In astronomy, luminosity is the total amount of energy emitted by a star, galaxy, or other astronomical object per unit time. It is related to the brightness, which is the luminosity of an object in a spectral region. In SI units luminosity is measured in joules per second or watts, values for luminosity are often given in the terms of the luminosity of the Sun, which has a total power output of 7026384600000000000♠3. 846×1026 W. The symbol for solar luminosity is L⊙. Luminosity can be given in terms of magnitude, the absolute bolometric magnitude of an object is a logarithmic measure of its total energy emission. In astronomy, luminosity is the amount of energy a body radiates per unit of time. It is most frequently measured in two forms and bolometric, although luminosities at other wavelengths are increasingly being used as instruments become available to measure them, a bolometer is the instrument used to measure radiant energy over a wide band by absorption and measurement of heating. When not qualified, the term luminosity means bolometric luminosity, which is measured either in the SI units, watts, a star radiates neutrinos, which carry off some energy, contributing to the stars total luminosity.
In practice bolometric magnitudes are measured by taking measurements at certain wavelengths, a stars luminosity can be determined from two stellar characteristics and effective temperature. The former is represented in terms of solar radii, R⊙, while the latter is represented in kelvins. To determine a stars radius, two metrics are needed, the stars angular diameter and its distance from Earth, often calculated using parallax. However, for most stars the angular diameter or parallax, or both, are far below our ability to measure with any certainty, an alternate way to measure stellar luminosity is to measure the stars apparent brightness and distance. Because luminosity is proportional to temperature to the power, the large variation in stellar temperatures produces an even vaster variation in stellar luminosity. Because the luminosity depends on a power of the stellar mass. The most luminous stars are young stars, no more than a few million years for the most extreme. In the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, the x-axis represents temperature or spectral type while the y-axis represents luminosity or magnitude.
The vast majority of stars are found along the sequence with blue Class 0 stars found at the top left of the chart while red Class M stars fall to the bottom right. Certain stars like Deneb and Betelgeuse are found above and to the right of the main sequence and white supergiants are high luminosity stars somewhat cooler than the most luminous main sequence stars. A star like Deneb, for example, has a luminosity around 200,000 L⊙, a type of A2
Taurus is one of the constellations of the zodiac, which means it is crossed by the plane of the ecliptic. Taurus is a large and prominent constellation in the northern hemispheres winter sky and it is one of the oldest constellations, dating back to at least the Early Bronze Age when it marked the location of the Sun during the spring equinox. Its importance to the agricultural calendar influenced various bull figures in the mythologies of Ancient Sumer, Assyria, Egypt, Greece, a number of features exist that are of interest to astronomers. Taurus hosts two of the nearest open clusters to Earth, the Pleiades and the Hyades, both of which are visible to the naked eye, at first magnitude, the red giant Aldebaran is the brightest star in the constellation. In the northwest part of Taurus is the supernova remnant Messier 1, one of the closest regions of active star formation, the Taurus-Auriga complex, crosses into the northern part of the constellation. The variable star T Tauri is the prototype of a class of pre-main-sequence stars, in September and October, Taurus is visible in the evening along the eastern horizon.
The most favorable time to observe Taurus in the sky is during the months of December. By March and April, the constellation will appear to the west during the evening twilight and this constellation forms part of the zodiac, and hence is intersected by the ecliptic. This circle across the sphere forms the apparent path of the Sun as the Earth completes its annual orbit. As the orbital plane of the Moon and the planets lie near the ecliptic, the galactic plane of the Milky Way intersects the northeast corner of the constellation and the galactic anticenter is located near the border between Taurus and Auriga. Taurus is the only constellation crossed by all three of the equator, celestial equator, and ecliptic. A ring-like galactic structure known as the Goulds Belt passes through the Taurus constellation, the recommended three-letter abbreviation for the constellation, as adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 1922, is Tau. The official constellation boundaries, as set by Eugène Delporte in 1930, are defined by a polygon of 26 segments.
