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1097

Year 1097 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar. Spring – The Crusaders under Godfrey of Bouillon attack the Byzantine imperial palace at Blachernae. Norman forces led by Bohemond I join the Crusaders – he is not welcome in Constantinople because his father, Robert Guiscard, has invaded Illyria, captured the cities of Dyrrhachium and Corfu. May 14 – Siege of Nicaea: The Crusaders begin their campaign with the siege of Nicaea, assigning their forces to different sections of the walls, which are well-defended with 200 towers. Towards the end of May an advance party of the Seljuk Turks is defeated by troops of Raymond IV and Robert II. June 19 – The Seljuk Turks surrender Nicaea to the Crusaders after a month siege; the Byzantines occupy the city. In the consternation the Crusaders are not allowed to plunder the city and are forced to pledge their allegiance to Alexios. July 1 – Battle of Dorylaeum: The Crusaders defeat an Seljuk army led by Kilij Arslan I, ruler of the Sultanate of Rum, who wants revenge for the capture of Nicaea.

During the battle many Crusaders are killed but the Seljuk Turks are forced to flee and abandon their tents and treasure after being surprised by the arrival of an second Crusader army. October 21 – Siege of Antioch: The Crusaders arrive outside the city and begin the siege, they can not impose a complete blockade on Antioch. The Seljuk garrison comes out of the city to harass Crusader siege-lines and intercept supply convoys from Saint Symeon and Alexandretta. December 31 – Battle of Harenc: The Crusaders under the command of Bohemond I and Robert II defeat Seljuk forces from Aleppo, which try to relieve besieged Antioch. April/May – Battle of Gvozd Mountain: In an attempt to win the crown of the Kingdom of Croatia, the Hungarian army crosses the Drava River and invades Croatia. King Peter II of Croatia moves his residency at Knin Castle to defend his kingdom; the two armies meet each other near Gvozd Mountain. After a fierce battle Peter, the last Croatian king, is killed by the Hungarians. Summer – Almoravid forces launch a new campaign in Al-Andalus.

Sultan Yusuf ibn Tashfin, leader of the Almoravid Empire, is honored with the title of Amir al Muslimin. August 15 – Battle of Consuegra: The Castilian and Leonese army of King Alfonso VI is defeated by Almoravid forces near the Castle of Consuegra. King Donald III is deposed by his nephew Edgar after a 4-year reign. Edgar becomes ruler of Scotland. William II orders the construction of Westminster Hall near Westminster Abbey in London; the hall is designed to hold banquets and coronations that take place in the Abbey near by. October – Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, goes into exile. Conflicts between him and William II result in Anselm heading for Rome. William confiscates Anselm's land. March 15 – Fujiwara no Tadamichi, Japanese nobleman November 5 – André de Montbard, French nobleman Abu al-Najib Suhrawardi, Persian scholar and Sufi Abu'l-Hasan Bayhaqi, Persian polymath and official Cecile of France, French princess and countess of Tripoli Conrad I, margrave of Meissen Muhammad Buzurg Ummid, Persian ruler of Alamut Zhang Jun, Chinese general and grand chancellor June 6 – Agnes of Aquitaine, queen of Aragon and Navarre June 16 – Wen Yanbo, Chinese grand chancellor August 15 – Diego Rodríguez, Castilian nobleman August 20 – Albert Azzo II, margrave of Milan and Liguria November 6 – Heonjong, Korean king of Goryeo Baldwin Chauderon, French nobleman and crusader Florine of Burgundy, French noblewoman and crusader Herman of Hauteville, Norman nobleman and crusader Marpa Lotsawa, Tibetan Buddhist teacher Minamoto no Tsunenobu, Japanese nobleman Muhya bint Al-Tayyani, Andalusian female poet Odo of Bayeux, Norman nobleman and bishop Peter II, king of Croatia Sweyn the Crusader, Danish nobleman and crusader

Peter Brachacki

Kazimierz Piotr "Peter" Brachacki was a production designer who worked for BBC Television in the 1960s. Although he worked on several programmes, he is best remembered as the first production designer for Doctor Who in 1963, making him responsible for the iconic design of the TARDIS interior. Brachacki was production designer for the first episode of Doctor Who, An Unearthly Child and broadcast in 1963. Despite the success of his design for the TARDIS interior set, he was not enthusiastic about working on the programme and did so under duress, he worked only on the first episode and its re-mount, thereafter being replaced on the opening serial by Barry Newbery and never working on the series again. Director Waris Hussein recalled in interviews that he was never happy with Brachacki's contribution and only kept him on as designer out of necessity, as there was not the time to request a replacement. Original Doctor Who producer Verity Lambert was impressed with Brachacki's work on the TARDIS interior though she did not like him.

