North China is a geographical region of China, lying North of the Qinling Huaihe Line. The heartland of North China is the Yellow River Plain. North China is restricted to the northern part of China proper (inner China and excludes Xinjiang and Manchuria and Northeast China; the vast region in China from the Yellow River Valley south to the Yangtze River was the centre of Chinese empires and home to Confucian civilization. The language used in this area was Ancient Chinese of the Huaxia, Old Chinese of the Shang and Han dynasties. In prehistory and early history, the plain is considered the origin of Chinese civilization in official Chinese history. Rice domestication originated in this area at least 9000 years ago, although on in Chinese history, cultivation of wheat took over as the soils became leeched with the arrivals of the Mongolians and Manchurians from the North, which influenced the area culturally, politically and genetically, while earlier scions and their descendants migrated South of the Yangtze River to flee from the invasion of the barbarians.
Refugees have fled the area since the collapse of the Han dynasty established by Qinshihuang the Royalty. Imperialty, as well as families of soldiers which formed the Hakka migration, in order to escape persecutions from the new dynasties of the barbarians. In modern times, the area has shifted in terms of linguistic, socio-political and genetic composition. Nowadays unique embracing a North Chinese culture, it is influenced by Marxism, Leninism, Soviet systems of farming while preserving a Traditional Chinese indigenous culture; the region has been cultivating wheat, most inhabitants here nowadays speak variants of Northern Chinese languages such as the standard, which includes Beijing dialect, the basis of Standard Chinese, the official language of the People's Republic of China, its cousin variants. Jin Chinese and Mongolian are widely spoken due to the political and cultural history of the area. Other than the British Colony of Hong Kong, the revival of Shanghai as financial center, the old imperial city of the Purple Forbidden Citadel of China's Last 24 Emperors known by Westerners as Peking, now modernized as Beijing City, this is the ancient and historical region which remains at the heart of Chinese civilisation.
It remains the political and cultural center of the People's Republic of China. In prehistory, the region was home to the Longshan cultures. Peking man was found near modern-day Beijing. Culturally Northern China includes Shandong, northern parts of Anhui and Xuzhou. Tens of millions of people have starved to death or died of floods in northern china, most notably the Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–79 which killed about 13 million, 1938 Yellow River flood which killed up to 800,000, 1887 Yellow River flood killed 900,000, Chinese famine of 1942–43 killed 3 million and the Great famine which killed tens of millions of mandarin speaking peoples in Northern China and Sichuan. Provincial capitals in bold. North China Plain Northeast China East China Northern and southern China
Battle of Iwo Jima
The Battle of Iwo Jima was a major battle in which the United States Marine Corps landed on and captured the island of Iwo Jima from the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II. The American invasion, designated Operation Detachment, had the goal of capturing the entire island, including the three Japanese-controlled airfields, to provide a staging area for attacks on the Japanese main islands; this five-week battle comprised some of the fiercest and bloodiest fighting of the Pacific War of World War II. After the heavy losses incurred in the battle, the strategic value of the island became controversial, it was useless to the U. S. Army as a staging base and useless to the U. S. Navy as a fleet base. However, Navy Seabees rebuilt the landing strips, which were used as emergency landing strips for USAAF B-29s; the IJA positions on the island were fortified, with a dense network of bunkers, hidden artillery positions, 18 km of underground tunnels. The American ground forces were supported by extensive naval artillery, had complete air supremacy provided by U.
S. Navy and Marine Corps aviators throughout the entire battle. Japanese combat deaths numbered three times the number of American deaths although, uniquely among Pacific War Marine battles, American total casualties exceeded those of the Japanese. Of the 21,000 Japanese soldiers on Iwo Jima at the beginning of the battle, only 216 were taken prisoner, some of whom were captured because they had been knocked unconscious or otherwise disabled; the majority of the remainder were killed in action, although it has been estimated that as many as 3,000 continued to resist within the various cave systems for many days afterwards succumbing to their injuries or surrendering weeks later. Despite the bloody fighting and severe casualties on both sides, the American victory was assured from the start. Overwhelming American superiority in numbers and arms as well as complete air supremacy—coupled with the impossibility of Japanese retreat or reinforcement, along with sparse food and supplies—permitted no plausible circumstance in which the Americans could have lost the battle.
