Franklin Square (Washington, D.C.)
Franklin Square is a square in downtown Washington, D. C. Named after Benjamin Franklin, it is bounded by K Street NW to the north, 13th Street NW on the east, I Street NW on the south, 14th Street NW on the west, it is served by the McPherson Square station of the Washington Metro, located just southwest of the park. The park is terraced, slopes uphill from I Street to K Street. There are many large trees, a significant quantity of grass, many benches, a fountain in the center of the park. There is a statue of Commodore John Barry on the west side of the park, dedicated in 1914. According to the D. C. Preservation League, Franklin Square was the site of several natural springs; the 1791 L’Enfant Plan did not single out the square now occupied by Franklin Park for any special use and it wasn't until 1832 that the government purchased the square and it was turned into a park. There is no definitive proof that the park was named for Benjamin Franklin, as is assumed; the park remained unimproved until the 1870s.
Landscaping and paths were added at that time, in the 1800s. The park's last major renovation came in 1935, when the Public Works Administration gave the city $75,000 to improve Franklin Square; the fountain, a flagstone plaza, a geometric system of concrete pathways, new trees were planted. Although a major refurbishment of the paths and plaza occurred in 1976 as part of the United States Bicentennial, the park in 2013 looks as it did in 1935; the 4.79 acres that comprise Franklin Square are managed by the National Park Service. By 2012, the square was in significant need of repair; the pathways were broken, workers in nearby buildings had worn paths through the grass to cut across the square more efficiently, large numbers of homeless individuals camped there. In March 2013, the D. C. government issued a request for proposals to redesign Franklin Square so that it could accommodate multiple recreational activities. The RFP requested that any redesign include flexible seating, food kiosks, public restrooms, an enhanced landscape design.
The city set aside $300,000 for the design work. Across 13th Street on the east side of the square is the historic Franklin School, a model of advanced design in its day and the scene of Alexander Graham Bell's first wireless message. On June 3, 1880, Bell sent a message over a beam of light to a window in a building at 1325 L Street, NW; until the school served as a homeless shelter. The remaining residents were evicted on September 26, 2008, the building is now vacant. Clara Barton, founder of the American Red Cross maintained a residence adjacent to the park at 1326 I Street, where she held the first official meeting of the relief organization in May 1881. One Franklin Square, directly north of the square, is a new building but became home to The Washington Post in late 2015. Nobel Laureate Charles Townes has said that he conceived the theory behind the laser/maser principle while sitting on a bench in the square; the square figures prominently in Dan Brown's 2009 thriller The Lost Symbol. In 1993 served as the filming location for several scenes from James Cameron's film True Lies starring Arnold Schwarzenegger
A storey or story is any level part of a building with a floor that could be used by people. The plurals are "stories", respectively; the terms "floor", "level", or "deck" are used in a similar way, except that it is usual to talk of a "14-storey building", but "the 14th floor". The floor at ground or street level is called the "ground floor" in many places; the words "storey" and "floor" exclude levels of the building that are not covered by a roof, such as the terrace on the top roof of many buildings. Houses have only one or two floors. Buildings are classified as low-rise, mid-rise and high-rise according to how many levels they contain, but these categories are not well-defined. A single-storey house is referred to in the United Kingdom, as a bungalow; the tallest skyscraper in the world, Burj Khalifa, has 163 floors. The height of each storey is based on the ceiling height of the rooms plus the thickness of the floors between each pane; this is around 14 feet total. Storeys within a building need not be all the same height—often the lobby is taller, for example.
Additionally, higher levels may have less floor area than the ones beneath them. In English, the principal floor or main floor of a house is the floor that contains the chief apartments. In Italy the main floor of a home is above the ground level, may be called the piano nobile; the attic or loft is a storey just below the building's roof. A penthouse is a luxury apartment on the topmost storey of a building. A basement is a storey below the main or ground floor. Split-level homes have floors. A mezzanine, in particular, is a floor halfway between the ground floor and the next higher floor. Homes with a split-level entry have the entire main floor raised half a storey height above the street entrance level, a basement, half a storey below this level. In Macy's Herald Square, there is a "one-and-a-half" floor between the second. There are multi-storey car parks known as parking garages. Floor numbering is the numbering scheme used for a building's floors. There are two major schemes in use across the world.