In the equatorial coordinate system, the right ascension coordinates of these borders lie between 03h 23. 4m and 05h 53. 3m, while the coordinates are between 31. 10° and −1. 35°. Because a small part of the lies to the south of the celestial equator. During November, the Taurid meteor shower appears to radiate from the direction of this constellation. The Beta Taurid meteor shower occurs during the months of June and July in the daytime, between 18 and 29 October, both the Northern Taurids and the Southern Taurids are active, though the latter stream is stronger. However, between November 1 and 10, the two streams equalize, the brightest member of this constellation is Aldebaran, an orange-hued, spectral class K5 III giant star
Minute and second of arc
A minute of arc, arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to 1/60 of one degree. Since one degree is 1/360 of a turn, one minute of arc is 1/21600 of a turn, a second of arc, arcsecond, or arc second is 1/60 of an arcminute, 1/3600 of a degree, 1/1296000 of a turn, and π/648000 of a radian. To express even smaller angles, standard SI prefixes can be employed, the number of square arcminutes in a complete sphere is 4 π2 =466560000 π ≈148510660 square arcminutes. The standard symbol for marking the arcminute is the prime, though a single quote is used where only ASCII characters are permitted. One arcminute is thus written 1′ and it is abbreviated as arcmin or amin or, less commonly, the prime with a circumflex over it. The standard symbol for the arcsecond is the prime, though a double quote is commonly used where only ASCII characters are permitted. One arcsecond is thus written 1″ and it is abbreviated as arcsec or asec. In celestial navigation, seconds of arc are used in calculations.
This notation has been carried over into marine GPS receivers, which normally display latitude and longitude in the format by default. An arcsecond is approximately the angle subtended by a U. S. dime coin at a distance of 4 kilometres, a milliarcsecond is about the size of a dime atop the Eiffel Tower as seen from New York City. A microarcsecond is about the size of a period at the end of a sentence in the Apollo mission manuals left on the Moon as seen from Earth, since antiquity the arcminute and arcsecond have been used in astronomy. The principal exception is Right ascension in equatorial coordinates, which is measured in units of hours, minutes. These small angles may be written in milliarcseconds, or thousandths of an arcsecond, the unit of distance, the parsec, named from the parallax of one arcsecond, was developed for such parallax measurements. It is the distance at which the radius of the Earths orbit would subtend an angle of one arcsecond. The ESA astrometric space probe Gaia is hoped to measure star positions to 20 microarcseconds when it begins producing catalog positions sometime after 2016, there are about 1.3 trillion µas in a turn.
Currently the best catalog positions of stars actually measured are in terms of milliarcseconds, apart from the Sun, the star with the largest angular diameter from Earth is R Doradus, a red supergiant with a diameter of 0.05 arcsecond. The dwarf planet Pluto has proven difficult to resolve because its angular diameter is about 0.1 arcsecond, space telescopes are not affected by the Earths atmosphere but are diffraction limited. For example, the Hubble space telescope can reach a size of stars down to about 0. 1″
The effective temperature of a body such as a star or planet is the temperature of a black body that would emit the same total amount of electromagnetic radiation. Effective temperature is used as an estimate of a bodys surface temperature when the bodys emissivity curve is not known. When the stars or planets net emissivity in the relevant wavelength band is less than unity, the net emissivity may be low due to surface or atmospheric properties, including greenhouse effect. Notice that the luminosity of a star is L =4 π R2 σ T e f f 4. The definition of the radius is obviously not straightforward. More rigorously the effective temperature corresponds to the temperature at the radius that is defined by a value of the Rosseland optical depth within the stellar atmosphere. The effective temperature and the bolometric luminosity are the two fundamental physical parameters needed to place a star on the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, both effective temperature and bolometric luminosity depend on the chemical composition of a star.
The effective temperature of our Sun is around 5780 kelvin, stars have a decreasing temperature gradient, going from their central core up to the atmosphere. The core temperature of the temperature at the centre of the sun where nuclear reactions take place—is estimated to be 15,000,000 K. The effective temperature of a star indicates the amount of heat that the star radiates per unit of surface area, from the warmest surfaces to the coolest is the sequence of star types known as O, B, A, F, G, K, and M. The effective temperature of a planet can be calculated by equating the power received by the planet with the emitted by a blackbody of temperature T. Take the case of a planet at a distance D from the star and we allow the planet to reflect some of the incoming radiation by incorporating a parameter called the albedo. An albedo of 1 means that all the radiation is reflected, the effective temperature for Jupiter from this calculation is 112 K and 51 Pegasi b is 1258 K. A better estimate of effective temperature for some planets, such as Jupiter, the actual temperature depends on albedo and atmosphere effects.