Joe Rosenthal's Associated Press photograph of the raising of the U. S. flag on top of the 169 m Mount Suribachi by six U. S. Marines became an iconic image of the American war effort in the Pacific. After the American capture of the Marshall Islands, the devastating air attacks against the Japanese fortress island of Truk Atoll in the Carolines in January 1944, the Japanese military leaders reevaluated their situation. All indications pointed to an American drive toward the Carolines. To counter such an offensive, the IJA and the Imperial Japanese Navy established an inner line of defenses extending northward from the Carolines to the Marianas, thence to Japan via the Volcano Islands, westward from the Marianas via the Carolines and the Palau Islands to the Philippines. In March 1944, the Japanese 31st Army, commanded by General Hideyoshi Obata, was activated to garrison this inner line; the commander of the Japanese garrison on Chichi Jima was placed nominally in command of Army and Navy units in the Volcano Islands.
After the American conquest of the Marianas, daily bomber raids from the Marianas hit the mainland as part of Operation Scavenger. Iwo Jima served as an early warning station that radioed reports of incoming bombers back to mainland Japan; this allowed Japanese air defenses to prepare for the arrival of American bombers. After the U. S. seized bases in the Marshall Islands in the battles of Kwajalein and Eniwetok in February 1944, Japanese Army and Navy reinforcements were sent to Iwo Jima: 500 men from the naval base at Yokosuka and 500 from Chichi Jima reached Iwo Jima during March and April 1944. At the same time, with reinforcements arriving from Chichi Jima and the home islands, the Army garrison on Iwo Jima reached a strength of more than 5,000 men; the loss of the Marianas during the summer of 1944 increased the importance of the Volcano Islands for the Japanese, who were aware that the loss of these islands would facilitate American air raids against the Home Islands, disrupting war manufacturing and damaging civilian morale.
Final Japanese plans for the defense of the Volcano Islands were overshadowed by several factors: The Imperial Japanese Navy had lost all of its power, it could not prevent American landings. Aircraft losses throughout 1944 had been so heavy that if war production were not affected by American air attacks, combined Japanese air strength was not expected to increase to 3,000 warplanes until March or April 1945; these aircraft could not be used from bases in the Home Islands against Iwo Jima because their range was not more than 900 km. Available warplanes had to be hoarded to defend Taiwan and the Japanese Home Islands from any attack. There was a serious shortage of properly trained and experienced pilots and other aircrew to man the warplanes Japan had—because such large numbers of pilots and crewmen had perished fighting over the Solomon Islands and during the Battle of the Philippine Sea in mid-1944. In a postwar study, Japanese staff officers described the strategy, used in the defense of Iwo Jima in the following terms: In the light of the above situation, seeing that it was impossible to conduct our air and gro
The Bonin Islands known as the Ogasawara Islands, or, Yslas del Arzobispo, are an archipelago of over 30 subtropical and tropical islands, some 1,000 kilometres directly south of Tokyo, Japan. The name "Bonin Islands" comes from the Japanese word bunin, meaning "no people" or "uninhabited"; the only inhabited islands of the group are Chichijima, the seat of the municipal government, Hahajima. Ogasawara Municipality and Ogasawara Subprefecture take their names from the Ogasawara Group. Ogasawara Archipelago is used as a wider collective term that includes other islands in Ogasawara Municipality, such as the Volcano Islands, along with three other remote islands. Geographically speaking, all of these islands are part of the Nanpō Islands. A total population of 2,440, 2,000 on Chichijima and 440 on Hahajima, lives in the Ogasawara Group, which has a total area of 84 square kilometres; because the Ogasawara Islands have never been connected to a continent, many of their animals and plants have undergone unique evolutionary processes.
This has led to the islands' nickname of "The Galápagos of the Orient", their nomination as a natural World Heritage Site on June 24, 2011. The giant squid was photographed off the Ogasawara Islands for the first time in the wild on 30 September 2004, was filmed alive in December 2006. A 25-meter-diameter radio telescope is located in Chichijima, one of the stations of the very-long-baseline interferometry Exploration of Radio Astrometry project, is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; the Bonin Islands consist of three subgroups, which are listed below along with their main islands: Muko-jima Group – Parry Group: Muko-jima. Geographically, they are not traditionally considered part of the Bonin Islands, which are the Mukojima and Hahajima island clusters. In other words, the historical range of the Bonin Islands is not the precise equivalent of the Japanese governmental unit; the Bonin Islands is a geographical term excluding the other islands which are today associated within the boundaries of a collective term, Ogasawara Shotō.