In one system, used in the majority of European countries, the ground floor is the floor at ground level having no number, identified sometimes as "G" or "0". The next floor up is assigned the number 1 and is the first floor, so on; the other system, used in the United States and Canada, counts the bottom floor as the first floor, the next floor up as the second floor, so on. In both systems, the numbering of higher floors continues sequentially as one goes up, as shown in the following table: Each scheme has further variations depending on how one refers to the ground floor and the subterranean levels; the existence of two incompatible conventions is a common source of confusion in international communication. In all English-speaking countries the storeys in a building are counted in the same way: a "seven-storey building" is unambiguous, although the top floor would be called "6th floor" in Britain and "7th floor" in America. Mezzanines may not be counted as storeys. In most of Europe, the "first floor" is the second level.
This scheme is used in many former British colonies, many Latin American countries, in Hawaii and in many of the Commonwealth nations. This convention can be traced back to Medieval European usage. In countries that use this system, the floor at ground level is referred to by a special name translating as "ground floor" or equivalent. For example, Erdgeschoss in Germany, piano terra in Italy, begane grond in the Netherlands, planta baja or planta baixa in Spain, beheko solairua in Basque, andar térreo in Brazil, rés-do-chão in Portugal, földszint in Hungary, parter in Romania and Poland, prízemie in Slovakia and pritličje in Slovenia. In some countries that use this scheme, the higher floors may be explicitly qualified as being above the ground level, such as in Slovenian "prvo nadstropje". In Spain, the level above ground level is sometimes called "entresuelo", elevators may skip it; the next level is sometimes called "principal". The "first floor" can therefore be three levels above ground level.
In Italy, in the ancient palaces the first floor is called piano nobile, since the noble owners of the palace lived there. In France, there are two distinct names for storeys in buildings which have two "ground floors" at different levels; the lower one is called rez-de-chaussée, the upper one is rez-de-jardin (lit. "adjacent to the gar
Morgan Stanley is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered at 1585 Broadway in the Morgan Stanley Building, Midtown Manhattan, New York City. With offices in more than 42 countries and more than 55,000 employees, the firm's clients include corporations, governments and individuals. Morgan Stanley ranked No. 67 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. The original Morgan Stanley, formed by J. P. Morgan & Co. partners Henry Sturgis Morgan, Harold Stanley and others, came into existence on September 16, 1935, in response to the Glass–Steagall Act that required the splitting of commercial and investment banking businesses. In its first year the company operated with a 24% market share in public offerings and private placements; the current Morgan Stanley is the result of merger of the original Morgan Stanley with Dean Witter Discover & Co. in 1997. Dean Witter's Chairman and CEO, Philip J. Purcell, became the Chairman and CEO of the newly merged "Morgan Stanley Dean Witter Discover & Co."
The new firm changed its name back to "Morgan Stanley" in 2001. The main areas of business for the firm today are institutional securities, wealth management and investment management. Morgan Stanley is a financial services corporation that, through its subsidiaries and affiliates and originates, trades and distributes capital for governments and individuals; the company operates in three business segments: Institutional Securities, Wealth Management, Investment Management. Morgan Stanley traces its roots in the history of J. P. Morgan & Co. Following the Glass–Steagall Act, it was no longer possible for a corporation to have investment banking and commercial banking businesses under a single holding entity. J. P. Morgan & Co. chose the commercial banking business over the investment banking business. As a result, some of the employees of J. P. Morgan & Co. most notably Henry S. Morgan and Harold Stanley, left J. P. Morgan & Co. and joined some others from the Drexel partners to form Morgan Stanley.
