Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law.
Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages.
Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses
Middlesex is a historic county in south-east England. It is now entirely within the wider urbanised area of London and its area is now mostly within the ceremonial county of Greater London, with small sections in other neighbouring ceremonial counties. It was established in the Anglo-Saxon system from the territory of the Middle Saxons, the largely low-lying county, dominated by clay in its north and alluvium on gravel in its south, was the second smallest county by area in 1831. The City of London was a county in its own right from the 12th century and was able to exert control over Middlesex. Westminster Abbey dominated most of the financial and ecclesiastical aspects of the county. As London grew into Middlesex, the Corporation of London resisted attempts to expand the city boundaries into the county, in the 18th and 19th centuries the population density was especially high in the southeast of the county, including the East End and West End of London. From 1855 the southeast was administered, with sections of Kent and Surrey, the City of London, and Middlesex, became separate counties for other purposes and Middlesex regained the right to appoint its own sheriff, lost in 1199.
In the interwar years suburban London expanded further, with improvement and expansion of public transport, after the Second World War, the population of the County of London and inner Middlesex was in steady decline, with high population growth continuing in the outer parts. Since 1965 various areas called Middlesex have been used for cricket, Middlesex was the former postal county of 25 post towns. The name means territory of the middle Saxons and refers to the origin of its inhabitants. The word is formed from the Anglo-Saxon, i. e. Old English, middel, in an 8th-century charter the region is recorded as Middleseaxon and in 704 it is recorded as Middleseaxan. The Saxons derived their name from seax, a kind of knife for which they were known, the seax has a lasting symbolic impact in the English counties of Essex and Middlesex, both of which feature three seaxes in their ceremonial emblem. Their names, along with those of Sussex and Wessex, contain a remnant of the word Saxon, there were settlements in the area of Middlesex that can be traced back thousands of years before the creation of a county.
Middlesex was formerly part of the Kingdom of Essex It was recorded in the Domesday Book as being divided into the six hundreds of Edmonton, Gore, Hounslow and Spelthorne. The City of London has been self-governing since the century and became a county in its own right. Middlesex included Westminster, which had a degree of autonomy. Of the six hundreds, Ossulstone contained the districts closest to the City of London, during the 17th century it was divided into four divisions, along with the Liberty of Westminster, largely took over the administrative functions of the hundred. The divisions were named Finsbury, Holborn and Tower, the county had parliamentary representation from the 13th century
Aylesbury /ˈeɪəlzbri/ is the county town of Buckinghamshire, England. In 2011, it had a population of 71,977, the town name is of Old English origin. Its first recorded name Æglesburgh is thought to mean Fort of Ægel, since earliest records there have been 57 variations of the name. Excavations in the centre in 1985 found an Iron Age hill fort dating from the early 4th century BC. Aylesbury was a market town in Anglo-Saxon times, the burial place of Saint Osgyth. The Early English parish church of St. Mary has a crypt beneath, once thought to be Anglo-Saxon, it is now recognised as being of the same period as the medieval chapel above. At the Norman conquest, the king took the manor of Aylesbury for himself, in 1450, a religious institution called the Guild of St Mary was founded in Aylesbury by John Kemp, Archbishop of York. Known popularly as the Guild of Our Lady it became a place for local dignitaries. The guild was influential in the outcome of the Wars of the Roses. Its premises at the Chantry in Church Street, are still there, the plague decimated the population in 1603/4.
