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1095

Year 1095 was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. March – Emperor Alexios I send envoys to Pope Urban II, at the Council of Piacenza, appeals to the Christian states of Western Europe for military aid against the Seljuk Turks. Urban responds favourably, hoping to heal the Great Schism of 40 years earlier, to reunite the Catholic Church under papal primacy by helping the Eastern churches. Summer – The nomadic Cumans cross the Danube River and invade Thrace, to support the pretender Constantine Diogenes; the Cumans occupy the province of Paristrion. Emperor Alexios I places Byzantine detachments to guard the passes over the Balkan Mountains, but they are bypassed; the Second County of Portugal is established by Count Henry of Burgundy. The Almoravids start pushing back the forces of King Alfonso VI to the positions they occupied a decade earlier; this offensive begins with the re-conquest of Lisbon, given away to Castile. July – Coloman begins to establish himself as ruler of Hungary, following the death of his uncle, King Ladislaus I.

August 18 – King Olaf I dies after a 9-year reign. He is succeeded by his brother Eric I as ruler of Denmark. After attacking four Norwegian merchant ships, Robert Mowbray, earl of Northumberland, is called for by King William II to explain his actions. Instead, Mowbray rises up in rebellion against William along with other Norman nobles. William leads an army and besieges Bamburgh Castle, Mowbray is captured after fleeing the stronghold. November 18 – The Council of Clermont begins; the synod is called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land. November 27 – Urban II preaches the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont. November 28 – Urban II appoints Bishop Adhemar of Le Puy and Count Raymond IV, to lead the First Crusade; the Valence Cathedral is consecrated in Valence. July 4 – Usama ibn Munqidh, Syrian diplomat and poet December 22 – Roger II, king of Sicily Amadeus III, count of Savoy and Maurienne Fujiwara no Taishi, Japanese empress Geoffrey of Monmouth, English historian Hériman of Tournai, French chronicler Hugh Bigod, English nobleman and advisor Hugh Candidus, English monk and historian Kōgyō-Daishi, Japanese Buddhist priest Robert Fitzharding, English nobleman Ulvhild Håkansdotter, Swedish queen Victor IV, antipope of Rome William II, duke of Apulia and Calabria William of Malmesbury, English historian January 20 – Wulfstan, bishop of Worcester March 5 – Judith of Flanders, duchess of Bavaria June 18 – Sophia of Hungary, duchess of Saxony June 26 – Robert the Lotharingian, bishop of Hereford July 29 – Ladislaus I, king of Hungary August 18 – Olaf I, king of Denmark October 12 – Leopold II, margrave of Austria November 22 – Donngus Ua hAingliu, Irish bishop Agapetus of Pechersk, Kievan monk and doctor Al-Humaydī, Andalusian scholar and writer Ali ibn Faramurz, Kakuyid emir of Yazd and Abarkuh Al-Mu'tamid ibn Abbad, Abbadid emir of Seville Gerald of Sauve-Majeure, French Benedictine abbot Godred Crovan, Norse-Gaelic king of Dublin Henry of Laach, German count palatine of the Rhine Robert, 2nd Earl of Cornwall Ruben I, prince of Armenia Shen Kuo, Chinese polymath scientist and engineer Tutush I, Seljuk emir of Damascus and Aleppo Vitale Faliero, doge of Venice William I, count of Cerdanya and Berga

Richard Teleky

Richard Paul Teleky is a Canadian writer and academic a professor in the Humanities Department at York University in Toronto, Ontario. His primary research areas include Central European literature, ethnic studies/immigrant literature, early modernist writing, film and contemporary culture, as well as the creative process. Teleky was born in Cleveland and received his B. A. from Case-Western Reserve University in 1968. That year he moved to Canada on a Woodrow Wilson Fellowship so that he could study at the University of Toronto, he received an M. A. in English in 1969, a Ph. D. in English in 1973. His doctoral thesis, The Literary Significance of The Golden Bough, focused on the impact of Victorian anthropology, myth studies, the work of Sir James Frazer on modernist literature, he taught at York University from 1972 to 1975, served as a research consultant for the Department of Education of the Art Gallery of Ontario, made a career in publishing at Oxford University Press Canada, where he was senior editor and managing editor from 1976 to 1991.

At Oxford University Press Canada, Teleky had Studies in Canadian Literature. As editor of this series, Teleky worked with many of Canada's leading literary and academic writers and editing books on a wide range of subjects. One of his most noted projects was Adele Wiseman's essay collection Memoirs of a Book Molesting Childhood. During those years he taught part-time for the English Department of the University of Toronto at Erindale College and Woodsworth College. In 1991 he returned to academic life as a professor in the Humanities Department of York University, where he became administrator of the undergraduate creative writing program for a decade, he now focuses on interdisciplinary courses, has taught courses as a part of several different graduate programs at York, as Adjunct Faculty at the McGregor School/Graduate Studies of Antioch University in Yellow Springs, Ohio. For nearly twenty years he was an adjudicator for the Banff Centre writing program in Banff, Alberta, he published the short story collection Goodnight and Other Stories in 1993, his debut novel The Paris Years of Rosie Kamin followed in 1998.