Prehistoric tools and carved stones, discovered on North Iwo Jima at the end of the 20th century, as well as stone tools discovered on Chichi-jima, indicate the islands might have been populated in ancient times. The first recorded visit by Europeans to the islands happened on 2 October 1543, when the Spanish explorer Bernardo de la Torre on the San Juan sighted Haha-jima, which he charted as Forfana. At that time, the islands were not populated. Japanese discovery of the islands occurred in Kanbun 10 and was followed by a shogunate expedition in Enpō 3; the islands were referred to as Bunin jima "the uninhabited islands". Shimaya Ichizaemon, the explorer at the order of the shogunate, inventoried several species of trees and birds, but after his expedition, the shogunate abandoned any plans to develop the remote islands. In 1727, Ogasawara Sadatō, a rōnin, claimed that the islands were discovered by his ancestor Ogasawara Sadayori, in 1593, the territory was granted as a fief by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
However, investigation of the claim found that it was a fraud and the existence of Sadayori was doubtful. The first published description of the islands in the West was brought to Europe by Isaac Titsingh in 1796, his small library of Japanese books included Sangoku Tsūran Zusetsu by Hayashi Shihei. This book, published in Japan in 1785 described the Ogasawara Islands; these groups were collectively called Islas del Arzobispo in Spanish sources of the 18th–19th century. This name is most due to an expedition organized by the Arzobispo Pedro Moya de Contreras, Viceroy of New Spain, to explore the northern Pacific and the islands of Japan, its main objective was to find the long sought and legendary islands of Rica de Oro, Rica de Plata and the Islas del Armenio. After several years of planning and frustrated attempts the expedition set sail on 12 July 1587 c
Hideyoshi Obata was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II. In March, 1944, Obata was assigned to the newly created 31st Army in charge of the inner line of defense of Japan; this included the Marianas and the Volcano-Bonin Islands. The IJA 29th Division, IJA 53rd Division, 109th Division, with 80,000 men; the 109th was stationed at command given to General Tadamichi Kuribayashi. Obata was a native of Osaka prefecture, he graduated from the 23rd class of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy in December 1911, was commissioned as a lieutenant in the cavalry. In 1919, he graduated from the 31st class of the Army War College and was promoted to the rank of captain in the cavalry. From 1923-1927, Obata was assigned as a military attaché to the United Kingdom and from 1927-1934 as military attaché to British India. In August 1934, he was promoted to colonel in the cavalry and recalled to Japan for staff postings within the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff. Obata was promoted to major general in March 1938, was reassigned from cavalry to army aviation.
He was appointed Commandant of the Akeno Army Air School in August 1938. In December 1940, he was promoted to lieutenant general and commander of the IJA 5th Air Group in Taiwan at the start of the Pacific War, his command was subsequently assigned to the Burma front in 1942. In May 1943, he became commander in chief of the IJA 3rd Air Army but was recalled to Tokyo in December. On 18 February 1944, Obata was assigned command of the Thirty-First Army, with the IJA 29th Division and IJA 53rd Division in charge of the defense of the Mariana Islands from the approaching Allied forces, he was away from his headquarters on Saipan at the time of the American invasion and established his new command post on Guam. However, at the Battle of Guam he was soon overwhelmed by superior American numbers and firepower, after giving the order that his forces should fight to the death, he committed seppuku on 11 August 1944. Obata was promoted posthumously to the rank of general. Dupuy, Trevor N.. Encyclopedia of Military Biography.
I B Tauris & Co Ltd. ISBN 1-85043-569-3. Fuller, Richard. Shokan: Hirohito's Samurai. London: Arms and Armor. ISBN 1-85409-151-4. Gailey, Harry; the Liberation of Guam 21 July - 10 August. Novato, California, U. S. A.: Presidio Press. ISBN 0-89141-651-X. Hayashi, Saburo. Quantico, VA: The Marine Corps Association
James Bradley (author)
James Bradley is an American author from Antigo, specializing in historical nonfiction chronicling the Pacific theatre of World War II. His father, John Bradley, was long thought to be one of the six men, in the photograph raising the American flag on Mt. Suribachi during the Battle of Iwo Jima in 1945; that photograph has gone on to be one of the most duplicated and reproduced photos taken. On June 23, 2016, the Marine Corps announced after an investigation, that John Bradley was not in Rosenthal's photograph of six Marines raising the second flag on Mount Suribachi on February 23, 1945, although he had been involved in the first raising of a smaller flag two hours earlier, was still on the mountaintop during the second flag raising. In 2000, Bradley published Flags of Our Fathers, written with the author Ron Powers, which tells the story of five U. S. Marines and a United States Navy corpsman attached to the Marines Corps, raising the American flag during the Battle of Iwo Jima and the Seventh War Loan Drive after the battle.
