The 1090s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1090, and ended on December 31, 1099.
- 1 Events
- 1.1 1090
- 1.2 1091
- 1.3 1092
- 1.4 1093
- 1.5 1094
- 1.6 1095
- 1.7 1096
- 1.8 1097
- 1.9 1098
- 1.10 1099
- 2 Significant people
- 3 Births
- 4 Deaths
- 5 References
- A third expedition of the Almoravid Army is launched in al-Andalus, designed to finally subdue the Taifa's Kingdoms. Córdoba, Seville, Grenada, Málaga, Almería and Ronda fall to the troops of Yusuf ibn Tashfin.
Arts and culture
Science and technology
- Song Dynasty Chinese author Qin Guan writes the Can Shu (Book of Sericulture), which describes a silk-reeling machine that has the world's oldest known mechanical belt drive.
- King William II of England invades Normandy, and gains a foothold in it.
- Ladislaus I of Hungary occupies Slavonia.
- King Stjepan II of Croatia, the last member of the Trpimirovic Dynasty, dies peacefully without leaving an heir.
- October 17 – London Tornado of 1091: A T8/F4 tornado is recorded in St Mary-le-Bow of London, England; the storm destroys London Bridge.
- Henry, the third son of William the Conqueror, is forced to surrender his property of Cotentin in Normandy, after his two older brothers, William Rufus and Robert Curthose, make a peace agreement.
- King Malcolm III of Scotland makes an unsuccessful attempt to invade English territory, but is finally forced to pay homage to King William II of England.
- Cardiff Castle is built.
- February – With the taking of Noto, the Normans complete the 30-year-long conquest of Sicily from the Islamic rulers.
- April 29 – Battle of Levounion: The Pechenegs besiege Constantinople, but are defeated so decisively by Emperor Alexius I, that they fade into oblivion.
- June or July – The Norman invasion of Malta takes place.
- The Islamic Abbadid dynasty ruling in Spain falls, when the Almoravids storm Seville. Confronted with this new threat, King al-Mutawakkil ibn al-Aftas of Badajoz obtains the support of Castile, in exchange for the Muslim positions on the Tagus River (Sintra, Santarém and Lisbon).
- Athanasius VI bar Khamoro becomes Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch.
- April 21 – The Diocese of Pisa is elevated to the rank of metropolitan archdiocese, by Pope Urban II.
- May – King William II of England annexes Cumbria from the Scottish Celtic kingdom of Strathclyde, and builds Carlisle Castle.
- May 9 – Lincoln Cathedral is consecrated in England.
- May 21 – Synod of Szabolcs in Hungary: Its decrees regulate the life of national clergy and laymen, as well as the relation between Christians, Jews and Muslims.
- High tides cause great flooding in England and Scotland. The Kentish lands of Earl Godwin are inundated, becoming known as the Goodwin Sands.
- The Song Dynasty Chinese scientist and statesman Su Song publishes his Xin Yi Xiang Fa Yao, a treatise outlining the construction and operation of his complex astronomical clocktower, built in Kaifeng, China. It also includes a celestial atlas of five star maps.
- April – Sviatopolk II becomes Grand Prince of Kiev, and ruler of Kievan Rus'.
- March 6 – The Frankish monk, philosopher and theologian Anselm is nominated as Archbishop of Canterbury; he is consecrated on December 4.
- April 8 – Construction of Winchester Cathedral, by Bishop Walkelin in England, is completed.
- May 26 – Battle of the Stugna River: The Cuman people defeat the princes of Kievan Rus'.
- September – Magnus Barefoot is crowned king of Norway.
- August 11 – Construction of Durham Cathedral in England begins.
- November 13 – Battle of Alnwick: Malcolm III of Scotland, while attempting to invade England, is defeated and killed by the forces of William II of England. Malcolm's brother Donald takes the Scottish throne.
- Normans occupy southern Wales, constructing Cardiff and Pembroke Castles.
- Henry of Burgundy becomes Count of Portugal, through his marriage to Theresa, Countess of Portugal.
- Saint Canute's Cathedral is built in Odense, Denmark.
- Fire causes extensive damage in London.
- May – El Cid completes his conquest of Valencia, Spain, and begins his rule of Valencia. The Almoravid campaign to regain the city fails.
- May 15 – The Cathedral of Saint Agatha in Catania is consecrated by the Breton Abbot Ansger of Saint Euphemia.
- October 8 – St Mark's Basilica is consecrated in Venice.
- November 12 – Donald III succeeds Duncan II, as King of Scotland.
- The city of Zagreb, Croatia, is first mentioned as a bishopric see.
- Raymond IV of Toulouse becomes Count of Toulouse.
- Antipope Clement III is deposed, and Urban II becomes pope.
- March – Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus sends ambassadors to Pope Urban II, at the Council of Piacenza, to discuss sending mercenaries against the Seljuk Turks.
- July – Coloman begins to establish himself as King of Hungary, following the death of his father.
- August 5 – The Valence Cathedral is consecrated in Valence, France.
- November 19 – The Council of Clermont begins. The council is called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land.
- November 27 – Pope Urban II preaches the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont; Peter the Hermit begins to preach throughout France.
- Overpopulation in France, according to Pope Urban II.
- November 28 – On the last day of the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II appoints Bishop Adhemar of Le Puy and Count Raymond IV of Toulouse, to lead the First Crusade to the Holy Land.
- The Cumans invade Thrace, to support the pretender Constantine Diogenes.