Brachacki’s concept for the TARDIS interior included: the sterile, white timeless look the scattering about of random furniture and objects from different periods the central hexagonal console, designed so that all controls should be accessible to a single pilot the moving time column, intended to give an at-a-glance indication of the ship's status and whereabouts the roundels set into the wall, intended to pulsate when the ship was in motion. Hussein noted that the roundel pattern arose from the fact that the plastic with which Brachacki had made his initial concept model featured round patterning; the TARDIS interior saw occasional redesigns over the following twenty-six years, but always in line with the original concept. The console room was redesigned for the show's fourteenth season, but still the concept was retained of the single central console and the roundels on the wall; this became the default TARDIS design: hence the same concept applied for the brief glimpse of the interior of the Rani's TARDIS in the episode season twenty-two serial The Mark of the Rani.

The Meddling Monk's TARDIS, the Master's TARDIS during the Pertwee era, always followed the same design as the Doctor's TARDIS because these last were the same sets as were used for the Doctor's TARDIS redressed. The TARDIS interior was redesigned again for the 1996 Doctor Who TV movie, the new series that began broadcasting in 2005; the central console was retained, the new television series includes the geometric patterns on the walls. In 2013 the BBC produced a docudrama called An Adventure in Space and Time, depicting the creation and early days of Doctor Who, as part of the programme's fiftieth anniversary celebrations. Brachacki appears as a character in the drama, played by actor David Annen. Peter Brachacki worked as production designer on: "Blake's 7" "When the Boat Comes In" "Fall of Eagles" "Play for Today" - All Good Men "The Witch's Daughter" "The Silver Sword" "Paul Temple" TV Series "The Liver Birds" TV Series The Edge of Destruction production notes Peter Brachacki on IMDb

National Arboretum Canberra

The National Arboretum Canberra is a 250-hectare arboretum in Canberra, the national capital of Australia, created after the area was burned out as a result of the Christmas 2001 and 2003 Canberra bushfires: The Himalayan Cedar forest lost about one third of its trees, the commercial Radiata Pine plantation was burned out, allowing the arboretum to be created. In 2004, the Government of the Australian Capital Territory held a nationwide competition for an arboretum, to be part of the recovery from the 2003 bushfires; the winning design by landscape architects Taylor Cullity Lethlean and architects Tonkin Zulaikha Greer proposed 100 forests and 100 gardens focussing on threatened and symbolic trees from around the world. The site has been planted since 2005, includes ceremonial trees planted by visiting heads of government and ambassadors, it was opened in February 2013. Over 15,000 visitors came to the Opening Day Festival. Since that day, over a million visitors of all ages and nationalities have explored the beauty and scale of the Arboretum's forests and architecture.

The established areas include existing forests of Himalayan cedar and cork oak planted under the guidance of early town planners under general direction from the city's planner, Walter Burley Griffin. The arboretum is in keeping with Griffin's plan for such an arboretum, as expressed by the earlier forests. A forest of Turkish Pine Pinus brutia, a species native to the Gallipoli Peninsula in Turkey, has been planted to commemorate Australian service personnel killed in all conflicts. In addition, a number of ceremonial Aleppo Pines have been planted on the summit of Dairy Farmers Hill, propagated from seed of the Lone Pine tree planted at the Australian War Memorial; these complement a number of mature specimens of this species existing on the hill. The National Bonsai and Penjing Collection of Australia in Commonwealth Park, has been relocated to the arboretum. Plantings include: California fan palm Chinese tulip tree Western old white gum Yoshino cherry Dragon tree – famously, 12 were stolen, of which some were recovered Maidenhair tree Judas tree Giant redwood Camden white gum Chinese rubber tree Horse chestnut Monkey puzzle tree Bunya pine Weeping Snow Gum Wollemi pine Illawarra flame tree Close to the main building, the Village Centre, a eucalyptus forest representative of remnant and former forests of the Southern Tablelands region has been established with the long-term objective of creating a regional botanic garden and ecosystem recovery centre.

It includes 16 eucalypt species from various habitats and a rich diversity of under-storey shrubs, ground covers and herbs providing natural habitat for a range of animals. The arboretum has an open-air stage and amphitheatre; the buildings include the Village Centre, an innovative timber structure housing a cafe, gift shop and interpretive exhibition, a smaller event and ceremonial building called the Margaret Whitlam Pavilion. The stonework in the visitors center is sourced from the town of Wee Jasper, New South Wales, on the outskirts of Canberra; the arboretum features several pieces of monumental public art. On a hill within and overlooking the arboretum is "wide brown land", spelling out the description of Australia by Dorothea McKellar in her poem My Country, taken from the original manuscript in McKellar's handwriting, it is 35m in length and 9.5m tall. On Dairy Farmers Hill is a found objects artwork depicting an eagle on a nest. Lindsay Pryor National Arboretum – nearby Arboretum Norr Official website Friends of the National Arboretum Canberra Southern Tablelands Ecosystems Park website Wee Japer Stone