In that book, which spent 46 weeks on the New York Times bestseller list and was made into a film directed by Clint Eastwood, Bradley took great care to locate and speak with family and friends who knew the men depicted. In doing this, he received praise for his realistic portrayals and bringing the men involved to life; the book and the film is an in-depth look at their war-time service. Of the six men who raised the second and larger replacement flag on Mount Suribachi on February 23, 1945, PhM2c. John Bradley, although he had been involved only in the first raising of a smaller flag hours before, was not involved in the second flag raising, Pfc. Ira Hayes, Pfc. Rene Gagnon were the only survivors of the battle. Sgt. Michael Strank, Cpl. Harlon Block, Pfc. Franklin Sousley were killed in action on in the battle; the book and film tell the story in a before and after format, both were well received upon their release. An impromptu speech Bradley, who did not raise the flag, gave at the Marine Corps War Memorial was transcribed by Michael T. Powers in October 2000, circulated on the Internet.
On June 23, 2016, the United States Marine Corps identified Cpl. Harold Schultz as the sixth flag raiser for the second flag. In 2003, Bradley published Flyboys: A True Story of Courage; that book tells the story of an air raid that took place during the Battle of Iwo Jima, some 150 miles away, when United States warplanes bombed the small communications outpost on Chichi Jima. While Iwo Jima had Japanese forces numbering 22,000, Chichi Jima's forces numbered 25,000. Nine American crewmen survived after being shot down in the raid. One was picked up by the American submarine USS Finback; that one man was then-Lieutenant George H. W. Bush, who went on to become the forty-first President of the United States; the other eight were captured as POWs by the Japanese and were executed and eaten, a fact that remained hidden until much later. Like Flags of Our Fathers, Flyboys: A True Story of Courage topped the New York Times Bestseller list when it came out. In 2009, he published his third New York Times best selling The Imperial Cruise.
It concerns the 1905 diplomatic mission led by then-Secretary of War William Howard Taft and Alice Roosevelt, as well as the larger implications of President Theodore Roosevelt's foreign policy with regard to Japan. The New York Times published a complimentary review, writing that "The Imperial Cruise is startling enough to reshape conventional wisdom about Roosevelt's presidency." The book exposes the blatantly racist and exploitative policy of the United States in its attempt to extend its influence into the Pacific rim, acquiring Hawaii by conquest and the Philippines by purchase from the Spanish after ostensibly having entered the conflict to aid the Filipino freedom fighters. The American occupation was marked by torture and repression of the people they had come to help; the China Mirage: The Hidden History of American Disaster in Asia is James' fourth book, detailing America's involvement in China since the early 19th Century during the heights of opium trade, through the conclusion of the Second World War and Mao Zedong's rise to power.
The premise of the book is how the United States failed to understand Asian cultures that led to poor decision-making by policy makers in the US State Department as well as by both President Theodore Roosevelt and Franklin Roosevelt. Bradley makes the suggestion that the War in the Pacific, the Korean War and the Vietnam War would have been avoided had President Franklin Roosevelt not been unduly influenced by the China Lobby that supported Chiang Kai-shek. James Bradley's father, John Bradley, is featured incorrectly as a flag raiser of the second flag in the 2006 Clint Eastwood movie Flags of Our Fathers, made a decade before new evidence showed he was not one of them, where he is played by American actor Ryan Phillippe; the movie is based on James Bradley's book of the same title. Flags of Our Fathers. New York: Bantam, 2000. ISBN 0-553-11133-7 OCLC 43555111 Flyboys: A True Story of Courage Boston: Little, Brown & Co. 2003. ISBN 0-316-10584-8 OCLC 52071383 The Imperial Cruise: The Secret History of Empire and War Boston: Little, Brown & Co. 2009.