The firm formally opened the doors for business on September 16, 1935, at Floor 19, 2 Wall Street, New York City. Within its first year, it achieved 24% market share among public offerings; the firm was involved with the distribution of 1938 US$100 million of debentures for the United States Steel Corporation as the lead underwriter. The firm obtained the distinction of being the lead syndicate in the 1939 U. S. rail financing. The firm went through a major reorganization in 1941 to allow for more activity in its securities business; the firm was led by Perry Hall, the last founder to lead Morgan Stanley, from 1951 until 1961. During this period the firm co-managed the World Bank's US$50 million triple-A-rated bonds offering of 1952, as well as coming up with General Motors' US$300 million debt issue, US$231 million IBM stock offering, the US$250 million AT&T's debt offering. Morgan Stanley credits itself with having created the first viable computer model for financial analysis in 1962, thereby starting a new trend in the field of financial analysis.
Future president and chairman Dick Fisher contributed to the computer model as a young employee, learning the FORTRAN and COBOL programming languages at IBM. In 1967 it established the Morgan & Cie, International in Paris in an attempt to enter the European securities market, it acquired Brooks, Harvey & Co. Inc. in 1967 and established a presence in the real estate business. By 1971 the firm had established its Acquisitions business along with Sales & Trading; the sales and trading business is believed to be the brainchild of Bob Baldwin. In 1996 Morgan Stanley acquired Van Kampen American Capital. On February 5, 1997 the company merged with Dean Witter Discover & Co. the spun-off financial services business of Sears Roebuck. Dean Witter's Chairman and CEO, Philip J. Purcell, continued to hold the same roles in the newly merged "Morgan Stanley Dean Witter Discover & Co.". The name of this new firm was chosen to be the combination of the names of the two predecessor companies in order to avoid tension between executives from the two firms.
In 1998, the name of the firm was changed to "Morgan Stanley Dean Witter & Co.". In 2001 "Dean Witter" was further dropped and the name became "Morgan Stanley" for unrevealed reasons though in the 1990s the new company had made efforts to keep alive the image of its founder Dean G. Witter. Morgan Stanley had offices located on 24 floors across buildings 2 and 5 of the World Trade Center in New York City; these offices had been inherited from Dean Witter. The firm lost thirteen employees during the September 11 attacks in 2001 in the towers, while 2,687 were evacuated by Rick Rescorla; the surviving employees moved to temporary headquarters in the vicinity. In 2005 Morgan Stanley moved 2,300 of its employees back to lower Manhattan, at that time the largest such move. Morgan Stanley has long had a dominant role in technology investment banking and, in addition to Apple and Facebook, served as lead underwriter for many of the largest global tech IPOs, including: Netscape, Compaq, Broadcast.com, Broadcom Corp, VeriSign, Inc.
Cogent, Inc. Dolby Laboratories, Salesforce, Brocade and Groupon. In 2004, the firm led the Google IPO, the largest Internet IPO in U. S. history. In the same year Morgan Stanley acquired the Canary Wharf Group. In 2003 NewYork–Pres
Postmodern architecture is a style or movement which emerged in the 1960s as a reaction against the austerity and lack of variety of modern architecture in the international style advocated by Le Corbusier and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. The movement was introduced by the architect and urban planner Denise Scott Brown and architectural theorist Robert Venturi in their book Learning from Las Vegas; the style flourished from the 1980s through the 1990s in the work of Scott Brown & Venturi, Philip Johnson, Charles Moore and Michael Graves. In the late 1990s it divided into a multitude of new tendencies, including high-tech architecture, modern classicism and deconstructivism. Postmodern architecture emerged in the 1960s as a reaction against the perceived shortcomings of modern architecture its rigid doctrines, its uniformity, its lack of ornament, its habit of ignoring the history and culture of the cities where it appeared. In 1966, Venturi formalized the movement in his book and Contradiction in Architecture.