Aylesbury-born composer, Rutland Boughton, possibly inspired by the statue of John Hampden, bourbon Street in Aylesbury is named after the king. Louiss wife, Marie Josephine of Savoy died at Hartwell in 1810 and is the only French queen to have died on English soil, the town received international publicity in the 1963 when the culprits responsible for the ] were tried at Aylesbury Crown Court. The robbery took place at Bridego Bridge, a bridge at Ledburn. A notable institution is Aylesbury Grammar School which was founded in 1598, according to the 2011 Census, the religious groupings in Aylesbury were, Christianity, No religion, Hinduism, Other. 7% of respondents did not state their religion, Aylesbury falls into a notional geographical region known as the South Midlands. In the 2001 census the Aylesbury Urban Area had 69,021 inhabitants by the 2011 census the urban population had grown to 74,748. Distinct whole areas that have a high property price in the town are Bedgrove. Anticipated developments are expected to raise the population of Aylesbury from its current approximation of 75,000 to 100,000 between 2018 and 2023
By a commission dated 20 November 1688 the regiment was formed in Torbay, Devon under Sir Richard Peyton as Peytons Regiment of Foot. The regiment served in the Glorious Revolution under King William III and at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690, during the War of the Spanish Succession, it aided in the capture of Spanish galleons at Battle of Vigo Bay in 1702. The regiment distinguished itself at the Battle of Dettingen in June 1743 and it served at the Battle of Culloden in April 1746 during the Jacobite rising of 1745. In 1751, the regiment became the 20th Regiment of Foot, during the Seven Years War the regiment earned honour at the Battle of Minden on 1 August 1759, when, as an infantry formation, they stood up to and broke a French cavalry charge. During the American Revolutionary War the regiment was sent to Quebec in April 1776, serving under General John Burgoyne for the remainder of the Canadian campaign, they surrendered along with General Burgoyne at Saratoga. The 20th Regiment of Foot was designated the 20th Regiment of Foot in 1782 and it next departed for Egypt in spring 1801 and saw action at the Battle of Alexandria in March 1801 during the French Revolutionary Wars.
After moving to Calabria it took part in the Battle of Maida in July 1806 during the War of the Third Coalition, the regiment embarked for Portugal in 1808 for service in the Peninsular War. It saw action at the Battle of Vimeiro in August 1808, the regiment returned to the Peninsula and fought at the Battle of Vitoria in June 1813, where it formed part of the backbone of the Duke of Wellingtons forces. During the Crimean War, the regiment took part in the Battle of Alma in September 1854, the 2nd Battalion was raised in 1858. Under the reforms the regiment became The Lancashire Fusiliers on 1 July 1881 and this formed the 3rd and 4th Battalions of the Lancashire Fusiliers. In addition, Rifle Volunteer Corps were attached to their local regiments, in 1883 the 8th Lancashire Rifle Volunteers became the 1st Volunteer Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers, and the 12th Lancashire Rifle Volunteers became the 2nd Volunteer Battalion. In 1886 the 56th Lancashire Rifle Volunteers was transferred from the Manchester Regiment to become the 3rd Volunteer Battalion, in common with other regiments recruited from populous urban areas, the Lancashire Fusiliers raised two further regular battalions, the 3rd in 1898, and the 4th in 1900.
This necessitated adjustments to the numbers of the Militia battalions, which became the 5th and 6th battalions, the 3rd and 4th Regular battalions were disbanded in 1906. In 1898 the 2nd Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers took part in Kitcheners campaign to reconquer the Sudan, during the Second Boer War, the 2nd Battalion saw action at the Battle of Spion Kop in January 1900 and the Relief of Ladysmith in February 1900. The 6th Battalion served in the war, leaving for South Africa with 650 men on 10 February 1900, all three Volunteer Battalions found service companies of volunteers who served alongside the Regulars, and gained the battle honour South Afrca 1900–1902 for their battalions. Under the Haldane Reforms of 1908, the Militia were redesignated Special Reserve, with the wartime role of Home Defence. The Lancashire Fusiliers militia became 3rd Battalion and 4th Battalion, both based at Bury, the volunteers now became the Territorial Force, with battalions numbered in sequence after the militia.
These four battalions formed the Lancashire Fusiliers Brigade, in the East Lancashire Division of the TF, the 1st Battalion, which was based in Karachi in the early months of the war, returned to the United Kingdom in January 1915
In June,1667, Henry Somerset, Marquess of Worcester, was granted a commission to raise a regiment of foot, The Marquess of Worcesters Regiment of Foot. The regiment remained in existence for only a few months and was disbanded in the same year and it was re-raised in January 1673 and again disbanded in 1674. The regiment was not required to fight at the time of its formation since the Duke of Monmouth was drawn away from Bristol. Its first action came in Ireland at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690, after the war, it garrisoned the island of Minorca. The regiment served under the name of its various Colonels until it was numbered as the 11th Regiment of Foot when the system of regimental designation was adopted in 1751. It was given the county title of 11th Regiment of Foot in 1782. The 11th Regiment spent the years of the French Revolutionary Wars serving as detachments in the Mediterranean with the Royal Navy. It took part in a raid on the port of Ostend in 1798. It was deployed to the West Indies in 1801 where it captured Saint Barthélemy, a 2nd Battalion was formed in 1809 and took part in the disastrous Walcheren Campaign.
