Year 1098 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. February 9 – Battle of the Lake of Antioch: The Crusaders under Bohemond I defeat a Seljuk relief force led by Sultan Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan of Aleppo. Bohemond gathers 700 knights, marches in the night to ambush the Seljuk Turks at the Lake of Antioch. After several successful cavalry charges the Crusaders rout the Seljuk army, forcing Radwan to retreat back to Aleppo. March 10 – Baldwin of Boulogne enters Edessa, is welcomed as liberator by the Armenian clergy; the local population massacres officials -- or force them to flee. Baldwin is acknowledge as their ruler, he establishes the first crusader state. Baldwin marries Arda of Armenia, daughter of Lord Thoros of Marash, consolidates his conquered territory. June 3 – Siege of Antioch: The Crusaders under Bohemond I capture Antioch after a 8-month siege, he established secret contact with Firouz, an Armenian guard who controlled the "Tower of the Two Sisters". He opened Bohemond entered the city.

Thousands of Christians are massacred along with Muslims. Bohemond creates the Principality of Antioch. June 5 – Battle of Antioch: Emir Kerbogha, ruler of Mosul, arrives at Antioch with an Seljuk army to relieve the city, he lays siege to the Crusaders. A Byzantine relief force led by Emperor Alexios I turns back after Count Stephen of Blois convinces them that the situation in Antioch is hopeless. June 28 – Following the Holy Lance discovery by Peter Bartholomew in Antioch, the Crusaders under Bohemond I sorties from the city and defeats the Seljuk army. Kerbogha is forced to withdraw to Mosul, the garrison in the citadel surrenders to Bohemond and the Crusaders occupy Antioch; the Crusade is delayed for the rest of the year. July 14 – Donation of Altavilla: Bohemond I grants commercial privileges and the right to use warehouses to the Republic of Genoa; this marks the beginning of Italian merchant settlements in the Levant. August 1 – Adhemar of Le Puy, French bishop and nominal leader of the First Crusade, dies during an epidemic.

With this, Rome's direct control over the Crusade ends. August – Fatimid forces under Caliph Al-Musta'li recapture Jerusalem and occupy Palestine; the Crusaders threaten the borders of the Fatimid Caliphate which has lost the Emirate of Sicily. December 12 – Siege of Ma'arra: The Crusaders capture the city of Ma'arra after a month's siege and massacre part of the population. Short of supplies, the army is accused of widespread cannibalism. June or July – Battle of Anglesey Sound: A Norwegian fleet led by King Magnus III reverses an Anglo-Norman invasion of North Wales. Magnus conquers the Hebrides and the Isle of Man. King Edgar of Scotland signs a treaty with Magnus III in which he agrees that the northern territories including the Hebrides belong to Norway. At Dunfermline Abbey, Edgar seeks support from Anselm of Canterbury. March 21 – Cîteaux Abbey, located in Saint-Nicolas-lès-Cîteaux, is founded by Robert of Molesme, founder of the Cistercian Order. October – The Council of Bari presided by Pope Urban II discusses relations between the Western and the Eastern Church.

Amadeus I, Swiss nobleman Ayn al-Quzat Hamadani, Persian philosopher and poet Hedwig of Gudensberg, German countess and regent Hildegard of Bingen, German Benedictine abbess John of the Grating, French bishop and saint Pons, French nobleman Wibald, German abbot and councillor January 3 – Walkelin, Norman bishop of Winchester February 22 – Hugh de Grandmesnil, Norman sheriff July 31 – Hugh of Montgomery, 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury August 1 – Adhemar of Le Puy, French bishop Alan the Black, Norman nobleman and lord of Richmond Baldwin II, count of Hainaut Ephraim of the Caves, Kievan bishop of Pereiaslav Raymond IV, count of Pallars Jussà Robert de Say, Norman nobleman Vinayaditya, Indian king of the Hoysala Empire Walo II, French nobleman Yaghi Siyan, Sejuk governor of Antioch Siecienski, Anthony Edward. The Filioque: History of a Doctrinal Controversy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195372045

