SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

1091

Year 1091 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. Spring – Tzachas, a Seljuk Turkish military commander, establishes an independent maritime state centred in the Ionian coastal city of Smyrna, he proclaims himself emperor, concludes an alliance with the Pechenegs in Thrace. Tzachas uses his fleet to blockade Constantinople by sea, while the Pechenegs besiege the capital by land. April 29 – Battle of Levounion: Emperor Alexios I supported by his allies defeats the Pechenegs' 80,000 men at the Evros River near Enos; the Cumans and Byzantine forces fall upon the enemy camp. The Pechenegs are butchered so savagely, that they are wiped out. Spring – King Stephen II, the last member of the Trpimirović Dynasty, dies without leaving an heir after a 2-year reign. War and unrest breaks out in Croatia afterwards. King Ladislaus I of Hungary, on instigation of his sister, Queen Helena, intervenes in the conflict and occupies Croatia, he proclaims himself king, but is contested by the Croatian nobleman Petar Snačić.

February – Norman conquest of Sicily: The Normans conquer Noto and complete the 30-year-long conquest of Sicily from the Moorish rulers. Duke Roger Borsa surrenders his share in the castles of Calabria, receives his inheritance of Palermo, he encourages urban planning in Apulia and Calabria. Summer – The Norman invasion of Malta: A Norman fleet led by Count Roger I arrives in Malta. Roger disembarks his army, besieges the island's capital Medina; the inhabitants swear an oath of loyalty to Roger. On the way back, the Normans sack the island Gozo. July – The Abbadid Dynasty ruling in Al-Andalus falls, when the Almoravid forces storm Seville. Confronted with this threat, Emir Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr Muhammad al-Aftas of Badajoz obtains the support of King Alfonso VI of Castile, in exchange for the Moorish positions on the Tagus River. Spring – King William II invades Normandy with a large army, his brothers and Robert Curthose, mobilizes mercenary forces to resist William during the siege at Mont-Saint-Michel.

Henry is forced to surrender his estates of the Cotentin Peninsula in Normandy and signs a peace treaty. Summer – King Malcolm III of Scotland invades the north of England, besieges Durham; the Normans led by William II marches north to oppose the Scots. Malcolm pays homage to William. Cardiff Castle is constructed by Robert Fitzhamon, Norman lord of Gloucester. October 17 – London tornado: A T8 tornado occurs in London; the wooden London Bridge is demolished and the church of St. Mary-le-Bow is badly damaged. December – Athanasius VI bar Khamoro becomes patriarch and head of the Syriac Orthodox Church in Antioch. September 18 – Andronikos Komnenos, Byzantine prince and general December 22 – Jutta von Sponheim, German abbess Hongzhi Zhengjue, Chinese Chan Buddhist monk and writer Matilda of Rethel, French noblewoman and sovereign Wartislaw I, duke of Pomerania March 26 – Wallada bint al-Mustakfi, Andalusian female poet June 17 – Dirk V, count of Friesland June 29 – Frederick of Montbéliard, margrave of Turin July 5 – William of Hirsau, German abbot and music theorist August 8 – Altmann of Passau, German bishop and saint August 25 – Sisnando Davides, Mozarab military leader December 19 Adelaide of Susa, margravine of Turin Fujiwara no Tadaie, Japanese statesman Fu Yaoyu, Chinese government official and politician Helena of Hungary, queen of Croatia Jordan I, Italo-Norman prince of Capua Mac meic Aedh Ua Flaithbheartaigh, king of Iar Connacht Robert D'Oyly, Norman nobleman Stephen II, king of Croatia Wolfhelm of Brauweiler, German Benedictine abbot Zaheer-ul-Daulah Artuk Beg, Seljuk general and governor

D. R. Seenivasagam

Darma Raja Seenivasagam was a prominent leader of the People's Progressive Party which before 1959 was known as Perak Progressive Party. He is of Ceylonese Tamil ancestry, he founded the PPP along with his brother, S. P. Seenivasagam in 1953 after breaking away from the Labour Party, they were both prominent lawyers in Malaya prior to forming the party. The PPP's stronghold was in Perak and it received a lot of support from the ethnic Chinese voters. In the 1954 elections, first in which PPP was participating, he was elected to the Town Council of Ipoh and Menglembu under the ‘Alliance’ ticket, he lost in the 1955 Federal Elections but won a seat in the by-elections in 1956. Seenivasagam was elected in a by-election in 1957 to the Ipoh parliamentary seat vacated by Tun Leong Yew Koh who went on to become Malacca's first Governor. While in the opposition, Seenivasagam lead the PPP to form the Malaysian Solidarity Council in 1965 comprising multi-racial parties like the People's Action Party and the United Democratic Party.

