commander-in-Chief of the Forces, Henry Seymour Conway, issued a regulation giving an English county designation to each regiment of foot other than those with a royal title or highland regiments.
The intention was to improve recruitment during the unpopular war, the Secretary at War, Thomas Townshend issued a circular letter to the lieutenants of each county in England in the following terms: My Lord, The great deficiency of men in the regiments of infantry being so detrime
27th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Foot
The 27th Regiment of Foot was an Irish infantry regiment of the British Army, formed in 1689. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 108th Regiment of Foot to form the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers in 1881; the regiment was raised as local militia at Enniskillen by Colonel Zachariah Tiffin as Zacharaiah Tiffin's Regiment of Foot in June 1689, to fight against James II in the Williamite War in Ireland. The regiment served most notably at the Battle of Newtownbutler in July 1689, it gained a place on the English establishment in 1690 as a regular infantry regiment; as such it fought at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690, at the Battle of Aughrim in July 1691 and at the Siege of Limerick in August 1691. A contingent from the regiment took part in the Siege of Namur in August 1695 during the Nine Years' War; the regiment was deployed to the West Indies in late 1739 but returned in December 1740. It formed part of the Government army sent to defeat the Jacobite rising of 1745, participating in the Battle of Falkirk in January 1746 and in the Battle of Culloden in April 1746.
At this period they were known as Blakeney's Regiment after the colonel-in-chief. In 1751, the regiment was formally titled the 27th Regiment of Foot. In 1756 the regiment departed for Canada and fought against the French at the Battle of Carillon in July 1758 and the Battle of Ticonderoga in July 1759 during the Seven Years' War, it took part in the Invasion of Martinique in January 1762 and the capture of Grenada in February 1762. It took part in the Battle of Havana in June 1762 during the Anglo-Spanish War: the regiment suffered heavy losses and was evacuated to New York. In August 1767 the regiment returned to Ireland. In September 1775 the regiment returned to North America to take part in the American War of Independence, but as the result of the alliance formed by the French with the American colonists, it again found itself involved in numerous expeditions against the French West Indian possessions; the war with France came to an end in 1783 but broke out again ten years with the French Revolutionary Wars and the regiment took part in the Flanders Campaign of 1793.
In 1796 the 27th took Saint Lucia from the French, its regimental colour was displayed on the flagstaff of the captured fortress at Morne Fortune for an hour before being replaced by the Union Jack. The 27th Regiment served throughout the Napoleonic Wars including in Egypt where it formed part of Sir Ralph Abercromby's force that fought the Battle of Alexandria against the French in March 1801, the 2nd Battalion formed part of the garrison of that city after its capture; the 1st Battalion served in the Calabrian campaign and fought at Battle of Maida on 4 July 1806. In this engagement the light company fought in James Kempt's brigade while the one grenadier and eight line companies belonged to Lowry Cole's brigade; the 1st Battalion entered the Peninsular War in November 1812 and participated in the Battle of Castalla and the Siege of Tarragona, both in 1813. The 2nd Battalion landed in Spain in December 1812 and fought brilliantly at Castalla on 13 April 1813. While formed in a two-deep line, the unit inflicted 369 killed and wounded on the French 121st Line Infantry Regiment in a few minutes.
In the same action the entire brigade only lost 70 casualties. On 13 September 1813, the French surprised and cut the 2nd Battalion to pieces at the Battle of Ordal. In this action, the 2nd/27th lost over 360 men killed and captured; the 3rd Battalion disembarked in Lisbon in November 1808. It became part of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington's army and fought at many of the key battles including Badajoz in March 1812, Salamanca in July 1812, Vitoria in June 1813 and the Pyrenees in July 1813 before pursuing the French Army into France and fighting them at Nivelle in November 1813, Orthez in February 1814 and Toulouse in April 1814; the 3rd Battalion belonged to Cole's 4th Division throughout the war. At the Battle of Sorauren, the 3rd/27th lost two officers and 41 men killed, nine officers and 195 men wounded, seven men taken prisoner. At Toulouse, the unit lost two officers and 23 men killed, five officers and 76 men wounded; the 1st Battalion went on to fight at the Battle of Waterloo as part of John Lambert's 10th Brigade in the 6th Division.
At about 6:30 PM, the French captured the key strongpoint of La Haye Sainte farm. After this success, they brought up several cannon and took the Anglo-Allied lines under fire at close range. At this period, the 698-strong battalion was deployed in square at the point where the Ohain road crossed the Charleroi to Brussels highway. At a range of 300 yards, the French artillery caused the unit enormous casualties within a short time. At day's end, the 3rd Battalion had lost 105 killed and 373 wounded, a total of 478 casualties, without breaking; the unit was described as "lying dead in a square". At the time of Waterloo, the soldiers of the 27th were dressed in red, short-tailed jackets, overall trousers, a high-fronted shako; the facing colour was buff and it was displayed on the collar and shoulder-straps. The lace on the cuffs and jackets had square-ended loops. Between 1837 and 1847 the 27th Regiment was engaged in several of the Xhosa Wars in South Africa. In 1840, the spelling'Enniskillen' was changed to'Inniskilling'.
From 1854 and 1868 it served in India as part of the suppression of the Indian Mutiny and helped to maintain law and order in North-West India. As part of the Cardwell Reforms of the 1870s, where single-battalion regiments were linked together to share a single depot and recruiting district in the United Kingdom, the 27th was linked with the 108th Regiment of Foot, assigned to district no. 64 at St Lucia Barr