Venturi summarized the kind of architecture he wanted to see replace modernism: I speak of a complex and contradictory architecture based on the richness and ambiguity of modern experience, including that experience, inherent in art... I welcome the problems and exploit the uncertainties... I like elements which are hybrid rather than "pure", compromising rather than "clean"...accommodating rather than excluding... I am for messy vitality over obvious unity... I prefer "both-and" to "either-or", black and white, sometimes gray, to black or white... An architecture of complexity and contradiction must embody the difficult unity of inclusion rather than the easy unity of exclusion. In place of the functional doctrines of modernism, Venturi proposed giving primary emphasis to the façade, incorporating historical elements, a subtle use of unusual materials and historical allusions, the use of fragmentation and modulations to make the building interesting. Venturi's wife, accomplished architect and urban planner Denise Scott Brown, Venturi wrote Learning from Las Vegas, co-authored with Steven Izenour, in which they further developed their joint argument against modernism.
They urged architects take into consideration and to celebrate the existing architecture in a place, rather than to try to impose a visionary utopia from their own fantasies. This was in line with Scott Brown’s belief that buildings should be built for people, that architecture should listen to them. Scott Brown and Venturi argued that ornamental and decorative elements "accommodate existing needs for variety and communication"; the book was instrumental in opening readers' eyes to new ways of thinking about buildings, as it drew from the entire history of architecture—both high-style and vernacular, both historic and modern—and In response to Mies van der Rohe's famous maxim "Less is more", Venturi responded, to "Less is a bore." Venturi cited the examples of his wife’s and his own buildings, Guild House, in Philadelphia, as examples of a new style that welcomed variety and historical references, without returning to academic revival of old styles. In Italy at about the same time, a similar revolt against strict modernism was being launched by the architect Aldo Rossi, who criticized the rebuilding of Italian cities and buildings destroyed during the war in the modernist style, which had had no relation to the architectural history, original street plans, or culture of the cities.
Rossi insisted that cities be rebuilt in ways that preserved their historical fabric and local traditions. Similar ideas were and projects were put forward at the Venice Biennale in 1980; the call for a post-modern style was joined by Christian de Portzamparc in France and Ricardo Bofill in Spain, in Japan by Arata Isozaki. Robert Venturi was both a prominent theorist of postmodernism and an architect whose buildings illustrated his ideas. After studying at the American Academy in Rome, he worked in the offices of the modernists Eero Saarinen and Louis Kahn until 1958, became a professor of architecture at Yale University. One of his first buildings was the Guild House in Philadelphia, built between 1960 and 1963, a house for his mother in Chestnut Hill, in Philadelphia; these two houses became symbols of the postmodern movement. He went on to design, in the 1960s and 1970s, a series of buildings which took into account both historic precedents, the ideas and forms existing in the real life of the cities around them.
Michael Graves designed two of the most prominent buildings in the postmodern style, the Portland Building and the Denver Public Library. He followed up his landmark buildings by designing large, low-cost retail stores for chains such as Target and J. C. Penney in the United States, which had a major influence on the design of retail stores in city centers and shopping malls. In his early career, he, along with the Peter Eisenman, Charles Gwathmey, John Hejduk and Richard Meier, was considered one of the New York Five, a group of advocates of pure modern architecture, but in 1982 he turned toward postmodernism with the Portland Building, one of the first major structures in the style; the building has since been added to the National Register of Historic Places. The most famous work of architect Charles Moore is the Piazza d'Italia in New Orleans, a public square composed of an exuberant collection of pieces of famous Italian Renaissance architecture. Drawing upon the Spanish Revival architecture of the city hall, Moore designed the Beverly Hills Civic Center in a mixture of Spanish Revival, Art Deco and Post-Modern styles.