The actual temperature from spectroscopic analysis for HD209458 b is 1130 K, the internal heating within Jupiter raises the effective temperature to about 152 K. The surface temperature of a planet can be estimated by modifying the effective-temperature calculation to account for emissivity and this area intercepts some of the power which is spread over the surface of a sphere of radius D. We allow the planet to some of the incoming radiation by incorporating a parameter a called the albedo. An albedo of 1 means that all the radiation is reflected, there is a factor ε, which is the emissivity and represents atmospheric effects
In astronomy, declination is one of the two angles that locate a point on the celestial sphere in the equatorial coordinate system, the other being hour angle. Declinations angle is measured north or south of the celestial equator, the root of the word declination means a bending away or a bending down. It comes from the root as the words incline and recline. Declination in astronomy is comparable to geographic latitude, projected onto the celestial sphere, points north of the celestial equator have positive declinations, while those south have negative declinations. Any units of measure can be used for declination, but it is customarily measured in the degrees, minutes. Declinations with magnitudes greater than 90° do not occur, because the poles are the northernmost and southernmost points of the celestial sphere, the Earths axis rotates slowly westward about the poles of the ecliptic, completing one circuit in about 26,000 years. This effect, known as precession, causes the coordinates of stationary celestial objects to change continuously, equatorial coordinates are inherently relative to the year of their observation, and astronomers specify them with reference to a particular year, known as an epoch.
Coordinates from different epochs must be rotated to match each other. The currently used standard epoch is J2000.0, which is January 1,2000 at 12,00 TT, the prefix J indicates that it is a Julian epoch. Prior to J2000.0, astronomers used the successive Besselian Epochs B1875.0, B1900.0, the declinations of Solar System objects change very rapidly compared to those of stars, due to orbital motion and close proximity. This similarly occurs in the Southern Hemisphere for objects with less than −90° − φ. An extreme example is the star which has a declination near to +90°. Circumpolar stars never dip below the horizon, there are other stars that never rise above the horizon, as seen from any given point on the Earths surface. Generally, if a star whose declination is δ is circumpolar for some observer, a star whose declination is −δ never rises above the horizon, as seen by the same observer. Likewise, if a star is circumpolar for an observer at latitude φ, neglecting atmospheric refraction, declination is always 0° at east and west points of the horizon.
At the north point, it is 90° − |φ|, and at the south point, from the poles, declination is uniform around the entire horizon, approximately 0°. Non-circumpolar stars are visible only during certain days or seasons of the year, the Suns declination varies with the seasons. As seen from arctic or antarctic latitudes, the Sun is circumpolar near the summer solstice, leading to the phenomenon of it being above the horizon at midnight
In astronomy, the main sequence is a continuous and distinctive band of stars that appears on plots of stellar color versus brightness. These color-magnitude plots are known as Hertzsprung–Russell diagrams after their co-developers, Ejnar Hertzsprung, Stars on this band are known as main-sequence stars or dwarf stars. These are the most numerous true stars in the universe, after a star has formed, it generates thermal energy in the dense core region through nuclear fusion of hydrogen atoms into helium. During this stage of the lifetime, it is located along the main sequence at a position determined primarily by its mass. All main-sequence stars are in equilibrium, where outward thermal pressure from the hot core is balanced by the inward pressure of gravitational collapse from the overlying layers. The strong dependence of the rate of generation in the core on the temperature and pressure helps to sustain this balance. Energy generated at the core makes its way to the surface and is radiated away at the photosphere, the energy is carried by either radiation or convection, with the latter occurring in regions with steeper temperature gradients, higher opacity or both.
The main sequence is divided into upper and lower parts. Stars below about 1.5 times the mass of the Sun primarily fuse hydrogen atoms together in a series of stages to form helium, a sequence called the proton–proton chain. Above this mass, in the main sequence, the nuclear fusion process mainly uses atoms of carbon. Below this mass, stars have cores that are entirely radiative with convective zones near the surface, with decreasing stellar mass, the proportion of the star forming a convective envelope steadily increases, whereas main-sequence stars below 0.4 M☉ undergo convection throughout their mass. When core convection does not occur, a helium-rich core develops surrounded by an layer of hydrogen. In general, the more massive a star is, the shorter its lifespan on the main sequence, after the hydrogen fuel at the core has been consumed, the star evolves away from the main sequence on the HR diagram. The behavior of a star now depends on its mass, with stars below 0.23 M☉ becoming white dwarfs directly, more massive stars can explode as a supernova, or collapse directly into a black hole.