ISBN 0-316-00895-8 OCLC 430522360 The China Mirage: The Hidden History of American Disaster in Asia Boston: Little, Brown & Co. 2015. ISBN 0-316-19667-3 OCLC 870199580 Lecture on The Imperial Cruise at the Pritzker Military Museum & Library Participant in Panel Discussion, Turning Point: 36 Days on Iwo Jima 1945 at the Pritzker Military Museum & Library
A division is a large military unit or formation consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers. Infantry divisions during the World Wars ranged between 30,000 in nominal strength. In most armies, a division is composed of several brigades; the division has been the default combined arms unit capable of independent operations. Smaller combined arms units, such as the American regimental combat team during World War II, were used when conditions favored them. In recent times, modern Western militaries have begun adopting the smaller brigade combat team as the default combined arms unit, with the division they belong to being less important. While the focus of this article is on army divisions, in naval usage division has a different meaning, referring to either an administrative/functional sub-unit of a department aboard naval and coast guard ships, shore commands, in naval aviation units, to a sub-unit of several ships within a flotilla or squadron, or to two or three sections of aircraft operating under a designated division leader.
Some languages, like Russian, Serbo-Croatian and Polish, use a similar word divizion/dywizjon for a battalion-size artillery or cavalry unit. In administrative/functional sub-unit usage, unit size varies though divisions number far fewer than 100 people and are equivalent in function and organizational hierarchy/command relationship to a platoon or flight. In the West, the first general to think of organising an army into smaller combined-arms units was Maurice de Saxe, Marshal General of France, in his book Mes Rêveries, he died without having implemented his idea. Victor-François de Broglie put the ideas into practice, he conducted successful practical experiments of the divisional system in the Seven Years' War. The first war in which the divisional system was used systematically was the French Revolutionary War. Lazare Carnot of the Committee of Public Safety, in charge of military affairs, came to the same conclusion about it as the previous royal government, the army was organised into divisions.
It made the armies more flexible and easy to maneuver, it made the large army of the revolution manageable. Under Napoleon, the divisions were grouped together because of their increasing size. Napoleon's military success spread the corps system all over Europe; the divisional system reached its numerical height during the Second World War. The Soviet Union's Red Army consisted of more than a thousand divisional-size units at any one time, the total number of rifle divisions raised during the Great Patriotic War is estimated at 2,000. Nazi Germany had hundreds of numbered and/or named divisions, while the United States employed 91 divisions, two of which were disbanded during the war. A notable change to divisional structures during the war was completion of the shift from square divisions to triangular divisions that many European nations started using in World War I; this was done to pare down chain of command overhead. The triangular division allowed the tactic of "two forward, one back", where two of the division's regiments would be engaging the enemy with one regiment in reserve.
All divisions in World War II were expected to have their own artillery formations the size of a regiment depending upon the nation. Divisional artillery was seconded by corps level command to increase firepower in larger engagements. Regimental combat teams were used by the US during the war as well, whereby attached and/or organic divisional units were parceled out to infantry regiments, creating smaller combined-arms units with their own armor and artillery and support units; these combat teams would still be under divisional command but have some level of autonomy on the battlefield. Organic units within divisions were units which operated directly under Divisional command and were not controlled by the Regiments; these units were support units in nature, include signal companies, medical battalions, supply trains and administration. Attached units were smaller units that were placed under Divisional command temporarily for the purpose of completing a particular mission; these units were combat units such as tank battalions, tank destroyer battalions and cavalry reconnaissance squadrons.
In modern times, most military forces have standardized their divisional structures. This does not mean that divisions are equal in size or structure from country to country, but divisions have, in most cases, come to be units of 10,000 to 20,000 troops with enough organic support to be capable of independent operations; the direct organization of the division consists of one to four brigades or battle groups of its primary combat arm, along with a brigade or regiment of combat support and a number of direct-reporting battalions for necessary specialized support tasks, such as intelligence, logistics and combat engineers. Most militaries standardize ideal organization strength for each type of division, encapsulated in a Table of Organization and Equipment which specifies exact assignments of units and equipment for a division; the modern division became the primary identifiable combat unit in many militaries during the second half of the 20th century, supplanting the brigade.
Tsuruga is a city located in Fukui Prefecture, Japan. As of 29 June 2018, the city had an estimated population of 66,123 in 28,604 households and the population density of 260 persons per km²; the total area of the city was 251.39 square kilometres. Tsuruga is located in central Fukui Prefecture, bordered by Shiga Prefecture to the south and Wakasa Bay of the Sea of Japan to the north. Tsuruga lies some 50 km south of Fukui, 90 km northwest of Nagoya, 40 km northwest of Maibara, 115 km northeast of Osaka, 75 km northeast of Kyoto, 65 km east of Maizuru. Among cities on the Sea of Japan coast, Tsuruga is the nearest city to the Pacific Ocean; the distance between Tsuruga and Nagoya is only 115 km. Tsuruga and Nagoya are close to Shiga Prefecture and Kyoto. Fukui Prefecture Echizen Mihama Shiga Prefecture Takashima Nagahama Per Japanese census data, the population of Tsuruga has remained steady over the past 40 years. Tsuruga has a humid subtropical climate with cool winters. Precipitation is plentiful throughout the year, is heavy in December and January.