Artur Ayvazyan

Artur Surenovych Ayvazyan is an Olympic shooter for Ukraine and Russia who won a gold medal in the 50 metre rifle prone event at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. Born in Armenia, Ayvazyan took up shooting in 1985 and moved to Ukraine in 1990, when he competed in his first major international tournament as a junior, he won one medal as a junior, in 1993, before moving up to the senior division in 1994. He moved to Simferopol in 1997 to train with a new coach and captured his first ISSF World Cup victory the following year; as of 2012 he has participated in every edition of the Olympics since 2000 and has won six World and seven European Championship medals in individual and team events, including his junior bronze from 1993. In 2014 he began competing for Russia. Ayvazyan was born on 14 January 1973 in Yerevan, the capital of Armenia part of the Soviet Union, he took up sport shooting in 1985 and moved to Lviv in what is now Ukraine in 1990, after his parents were unable to pay the bribe to get him into the Armenian State Institute of Physical Culture.

There he entered a local infantry school and participated in his first major international tournament, the European Junior Championships in Arnhem, where he placed 4th in the 10 metre air rifle event. He next appeared at the European Junior Championships 1993 in Brno, Czech Republic, where he won a bronze medal in the 50 metre rifle three positions competition and finished eighth in both the 10 metre air rifle and the 50 metre rifle prone categories. Ayvazyan entered his first senior European Shooting Championship in 1994, in Strasbourg, placing 26th in the 10 metre air rifle division, he participated in the World Championships for the first time, in Milan, with a best placing of 12th in the 50 metre rifle three positions competition among four events. He finished with double digits rankings over the next three years of European Championships before finding a new coach and moving to Simferopol in 1997, his results improved in 1998 and he earned his first ISSF World Cup victory and placed fourth in the World Championships in Barcelona and the World Cup Final, all in the 50 metre rifle three positions category.

He continued his success in the discipline by winning a bronze medal at the 1999 European Shooting Championships in Bordeaux and participated in the 2000 Summer Olympics, where he finished 5th, 8th, 30th in the 50 metre rifle three positions, 10 metre air rifle, 50 metre rifle prone divisions respectively. Ayvazyan first reached the podium at a World Cup Final in 2001, finishing third in the 50 metre rifle three positions event, it was the first and, as of 2012, only year that he received an individual European Championship crown, after winning in the same discipline at the tournament in Zagreb, Croatia. He won a silver medal at the 2003 European Championships in the 50 metre rifle prone competition in Plzeň, Czech Republic in the lead up to the 2004 Summer Olympics, where he placed 7th, 9th, 22nd in the 50 metre rifle three positions, 50 metre rifle prone, 10 metre air rifle categories respectively. In 2005 he won a bronze medal at the European Championships held in Belgrade, Serbia in the 50 metre rifle prone division.

In 2008, upon returning from a World Cup event in Munich, Ayvazyan was detained by Ukrainian customs for having an unregistered gun and was placed under suspicion of weapons smuggling. Half of the team was called in for questioning and, after going through two courts and losing significant training time during their final preparations for the 2008 Summer Olympics, it was determined that the guns were all registered and that the evidence suggesting otherwise was planted in an attempt to discredit the head coach. At the Games, Ayvazyan won the gold medal in the 50 metre rifle prone event, in addition to finishing 19th and 21st in the 50 metre rifle three positions and 10 metre air rifle competitions respectively, his Olympic victory not his only podium finish that year: he won his fifth, as of 2012 most recent, World Cup event in the 50 metre rifle three positions discipline and placed second in the division at the World Cup Final, his highest ranking in the tournament as of 2012. Ayvazyan won a silver medal in the 10 metre air rifle category at a 2009 World Cup event the last time, as of 2012, that he finished on the podium as an individual at a major international tournament.

He competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics, finishing 10th, 19th, 21st in the 50 metre rifle three positions, 10 metre air rifle, 50 metre rifle prone disciplines respectively. It was the first time in his four appearances that he had failed to make the final of any Olympic competition; as of 2012 he has thirteen individual World Cup podium finishes, five of which are first-place rankings, four individual World Cup Final medals. In team events he has been World Champion in 1998, runner-up in 1998, bronze medalist in 2002 and 2010 in the 50 metre rifle three positions category and World Champion in 1994 and runner-up in 2002 in the 50 metre rifle prone competition, he was European Champion in both divisions in 1999. Living in Crimea, he took up Russian citizenship in 2014 and began competing internationally for that country

Alumni magazine

An alumni magazine is a magazine published by a university, college, or other school or by an association of a school's alumni in order to keep alumni abreast of fellow alumni and news of their university with an implicit goal of fundraising. An emerging version of alumni magazines are unrelated to educational institutions. Instead the intended readers are former employees of a company. An example of this type of alumni magazine is MoForever magazine of the law firm of Morrison & Foerster; the oldest alumni magazine in the United States is Yale Alumni Magazine, founded in 1891. Chartered in 1636, Harvard University—the oldest university in the U. S.--established an official alumni association in 1840 but did not publish the Harvard Bulletin until 1898. Seven years earlier, Yale University began publishing a weekly alumni publication, credited as the first such periodical that dealt with alumni matters. In 1894, Princeton University started producing the Alumni Princetonian in the Saturday edition of the student newspaper.

The College of Wooster, has been credited as the first institution to publish an alumni magazine-the Alumni Bulletin-in 1886. "The role of college and university magazines is to inform, interest, at times to inspire." Over the years, the role of these magazines has evolved from serving as house organs of college and university administrations to independent journalistic voices that report about campus life if the stories may negatively portray the university that sponsors the publication. Alumni magazines report to different university departments. "Most of the magazines receive some support from the college and alumni. Some editors report to the alumni association, while other report to the offices of alumni relations or development."The editor of the University of Idaho alumni magazine Idaho the University explicitly stated his view of the role of these publications: "Good university magazines hold themselves a little apart from the universities they serve and farther apart from their alumni offices.

They are not disloyal. That touch of independence is a reality check: There is a larger world to be served than just that of the university." Two decades earlier, Mark Singer, the former associate editor of the Yale Alumni Magazine had strong views about the importance of maintaining an independent campus voice: "An alumni magazine should be a vehicle for continuing education. In April 1998, about 175 college and university alumni editors asked the Council for the Advancement and Support of Education to endorse a statement affirming the right of editorial freedom in their publications. Editors "should be assured the freedom to exercise their editorial judgment without censorship, within the framework of agree-upon editorial policy." The statement updated an earlier version on professional standards endorsed by the American Alumni Council, the predecessor of CASE. The proposed standards "balances good and bad news" and gives a "complete picture of the institution; the editors called on CASE to adopt the standards for all of its members and mediate disputes between editors and the university administration.

This current discussion arose because of the controversial 1995 retirement of Anthony Lyle, the editor of the University of Pennsylvania alumni magazine, Pennsylvania Gazette who published some articles that upset the Penn university administration. CASE refused the request and in October 1998 its commission on communications "concluded that it is not within CASE's mission to sponsor, endorse, or mediate the job conditions for any group of professionals withing the association." Although there are several thousand college and university alumni magazines, no comprehensive listing of these publications has been published. In 2013, the Council for Advancement and Support of Education published a study on some alumni magazine readers; some of their findings from 252 participating institutions: "Readers of all ages prefer print magazines, secondly, a combination of print and online" 45% of respondents acquire information from their alma mater. The 2019 Media Kit published the following findings about the alumni readers of these magazines: 76% said it is the "primary way I stay connected to my school".

89% "took action as a result of seeing an article or ad." 73% "read it as soon as it arrives in my mailbox." The total circulation of the nine alumni magazines is 1,300,908 In September 2015, the editors of the Cornell Alumni magazine apologized for a cover photograph which featured a split-page photograph of four white students and on the other side a color photograph of four Asian students. The cover caption: "Collegetown is changing fast. Is that a good thing?" Sophie Sidhu, associate dean and director of the Asian and Asian