The 1st battalion returned to Europe in July 1809 to fight in the Peninsular War and it took part in the Battle of Bussaco in September 1810 and fell back to the Lines of Torres Vedras. It took part in the Siege of Badajoz in April 1811, in the 19th century, the regiment spent most of the 19th Century on garrison duty throughout the Empire. Under the reforms the regiment became the Devonshire Regiment on 1 July 1881, at the same time it merged with the militia and rifle volunteer units of the county of Devon. It took part in the Tirah Campaign in 1897 and the Second Boer War in 1899, the 2nd Battalion fought in the Second Anglo-Afghan War, the Anglo-Ashanti wars and the Second Boer War. The 8th Battalion, part of 29th Brigade reserve, was committed within 3 hours of the beginning of the attack, the 1st Battalion, Devonshire Regiment was a Regular Army unit, joined the 8th Brigade, 3rd Division and transferred to the 14th Brigade, 5th Division. The 1st Battalion was serving in British India when the Second World War broke out, the brigade was part of the British 36th Infantry Division.
In July 1943 the battalion, together with the 231st Brigade, fought in the Allied invasion of Sicily, briefly, in the Allied invasion of Italy in September. On D-Day, June 6,1944, it was intended that the battalion, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Cosmo Nevill, should land at Le Hamel, on Gold Beach, of the four company commanders, two were wounded and one was killed. The battalion continued to fight throughout the Battle of Normandy
The Green Howards, frequently known as the Yorkshire Regiment until the 1920s, was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, in the Kings Division. The regiment was raised by Colonel Francis Luttrell in 1688 from independent companies of infantry in Devon. It embarked for Flanders in spring 1692 and saw action at the Battle of Steenkerque in August 1692, the Battle of Landen in July 1693, the regiment returned to England in March 1696. The regiment returned to Flanders in spring 1710 and took part in the siege of Douai in summer 1710 during the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment returned to England in winter 1748. The regiment was known by the names of its various colonels until 1751, the regiment took part in the capture of Belle Île in April 1761 during the Seven Years War. The regiment saw action at the Siege of Seringapatam in April 1799 during the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, the regiment was known as the Green Howards from 1744. At that time, regiments were known by the name of their colonel, the 19th regiments colonel was Hon.
However, at the time, the 3rd Regiment of Foot had been commanded by its colonel Thomas Howard. To tell them apart, the colours of their uniform facings were used to distinguish them, in this way, one became Howards Buffs, while the other became the Green Howards. Although the Green Howards were referred to unofficially as such from on, under the Childers Reforms, all non-royal English infantry regiments were to wear white facings from 1881. In 1899, the regiment was able to reverse this decision with the restoration of the grass green facings formerly worn by the 19th Foot, in April 1801 the regiment was deployed to Ceylon for service in the Kandyan Wars. The regiment lost 6 officers and 172 other ranks in a massacre there in June 1803, the regiment did not return to England until May 1820. The regiment saw action at the Battle of Alma in September 1854 and at the Siege of Sevastopol in winter 1854 during the Crimean War and saw action again during the Indian Rebellion. In 1875, Princess Alexandra, Princess of Wales presented new colours to the 1st Battalion at Sheffield, the regiment adopted a cap badge consisting of the Princesss cypher A combined with the Dannebrog or Danish cross and topped by her coronet.