The average annual temperature in Tsuruga is 14.7 °C. The average annual rainfall is 2312 mm with September as the wettest month; the temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 27.1 °C, lowest in January, at around 3.7 °C. Although Tsuruga promotes itself as the leading city of the "Wakasa region", the city is has always been of ancient Echizen Province. A settlement at Tsuruga is mentioned in the Nara period Kojiki and Nihon Shoki chronicles. Kanagasaki Castle was the site of major battles during the early Muromachi period and the Sengoku period, Under the Edo period Tokugawa shogunate, large portions of the city were part of the holdings of Obama Domain and Tsuruga Domain, prospered as a major port on the kitamaebune shipping routes between western Japan and Hokkaido. Following the Meiji restoration, the area became part of Tsuruga District of Fukui Prefecture. With the creation of the modern municipalities system, the town of Tsuruga was founded on April 1,1889. An Imperial decree in July 1899 established Tsuruga as an open port for trading with the United States and the United Kingdom.
Tsuruga merged with the neighbouring village of Matsubara and was incorporated as a city on April 1, 1937. Tsuruga was the only Japanese port opened to the Polish orphans in 1920, to the Jewish refugees in 1940 thanks to Jan Zwartendijk, the Dutch Consul in Kaunas, who issued visa for Curaçao and Surinam, Mr. Chiune Sugihara, Vice-Consul for the Empire of Japan in Lithuania who issued transit visa for Japan; these events are detailed at the Port of Humanity Tsuruga Museum. However, much of the city centre was destroyed in 1945 during the Bombing of Tsuruga during World War II, The city expanded on January 15, 1955 by annexing the neighbouring villages of Arachi, Togo and Higashiura. Tsuruga has a mayor-council form of government with a directly elected mayor and a unicameral city legislature of 26 members. Tsuruga has a healthy mixed economy focused on providing services to the Wakasa region, features a container port, a bulk terminal, a coal-fired power plant, two textile mills, a large furniture factory, a playground equipment manufacturer, a Panasonic facility.
Education and energy research drive the economy. Tsuruga is known for its two nuclear power facilities - the Monju demonstration nuclear plant and the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Plant. Tsuruga has 13 public elementary schools and five middle schools operated by the city government, two public high schools operated by the Fukui Prefectural Board of Education. There is one private high school and one private middle/high school. Tsuruga Nursing University is located in the city. JR West - Hokuriku Main Line Tsuruga, Shin-Hikida JR West - Obama Line Tsuruga, Nishi-Tsuruga, Awano Hokuriku Expressway Maizuru-Wakasa Expressway National Route 8 National Route 27 National Route 161 Tsuruga Port Donghae, South Korea, since April 13, 1981 Taizhou, China, since November 13, 2001 Nakhodka, Primorsky Krai, since October 11, 1982 Kehi Shrine, a large shrine complex built in 702, it hosts Kehi festival every year. Kehi shrine was visited by the poet Matsuo Basho in 1689. Kanegasaki-gū, a Shinto shrine Tsuruga Red Brick Warehouse, Meiji-period port building Nakagō Kofun Cluster, a National Historic Site Kanagasaki Castle site, a National Historic Site Grave of Takeda Kounsai, a National Historic Site About twenty or so bronze statues – each four or five feet tall – of characters and scenes from the popular 1970s anime Uchū Senkan Yamato and Galaxy Express 999 were erected in the city's downtown area in 1999.
Though the creator of these shows, Leiji Matsumoto, was born elsewhere, an exhibit of his artwork was held in the city in 1999 as part of the city's 100th anniversary celebration, accompanied by the erection of the statues. Well-known Japanese DJ Chikashi Nishiwaki founded his eclectic club, here; the club has been host to many national and international celebrity guests such as Jazztronik, Gilles Peterson, Toshio Matsuura from UFO, DJs Ravi, Julien Love and Two Dee, Soil and Pimp Sessions. He has mixed music with Tyronne Noonan, former frontman of George.. Official website Galaxy Express 999 and Space Battleship Yamato statues in Tsuruga Geographic data related to Tsuruga, Fukui at OpenStreetMap