In the early part of the 20th century, information about the types and distances of stars became more readily available, the spectra of stars were shown to have distinctive features, which allowed them to be categorized. Annie Jump Cannon and Edward C, pickering at Harvard College Observatory developed a method of categorization that became known as the Harvard Classification Scheme, published in the Harvard Annals in 1901. In Potsdam in 1906, the Danish astronomer Ejnar Hertzsprung noticed that the reddest stars—classified as K and M in the Harvard scheme—could be divided into two distinct groups and these stars are either much brighter than the Sun, or much fainter. To distinguish these groups, he called them giant and dwarf stars, the following year he began studying star clusters, large groupings of stars that are co-located at approximately the same distance
A constellation is formally defined as a region of the celestial sphere, with boundaries laid down by the International Astronomical Union. The constellation areas mostly had their origins in Western-traditional patterns of stars from which the constellations take their names, in 1922, the International Astronomical Union officially recognized the 88 modern constellations, which cover the entire sky. They began as the 48 classical Greek constellations laid down by Ptolemy in the Almagest, Constellations in the far southern sky are late 16th- and mid 18th-century constructions. 12 of the 88 constellations compose the zodiac signs, though the positions of the constellations only loosely match the dates assigned to them in astrology. The term constellation can refer to the stars within the boundaries of that constellation. Notable groupings of stars that do not form a constellation are called asterisms, when astronomers say something is “in” a given constellation they mean it is within those official boundaries.
Any given point in a coordinate system can unambiguously be assigned to a single constellation. Many astronomical naming systems give the constellation in which an object is found along with a designation in order to convey a rough idea in which part of the sky it is located. For example, the Flamsteed designation for bright stars consists of a number, the word constellation seems to come from the Late Latin term cōnstellātiō, which can be translated as set of stars, and came into use in English during the 14th century. It denotes 88 named groups of stars in the shape of stellar-patterns, the Ancient Greek word for constellation was ἄστρον. Colloquial usage does not draw a distinction between constellation in the sense of an asterism and constellation in the sense of an area surrounding an asterism. The modern system of constellations used in astronomy employs the latter concept, the term circumpolar constellation is used for any constellation that, from a particular latitude on Earth, never sets below the horizon.
From the North Pole or South Pole, all constellations south or north of the equator are circumpolar constellations. In the equatorial or temperate latitudes, the term equatorial constellation has sometimes been used for constellations that lie to the opposite the circumpolar constellations. They generally include all constellations that intersect the celestial equator or part of the zodiac, usually the only thing the stars in a constellation have in common is that they appear near each other in the sky when viewed from the Earth. In galactic space, the stars of a constellation usually lie at a variety of distances, since stars travel on their own orbits through the Milky Way, the star patterns of the constellations change slowly over time. After tens to hundreds of thousands of years, their familiar outlines will become unrecognisable, the terms chosen for the constellation themselves, together with the appearance of a constellation, may reveal where and when its constellation makers lived.
The earliest direct evidence for the constellations comes from inscribed stones and it seems that the bulk of the Mesopotamian constellations were created within a relatively short interval from around 1300 to 1000 BC
Astrometry is the branch of astronomy that involves precise measurements of the positions and movements of stars and other celestial bodies. The information obtained by astrometric measurements provides information on the kinematics and physical origin of the Solar System and our galaxy, the history of astrometry is linked to the history of star catalogues, which gave astronomers reference points for objects in the sky so they could track their movements. This can be dated back to Hipparchus, who around 190 BC used the catalogue of his predecessors Timocharis, in doing so, he developed the brightness scale still in use today. Hipparchus compiled a catalogue with at least 850 stars and their positions, hipparchuss successor, included a catalogue of 1,022 stars in his work the Almagest, giving their location and brightness. Ibn Yunus observed more than 10,000 entries for the Suns position for years using a large astrolabe with a diameter of nearly 1.4 metres. In the 15th century, the Timurid astronomer Ulugh Beg compiled the Zij-i-Sultani, like the earlier catalogs of Hipparchus and Ptolemy, Ulugh Begs catalogue is estimated to have been precise to within approximately 20 minutes of arc.