The Princess became Queen Alexandra in 1901, and was the regiments Colonel-in-Chief from 1914 until her death in 1925, under the reforms the regiment became The Princess of Waless Own on 1 July 1881. At the same time it amalgamated with the battalions and rifle volunteers in its designated regimental district. A 3rd Battalion was embodied in December 1899, and embarked the following month for service in South Africa during the Second Boer War, many of the officers and men returned home in May 1902 on the SS Sicilia. In July 1902, the regiment was redesignated as Alexandra, Princess of Waless Own, the 1st Battalion remained in India as part of the 2nd Cavalry Brigade in the 2nd Division throughout the war and took part in the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919
Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment
The Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment was the final title of a line infantry regiment of the British Army that was originally formed in 1688. The regiment was raised in the counties of England, and was embodied in Reading. The new regiment was ordered to London to oppose Williams forces, James fled the country, allowing William to become king. Colonel Douglas, an adherent of the monarch, was replaced by Robert Hodges. The installation of William as king involved England in the wider Nine Years War, the regiment quickly embarked for service overseas in April 1689, forming part of the Anglo-Dutch forces in the Netherlands. They fought at the battles of Walcourt and Neer Landen, in 1695 they took part in the siege and capture of Namur and remained in Flanders until the Treaty of Ryswick ended the war in 1697. In 1697–1701 the regiment was stationed in Carrickfergus in Ireland, by June 1701 war had again broken out with France, and it sailed for the Netherlands once more. The regiment saw service in the Netherlands and Germany in 1702–1712 under the command of the Duke of Marlborough.
In 1714 the regiment sailed from Dunkirk to Leith in Scotland and it was subsequently stationed in Stirling before moving to garrison Fort William during the Jacobite Rising of 1715. In 1739 war broke out with Spain, the conflict, dubbed the War of Jenkins Ear, was mostly fought in the Caribbean and North America. The regiment briefly served as marines in 1740, before sailing for the West Indies and it arrived in Jamaica in January 1741, with a detachment subsequently taking part in the unsuccessful Battle of Cartagena de Indias in present-day Colombia in the year. The assault took place in torrential rain and the troops were wiped out by disease. In the meantime the conflict had widened out into the War of the Austrian Succession, the regiment returned to England in 1742, and was ordered to Scotland to help repel the Jacobite Rising of 1745. By the time it arrived in Edinburgh the rebellion had been defeated, the 16th Foot remained in Ireland until 1767, when it sailed to Florida, establishing a headquarters at Pensacola with detachments in various areas of the territory.
When the American War of Independence broke out in 1776, the regiment was ordered to New York, in 1778 Spanish forces invaded the area from Louisiana, and part of the 16th was captured with the fall of Baton Rouge. Other detachments helped repel French attacks on Savannah in September 1779, the remains of the 16th Foot returned to England, arriving in March 1782. In August 1782 county designations were added to the numbers of the regiments of foot to encourage recruitment, the regiment duly became the 16th Regiment of Foot. With the end of the American war, the regiment was reduced to a complement in 1783
Royal Welch Fusiliers
The Royal Welch Fusiliers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, part of the Prince of Wales Division. It was founded in 1689 to oppose James II and to part in the imminent war with France. The Royal accolade was earned fighting in the War of the Spanish Succession in 1713 and it was one of the oldest infantry regiments in the British Army, hence the archaic spelling of the word Welch instead of Welsh.56. During those decades, the regiment itself unofficially used the Welch form, the regiment was amalgamated with the Royal Regiment of Wales on 1 March 2006, to become the 1st Battalion, Royal Welsh. The regiment primarily recruited from North Wales and it should not be confused with the Welch Regiment, which recruited from South and West Wales. The regiment was formed by Lord Henry Herbert at Ludlow in March 1689 to oppose James II, in the following year, it fought at the Siege of Athlone in June and the Battle of Aughrim in July. The regiment embarked for Flanders in 1694 for service in the Nine Years War and it fought at the Siege of Namur in July 1695.
The regiment returned to Flanders in 1701 for service in the War of the Spanish Succession, it saw action at the Battle of Schellenberg in July 1704, the regiment returned to Flanders in 1742 for service in the War of the Austrian Succession. It was in action at the Battle of Dettingen in June 1743, the regiment embarked for Germany in 1758 for service in the Seven Years War. It fought at Battle of Minden in August 1759, the Battle of Warburg in July 1760, the regiment was sent to North America for service in the American Revolutionary War in 1773. The light infantry and grenadier companies of the Fusiliers saw bloody action at the Battle of Bunker Hill in June 1775, All companies, except the grenadiers who were garrisoning New York City, fought at the Battle of Guilford Court House in March 1781. The regiment participated in every campaign up to the Siege of Yorktown in September 1781. At the surrender of Yorktown, the Royal Welch Fusiliers was the only British regiment not to surrender its colours, the regiment embarked for the West Indies in 1794 for service in the French Revolutionary Wars.