It includes courtyards, colonnades and buildings, with both open and semi-enclosed spaces and balconies. The Haas School of Bu
The Washington Post
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper published in Washington, D. C. with a particular emphasis on national politics and the federal government. It has the largest circulation in the Washington metropolitan area, its slogan "Democracy Dies in Darkness" began appearing on its masthead in 2017. Daily broadsheet editions are printed for the District of Columbia and Virginia; the newspaper has won 47 Pulitzer Prizes. This includes six separate Pulitzers awarded in 2008, second only to The New York Times' seven awards in 2002 for the highest number awarded to a single newspaper in one year. Post journalists have received 18 Nieman Fellowships and 368 White House News Photographers Association awards. In the early 1970s, in the best-known episode in the newspaper's history, reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein led the American press' investigation into what became known as the Watergate scandal, their reporting in The Washington Post contributed to the resignation of President Richard Nixon.
In years since, the Post's investigations have led to increased review of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. In October 2013, the paper's longtime controlling family, the Graham family, sold the newspaper to Nash Holdings, a holding company established by Jeff Bezos, for $250 million in cash; the Washington Post is regarded as one of the leading daily American newspapers, along with The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, The Wall Street Journal. The Post has distinguished itself through its political reporting on the workings of the White House and other aspects of the U. S. government. Unlike The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post does not print an edition for distribution away from the East Coast. In 2009, the newspaper ceased publication of its National Weekly Edition, which combined stories from the week's print editions, due to shrinking circulation; the majority of its newsprint readership is in the District of Columbia and its suburbs in Maryland and Northern Virginia.
The newspaper is one of a few U. S. newspapers with foreign bureaus, located in Beirut, Beijing, Bogotá, Hong Kong, Jerusalem, London, Mexico City, Nairobi, New Delhi and Tokyo. In November 2009, it announced the closure of its U. S. regional bureaus—Chicago, Los Angeles and New York—as part of an increased focus on "political stories and local news coverage in Washington." The newspaper has local bureaus in Virginia. As of May 2013, its average weekday circulation was 474,767, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, making it the seventh largest newspaper in the country by circulation, behind USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Daily News, the New York Post. While its circulation has been slipping, it has one of the highest market-penetration rates of any metropolitan news daily. For many decades, the Post had its main office at 1150 15th Street NW; this real estate remained with Graham Holdings when the newspaper was sold to Jeff Bezos' Nash Holdings in 2013.
Graham Holdings sold 1150 15th Street for US$159 million in November 2013. The Washington Post continued to lease space at 1150 L Street NW. In May 2014, The Washington Post leased the west tower of One Franklin Square, a high-rise building at 1301 K Street NW in Washington, D. C; the newspaper moved into their new offices December 14, 2015. The Post has its own exclusive zip code, 20071. Arc Publishing is a department of the Post, which provides the publishing system, software for news organizations such as the Chicago Tribune and the Los Angeles Times; the newspaper was founded in 1877 by Stilson Hutchins and in 1880 added a Sunday edition, becoming the city's first newspaper to publish seven days a week. In 1889, Hutchins sold the newspaper to Frank Hatton, a former Postmaster General, Beriah Wilkins, a former Democratic congressman from Ohio. To promote the newspaper, the new owners requested the leader of the United States Marine Band, John Philip Sousa, to compose a march for the newspaper's essay contest awards ceremony.
Sousa composed "The Washington Post". It became the standard music to accompany the two-step, a late 19th-century dance craze, remains one of Sousa's best-known works. In 1893, the newspaper moved to a building at 14th and E streets NW, where it would remain until 1950; this building combined all functions of the newspaper into one headquarters – newsroom, advertising and printing – that ran 24 hours per day. In 1898, during the Spanish–American War, the Post printed Clifford K. Berryman's classic illustration Remember the Maine, which became the battle-cry for American sailors during the War. In 1902, Berryman published another famous cartoon in the Post—Drawing the Line in Mississippi; this cartoon depicts President Theodore Roosevelt showing compassion for a small bear cub and inspired New York store owner Morris Michtom to create the teddy bear. Wilkins acquired Hatton's share of the newspaper in 1894 at Hatton's death. After Wilkins' death in 1903, his sons John and Robert ran the Post for two years before selling it in 1905 to John Roll McLean, owner of the Cincinnati Enquirer.