In the 16th century, Tycho Brahe used improved instruments, including large mural instruments, to measure star positions more accurately than previously, Taqi al-Din measured the right ascension of the stars at the Istanbul observatory of Taqi al-Din using the observational clock he invented. When telescopes became commonplace, setting circles sped measurements James Bradley first tried to measure stellar parallaxes in 1729, the stellar movement proved too insignificant for his telescope, but he instead discovered the aberration of light and the nutation of the Earths axis. His cataloguing of 3222 stars was refined in 1807 by Friedrich Bessel and he made the first measurement of stellar parallax,0.3 arcsec for the binary star 61 Cygni. Being very difficult to measure, only about 60 stellar parallaxes had been obtained by the end of the 19th century, astrographs using astronomical photographic plates sped the process in the early 20th century. Automated plate-measuring machines and more sophisticated technology of the 1960s allowed more efficient compilation of star catalogues.
In the 1980s, charge-coupled devices replaced photographic plates and reduced optical uncertainties to one milliarcsecond and this technology made astrometry less expensive, opening the field to an amateur audience. In 1989, the European Space Agencys Hipparcos satellite took astrometry into orbit, operated from 1989 to 1993, Hipparcos measured large and small angles on the sky with much greater precision than any previous optical telescopes. During its 4-year run, the positions and proper motions of 118,218 stars were determined with a degree of accuracy. A new Tycho catalog drew together a database of 1,058,332 to within 20-30 mas, additional catalogues were compiled for the 23,882 double/multiple stars and 11,597 variable stars analyzed during the Hipparcos mission. Today, the catalogue most often used is USNO-B1.0, during the past 50 years,7,435 Schmidt camera plates were used to complete several sky surveys that make the data in USNO-B1.0 accurate to within 0.2 arcsec. In observational astronomy, astrometric techniques help identify stellar objects by their unique motions and it is instrumental for keeping time, in that UTC is basically the atomic time synchronized to Earths rotation by means of exact observations.
Astrometry is an important step in the distance ladder because it establishes parallax distance estimates for stars in the Milky Way
In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics. Electromagnetic radiation from the star is analyzed by splitting it with a prism or diffraction grating into a spectrum exhibiting the rainbow of colors interspersed with absorption lines, each line indicates an ion of a certain chemical element, with the line strength indicating the abundance of that ion. The relative abundance of the different ions varies with the temperature of the photosphere, the spectral class of a star is a short code summarizing the ionization state, giving an objective measure of the photospheres temperature and density. Most stars are classified under the Morgan–Keenan system using the letters O, B, A, F, G, K, and M. Each letter class is subdivided using a numeric digit with 0 being hottest and 9 being coolest. The sequence has been expanded with classes for other stars and star-like objects that do not fit in the system, such as class D for white dwarfs. In the MK system, a luminosity class is added to the class using Roman numerals.
This is based on the width of absorption lines in the stars spectrum. The full spectral class for the Sun is G2V, indicating a main-sequence star with a temperature around 5,800 K, the conventional color description takes into account only the peak of the stellar spectrum. This means that the assignment of colors of the spectrum can be misleading. There are no green, indigo, or violet stars, the brown dwarfs do not literally appear brown. The modern classification system is known as the Morgan–Keenan classification, each star is assigned a spectral class from the older Harvard spectral classification and a luminosity class using Roman numerals as explained below, forming the stars spectral type. The spectral classes O through M, as well as more specialized classes discussed later, are subdivided by Arabic numerals. For example, A0 denotes the hottest stars in the A class, fractional numbers are allowed, for example, the star Mu Normae is classified as O9.7. The Sun is classified as G2, the conventional color descriptions are traditional in astronomy, and represent colors relative to the mean color of an A-class star, which is considered to be white.