At the MSC's first and only general meeting, several leaders from these parties gave speeches supporting a Malaysian Malaysia. Seenivasagam in his speech accused the Alliance of using Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia to "bully non-Malays". In the parliamentary elections of 1959, the PPP won all the four seats in Perak; the PPP repeated its success in 1969. D. R. Seenivasagam Park known as Coronation Park, is named after the famous politician, it is famous for its scenic beauty and recreational facilities. It comprises recreational fields, an artificial lake filled with fish, a nursery for potted plants and a children's traffic playground; the latest addition is the newly landscaped Japanese garden featuring a Japanese carp pond

Democracia Abierta

DemocraciaAbierta is a global platform that publishes Spanish and English voices that influence debates on democracy, justice, citizen participation and human rights in the Latin American continent, in Europe and the rest of the world. OpenDemocracy is an independent global media platform publishing up to 60 articles a week and attracting over 8 million visits per year.openDemocracy is a non-profit federation comprising the Main site and a number of editorially and financially independent Sections. DemocraciaAbierta, like the other independent sections of openDemocracy, shares the mission of challenging power and inspiring progressive change in specific priority areas. Alongside democraciaAbierta there are the four other main sections: oDR – on liberty in Russia and Eurasia Publishing in English and Russian, covering politics, civil society, human rights and culture in Russia and the former Soviet states. 50.50 – strategies for inclusive democracy Critical perspectives on social justice, gender equality and pluralism.

International in breadth whilst sensitive to local particularities and heritages, 50.50 gives voice to women's human rights defenders working on the front line of resistance to patriarchy and other forms of social injustices. Transformation – where love meets social justice Telling the stories of those who are combining personal and social change in order to reimagine their societies. DemocraciaAbierta – the ‘Latin’ section of openDemocracy Publishing in English and Portuguese, democraciaAbierta is a global platform for Latin American voices, debating democracy, participation and civil rights across the continent and beyond. OpenDemocracyUK – on the crisis of democracy in Britain Questioning and investigating power in the United Kingdom, whether public or secret, cultural or economic, from the perspective of securing and enhancing our shared liberty. OpenDemocracyUK hosts OurNHS and OurBeeb, unique forums examining two of Britain's most significant institutions, Shine a Light: a project to expose injustice led by award-winning investigative journalist Clare Sambrook.

DemocraciaAbierta is a global platform in English and Portuguese that works to provide pluralistic and quality analysis and publishes the voices of those who influence debates regarding democracy, effective participation, human rights and civil liberties across the Americas and beyond. In democraciaAbierta we work to foster inclusive democratic debate about politics and society. With defence of human rights as the main focus, we believe that free thinking drives the ideas that are able to transform the world. Thus, we fight to defend spaces of freedom and accountability that these ideas require in order to flourish and grow. DemocraciaAbierta seeks to strengthen the ecosystem of open democracy and political innovation by connecting voices and experiences on a global level. We reinforce and broaden analysis and independent alternative narratives, capable of challenging hegemonic media outlets and proposing new democratic practices to all of us. By publishing with Creative Commons licensing, democraciaAbierta extends the reach of its articles far beyond its own website and readership, as they are cross-posted and translated into other languages.

DemocraciaAbierta depends on support from those who appreciate the importance of their work, both individuals and organisations. As part of openDemocracy.net, democraciaAbierta is published by openDemocracy Limited, a UK registered company limited by guarantee and wholly owned by the non-profit openDemocracy Foundation for the Advancement of Global Education. Https://www.opendemocracy.net/democraciaabierta