During the Wilson presidency, the Post was credited with the "most famous newspaper typo" in D. C. history according to Reason magazine. When John McLean died in 1916, he put the newspap
Zoning is the process of dividing land in a municipality into zones in which certain land uses are permitted or prohibited. In addition, the sizes and placement of buildings may be regulated; the type of zone determines. Zoning may specify a variety of conditional uses of land, it may indicate the size and dimensions of land area as well as the form and scale of buildings. These guidelines are set in order to guide urban development. Areas of land are divided by appropriate authorities into zones within which various uses are permitted. Thus, zoning is a technique of land-use planning as a tool of urban planning used by local governments in most developed countries; the word is derived from the practice of designating mapped zones which regulate the use, form and compatibility of development. A zoning plan is enacted as a by-law with the respective procedures. In some countries, e. g. Canada or Germany, zoning plans must comply with upper-tier planning and policy statements. There are a great variety of zoning types, some of which focus on regulating building form and the relation of buildings to the street with mixed-uses, known as form-based, others with separating land uses, known as use-based or a combination thereof.
Similar urban planning methods have dictated the use of various areas for particular purposes in many cities from ancient times. The primary purpose of zoning is to segregate uses. In practice, zoning is used to prevent new development from interfering with existing uses and/or to preserve the "character" of a community. However, it has not always been an effective method for achieving this goal. Zoning is controlled by local governments such as counties or municipalities, though the nature of the zoning regime may be determined or limited by state or national planning authorities or through enabling legislation. In Australia, land under the control of the Commonwealth government is not subject to state planning controls; the United States and other federal countries are similar. Zoning and urban planning in France and Germany are regulated by federal codes. In the case of Germany this code includes contents of zoning plans as well as the legal procedure. Zoning may include regulation of the kinds of activities which will be acceptable on particular lots, the densities at which those activities can be performed, the height of buildings, the amount of space structures may occupy, the location of a building on the lot, the proportions of the types of space on a lot, such as how much landscaped space, impervious surface, traffic lanes, whether or not parking is provided.
In Germany, zoning includes an impact assessment with specific greenspace and compensation regulations and may include regulations for building design. The details of how individual planning systems incorporate zoning into their regulatory regimes varies though the intention is always similar. For example, in the state of Victoria, land use zones are combined with a system of planning scheme overlays to account for the multiplicity of factors that impact on desirable urban outcomes in any location. Most zoning systems have a procedure for granting variances because of some perceived hardship caused by the particular nature of the property in question; the origins of zoning districts can be traced back to antiquity. The ancient walled city was the predecessor based on use. Outside the city walls were the undesirable functions, which were based on noise and smell; the space between the walls is where unsanitary and dangerous activities occurred such as butchering, waste disposal, brick-firing. Within the wall were civic and religious places, where the majority of people lived.
Beyond the simple distinction between urban and non-urban land, most ancient cities further classified land type and use inside their walls. That was practiced in many regions of the world. For example, in China during the Zhou Dynasty, in India during the Vedic Era, in the military camps that spread throughout the Roman Empire; as the residential districts made up the majority of the city, that early form of districting was along ethnic and occupational divides. One legal form for enforcing it was the caste system. While space was carved out for important public institutions, places of worship and squares, there is a major distinction between cities of antiquity and cities of today. Throughout antiquity and up until the onset of the Industrial Revolution, most work took place within the home. Therefore, residential areas functioned as places of labor and commerce; the definition of home was tied to the definition of economy, which caused a much greater mixing of uses within the residential quarters of cities.
Throughout the Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution and socio-economic shifts led to the rapid increase in the enforcement in and the invention of urban regulations. The shifts were informed by a new scientific rationality, the advent of mass production and complex manufacturing, the subsequent onset of urbanization. Industry leaving the home was one major factor in reshaping industrial cities. Overcrowding and the urban squal
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th