The apparent color descriptions are what the observer would see if trying to describe the stars under a dark sky without aid to the eye, or with binoculars. However, most stars in the sky, except the brightest ones, red supergiants are cooler and redder than dwarfs of the same spectral type, and stars with particular spectral features such as carbon stars may be far redder than any black body. O-, B-, and A-type stars are called early type
The components of proper motion in the equatorial coordinate system are measured in seconds of time for right ascension and seconds of arc in declination. Their combined value is computed as the proper motion, which is expressed in seconds of arc per year or per century. Knowledge of the motion and radial velocity allow approximate calculations of a stars true motion in space in respect to the Sun. Proper motion is not entirely proper, because it includes a component due to the motion of the Solar System itself, over the course of centuries, stars appear to maintain nearly fixed positions with respect to each other, so that they form the same constellations over historical time. Ursa Major or Crux, for example, looks nearly the same now as they did hundreds of years ago, precise long-term observations show that the constellations change shape, albeit very slowly, and that each star has an independent motion. This motion is caused by the movement of the relative to the Sun. The proper motion is a vector and is thus defined by two quantities, its position angle and its magnitude.
The first quantity indicates the direction of the motion on the celestial sphere. Proper motion may alternatively be defined by the changes per year in the stars right ascension and declination. The components of motion by convention are arrived at as follows. Suppose in a year an object moves from coordinates to coordinates, the changes of angle in seconds of arc per year are, The magnitude of the proper motion μ is given by vector addition of its components, where δ is the declination. The factor in cos δ accounts for the fact that the radius from the axis of the sphere to its surface varies as cos δ, for example, zero at the pole. Thus, the component of velocity parallel to the corresponding to a given angular change in α is smaller the further north the objects location. The change μα, which must be multiplied by cos δ to become a component of the motion, is sometimes called the proper motion in right ascension. Hence, the proper motions in right ascension and declination are made equivalent for straightforward calculations of various other stellar motions.
Position angle θ is related to these components by, Motions in equatorial coordinates can be converted to motions in galactic coordinates, for the majority of stars seen in the sky, the observed proper motions are usually small and unremarkable. Such stars are either faint or are significantly distant, have changes of below 10 milliarcseconds per year. A few do have significant motions, and are usually called high-proper motion stars, Motions can be in almost seemingly random directions
The horizontal branch is a stage of stellar evolution that immediately follows the red giant branch in stars whose masses are similar to the Suns. Horizontal-branch stars are powered by fusion in the core and by hydrogen fusion in a shell surrounding the core. The horizontal branch is so named because in low-metallicity star collections like globular clusters, in due course, the helium-enriched core becomes unable to sustain nuclear fusion of hydrogen and that fusion process migrates outward to a shell. The core becomes a region of degenerate matter that does not contribute to the generation of energy and it continues to grow and increase in temperature as the hydrogen fusion in the shell contributes more helium. Stars initially between about 2.3 M☉ and 8 M☉ have larger helium cores that do not become degenerate, instead their cores reach the Schoenberg-Chandrasekhar mass at which they are no longer in hydrostatic or thermal equilibrium. They contract and heat up, which triggers helium fusion before the core becomes degenerate, if the star has more than about 0.5 solar masses, the core eventually reaches the temperature necessary for the fusion of helium into carbon through the triple-alpha process.
The initiation of helium fusion begins across the region, which will cause an immediate temperature rise. Within a few seconds the core becomes non-degenerate and quickly expands, non-degenerate cores initiate fusion more smoothly, without a flash. The output of this event is absorbed by the layers of plasma above, the star now changes to a new equilibrium state, and its evolutionary path switches from the red giant branch onto the horizontal branch of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram. This term means that the luminosity of the star will stay relatively stable while the temperature increases. More massive stars spend a time on the horizontal branch. The shape of the branch is due both to the movement of individual stars bluewards as they age, and to the temperature of stars with different masses when they reach the horizontal branch. There are further variations, both in luminosity and temperature, due to metallicity and helium content, the horizontal branch ends in a blue tail with hotter stars having lower luminosity, occasionally with a blue hook of extremely hot stars.
It is not horizontal when plotted by bolometric luminosity, with hotter horizontal branch stars being less luminous than cooler ones, the hottest horizontal-branch stars, referred to as extreme horizontal branch, have temperatures of 20, 000–30, 000K. This is far beyond what would be expected for a core helium burning star. These stars are born again with unusual properties, globular cluster CMDs generally show horizontal branches that have a prominent gap in the HB. This gap in the CMD incorrectly suggests that the cluster has no stars in this region of its CMD, the gap occurs at the instability strip, so many stars in this region pulsate. These pulsating horizontal-branch stars are known as RR Lyrae variable stars and it requires an extended observing program to establish the stars true apparent magnitude and color