It was named one of the best books of the year by Philadelphia Inquirer and the Toronto Star, won the prestigious American Harold Ribalow Prize for the best novel of the year. He has since published two poetry collections and several works of non-fiction. FictionGoodnight and Other Stories The Paris Years of Rosie Kamin Pack Up the Moon Winter in Hollywood The Blue Hour PoetryThe Hermit's Kiss Hermit in Arcadia Non-FictionHungarian Rhapsodies: Essays on Ethnicity and Culture The Dog on the Bed: A Canine Alphabet Ordinary Paradise: Essays on Art and Culture AnthologiesThe Oxford Book of French-Canadian Short Stories The Exile Book of Canadian Dog Stories Richard Teleky

Malik National Museum of Iran

Malek National Museum and Library is a museum and national library in Tehran, Iran. Malek National Library and Museum Institution is the first private museum of Iran and one of the six large libraries holding exquisite manuscripts; the MNLMI collection is a rich trove of Iranian historical artworks. The Institution is located in the historical precinct of “Bagh-e Melli”, considered the cultural-historical center of Tehran; the MNLM visitors include a large number of university students and researchers, as well as tourists who enjoy its library and museum facilities. It is one of the biggest libraries of precious manuscripts in Iran, built by Hadji Hussein Agha Malek, at the time the richest man in Iran, he built it in a traditional Persian architecture style. One of the biggest contributors is Esat Malek Malek, Hadji Hussein Agha Malek's eldest daughter, who contributed to the museum's development. Haj Hossein Aqa Malek, the founder and donor of MNLM was died in Tehran. Both his grandfather and father were among the greatest merchants during the past two centuries in Iran.

Haj Hossein’s father, Haj Mohammad Kazem Malek-ol-Tojjar, left him a large inheritance after his death, including a lot of properties and gardens in Tehran and Khorasan Province. The young Hossein while traveling to Mashhad, the capital of Khorasan Province at that time, to manage the family’s assets, got familiar with some Iranian-Islamic artworks, including a fine manuscript; this experience laid the ground for the establishment of an exquisite library and museum in coming decades. In 1908, Haj Hossein Aqa Malek founded a big library consist of both old manuscripts and printed books in Mashhad. On, he moved the library to his historical house located in the area of Tehran Grand Bazaar and thus provided free of charge access for the interested scholars. While collecting the manuscripts, Haj Malek bought a valuable collection of historical artworks that led into the establishment of the first private museum in the history of Iran. In 1937, he donated his invaluable library and museum to Astan-e Qods-e Razavi, as the greatest religious and cultural institution in Iran, with the aim to be visited and used by the public during his lifetime and after his death.

He donated many of his properties in Tehran and Khorasan for charity and public affairs so that he was known as the greatest donor of the contemporary history of Iran. Among his charitable acts are granting more than 2.5 million square meters of land to build houses for the teachers and the employees of the Ministries of Health and Post in Khorasan Province. According to the MNLM deed of endowment, Haj Hossein Aqa Malek had stipulated that MNLM is a non-profit institution aimed at expanding the knowledge among the people, he has mentioned that his collection would be available to both Iranian and foreign addressees. Besides the printed books and historical periodical documents, Malek National Library possesses 19000 rare and exquisite manuscripts that provide a good resource for many scholars and students. Malek National Museum consists of a collection of precious artworks of the Iranian history since the first millennium B. C. to present, classified as follows: 1- The collection of artworks included paintings by famous Iranian artists such as Kamal-ol-Molk, miniature paintings, illuminated manuscripts, some works by European painters.

2- The lacquer art collection contained pen boxes, book covers, mirror-cases decorated with lacquer paintings. 3- The historical coins collection consisted of about 9000 pieces of coins and Iranian medals minted since the first millennium B. C. to present. 4- The collection of 100,000 postage stamps included the first stamps printed in Iran and the ones printed abroad. 5- The collection of artworks donated by lady Ezzat-Malek Malek, the daughter of Haj Hossein Aqa Malek composed of Qajar paintings, documents, pen boxes, hookah bowls, as well as lacquer works. 6- The calligraphy collection embraced the artworks of the greatest and well-known Iranian and Islamic artists. 7- The collection of decorating arts included carpets, vases and furniture 8- The collection of Haj Hossein Aqa Malek’s personal belongings, including his artworks and portraits displayed in the exclusive Exhibition Room of Haj Hossein Aqa Malek 9- The gallery of periodic exhibitions held on traditional Iranian Islamic arts. In 1996, the Malek National Library and Museum was moved from Malek’s historical house located in the area of Tehran Grand Bazaar to its present building in the historical precinct of Bagh-e Melli.

The six-story new building has been structured based on arts. MNLM has a unique location for it is situated in the cultural-historical center of Iran’s capital city, next to the Meidan-e Mashq historical portal. MNLM outstanding neighboring buildings include the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and a collection of museums such as the National Museum of Iran, Sepah Bank Coin Museum, Ebrat Museum, Iran Science and Technology Museum, Post Museum and Ceramic Museum of Iran, Iran Customs’ Museum and Historical Documents Center. 30- Tir Street is one of the ways to access MNLM. This historical street is well known as the Religions’ Street because of certain buildings located on it, including two churches, a fire temple, as well as a synagogu