- The Second County of Portugal is established for the second time, by Count Henry of Burgundy. The same year, the Almoravids start pushing back the Christians to the positions they occupied a decade earlier. This offensive begins with the reconquest of Lisbon, which had been given away to Castile four years before.
- Pembroke Castle is built in Wales.
- Bernard becomes Bishop of Brandenburg.
- In Ireland, the Diocese of Waterford is erected.
- The first documented teaching at the University of Oxford occurs.
- In England, Norwich School is founded as an episcopal Grammar School.
- The People's Crusade, the Rhineland massacres, and the First Crusade begin.
- On October 21 – Battle of Civetot: Kilij Arslan I, of the Sultanate of Rum, ends the People's Crusade near İznik.
- King Peter I of Aragon conquers Huesca.
- Phayao, now a province of Thailand, is founded as a kingdom.
- Late April – A large band of Crusaders approaches Speyer, and massacres the Jewish population.
- The University of Salerno is founded.
- Edgar deposes Donald III and Edmund, to become King of Scotland.
- The First Crusade proceeds toward Palestine:
- June 3 – The Norman crusaders join the rest of the army, during the siege of Nicaea.
- June 19 – The city of Nicaea falls to the Crusaders after a month siege.
- July 1 – Battle of Dorylaeum: Crusaders capture Latakia from the Seljuk Turks.
- October 21 – The siege of Antioch by the Crusaders begins..
- December 31 – Battle of Harenc: The Crusaders defeat troops from Aleppo, which try to come to the relief of besieged Antioch.
- Battle of Gvozd Mountain: King Petar Svačić dies as the last Croatian king, against the army of King Coloman of Hungary.
- A new Almoravid campaign is launched in al-Andalus.
- The First Crusade proceeds towards Palestine:
- February 9 – The Crusaders defeat Ridwan of Aleppo.
- June 3 – After eight months of the first Siege of Antioch, the Crusaders take the city.
- June 5 – Kerbogha, atabeg of Mosul, leader of the Seljuq Turks, arrives at Antioch, beginning the second siege a few days later.
- June 28 – Battle of Antioch: Kerbogha is defeated by the Crusaders.
- December 12 – After a month's siege, the Crusaders take Ma'arra, and massacre part of the population.
- July 14 – Donation of Altavilla: Bohemond I, the new crusader ruler of Antioch, grants commercial privileges, and the right to use warehouses (fondaco) and the church of Saint John, to the Republic of Genoa. This marks the beginning of Italian merchant settlements in the Levant.
- August – The Fatimids retake Jerusalem from the Turks.
- The Byzantine Empire retakes Smyrna, Ephesus and Sardis.
- June or July – Battle of Anglesey Sound: A fleet led by Magnus Barefoot, King of Norway, reverses an Anglo-Norman invasion of north Wales. Magnus also conquers the Orkney Islands, the Hebrides and the Isle of Man for Norway.
- June 2 - First Crusade: The first Siege of Antioch ends as Crusader forces take the city; the second siege began five days later.
- December 12 - Siege of Ma'arrat al-Numan
- Siege of Jerusalem during the First Crusade:
- January 13 – Crusaders set fire to Mara, Syria.
- June 7 – The First Crusade: The Siege of Jerusalem begins.
- July 8 – 15,000 starving Christian soldiers march around Jerusalem.
- July 15 – Christian soldiers under Godfrey of Bouillon, Robert II of Flanders, Raymond IV of Toulouse and Tancred take Jerusalem at the end of this difficult siege.
- July 22 – The Kingdom of Jerusalem is founded in the Middle East.
- August 12 – Battle of Ascalon: The Crusaders defeat the Fatimids.
- Gilbert Meynier (2010) L'Algérie cœur du Maghreb classique. De l'ouverture islamo-arabe au repli (658-1518). Paris: La Découverte; pp.83.
- Picard, Christophe (2000). Le Portugal musulman (VIIIe-XIIIe siècle. L'Occident d'al-Andalus sous domination islamique. Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose. p. 109. ISBN 2-7068-1398-9.
- "Carlisle Castle". English Heritage. Archived from the original on 2008-01-10. Retrieved 2007-12-21.
- "Lincoln Cathedral website". Archived from the original on January 10, 2008. Retrieved 2007-12-21.
- Stratton, J. M. (1969). Agricultural Records. London: John Baker. ISBN 0-212-97022-4.
- "Norman Britain". British History Timeline. BBC. Retrieved 2007-12-21.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 56–58. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- Picard C. (1997) La mer et les musulmans d'Occident au Moyen Age. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
- Catlos, Brian A. (2004). The victors and the vanquished: Christians and Muslims of Catalonia and Aragon, 1050-1300. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 13. ISBN 0-521-82234-3.
- Abels, Richard Philip; Bernard S. Bachrach (2001). The Normans and their adversaries at war. Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer. p. 92. ISBN 0-85115-847-1.
- Rickard, J. "Antioch, crusader siege of, 21 October 1097-3 June 1098". Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- Rickard, J. "Battle of Harenc, 9 February 1098". Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- Rickard, J. "Battle of the Orontes, 28 June 1098 (First Crusade)". Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- Benvenuti, Gino (1985). Le Repubbliche Marinare. Amalfi, Pisa, Genova e Venezia. Rome: Newton & Compton Editori. p. 34. ISBN 88-8289-529-7.
- Rickard, J. "Siege of Jerusalem, 9 June-18 July 1099". Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- Rickard, J. "Ascalon, battle of, 12 August 1099". Retrieved 4 January 2012.