It took part in the capture of Port-au-Prince in Haiti in 1795 before returning home in 1796 and it took part in the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland in August 1799 and fought at the Battle of Alkmaar in October 1799. It went to Egypt for the Battle of Alexandria in March 1801, the regiment embarked for the Peninsula in 1810. It saw action at the Battle of Albuera in May 1811, the Siege of Badajoz in May 1811 and the Battle of Salamanca in July 1812. It pursued the French Army into France and fought at the Battle of the Pyrenees in July 1813, the Battle of Nivelle in November 1813 and the Battle of Toulouse in April 1814. It took part in the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815 when it fought under Lieutenant Colonel Hugh Mitchell, in the nineteenth century, the regiment took part in the Crimean War, the Second Opium War, the Indian Mutiny and the Third Anglo-Burmese War
The Royal Fusiliers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in continuous existence for 283 years. It was known as the 7th Regiment of Foot until the Childers Reforms of 1881, the Royal Fusiliers Monument, a memorial dedicated to the Royal Fusiliers who died during the First World War, stands on Holborn in the City of London. Throughout its long existence, the regiment served in wars and conflicts, including the Second Boer War, the First World War. It was formed as a regiment in 1685 by George Legge, 1st Baron Dartmouth. Most regiments were equipped with matchlock muskets at the time, and this was because their task was to be an escort for the artillery, for which matchlocks would have carried the risk of igniting the open-topped barrels of gunpowder. The regiment went to Holland in February 1689 for service in the Nine Years War and fought at the Battle of Walcourt in August 1689 before returning home in 1690. It embarked for Flanders that year and fought at the Battle of Steenkerque in August 1692 and the Battle of Landen in July 1693 and the Siege of Namur in summer 1695 before returning home.
The regiment took part in an expedition captured the town of Rota in Spain in spring 1702. The regiment became the 7th Regiment of Foot in 1751, although a variety of spellings of the word fusilier persisted until the 1780s, the Royal Fusiliers was sent to Canada in April 1773. The regiment was broken up into detachments that served at Montreal, Fort Chambly, in the face of the American invasion of Canada in 1775/76, most of the regiment was forced to surrender. The 80 man garrison of Fort Chambly attempted to resist a 400-man Rebel force and this is where the regiment lost its first set of colours. Captain Owens company of the 7th, along with a handful of recruits, the men taken prisoner during the defence of Canada were exchanged in British held New York City in late 1776. Here, the regiment was rebuilt and garrisoned New York and New Jersey, in October 1777, the 7th participated in the successful assaults on Fort Clinton and Fort Montgomery. In December 1777, the regiment reinforced the garrison of Philadelphia, during the British evacuation back to New York City, the regiment participated in the Battle of Monmouth in June 1778.
The 7th participated in Tryons raid in July 1779, in April 1780, the Royal Fusiliers took part in the capture of Charleston. Once Charleston fell, the regiment helped garrison the city, the Royal Fusiliers was in the first line during the battle, Tarleton was defeated and the regiments colours were lost in the heat of the battle. A contingent from the regiment fought through North Carolina participating in the Battle of Guilford Court House in March 1781, the regiment returned to England in 1783. The regiment embarked for Holland and saw action at the Battle of Copenhagen in August 1807 during the Gunboat War and it was sent to the West Indies and took part in the capture of Martinique in 1809
Hertfordshire is a county in southern England, bordered by Bedfordshire to the north, Cambridgeshire to the north-east, Essex to the east, Buckinghamshire to the west and Greater London to the south. For government statistical purposes, it is placed in the East of England region, in 2013, the county had a population of 1,140,700 living in an area of 634 square miles. Four towns have between 50,000 and 100,000 residents, Hemel Hempstead, Watford and St Albans. Hertford, once the market town for the medieval agricultural county derives its name from a hart. Elevations are high for the region in the north and west and these reach over 240m in the western projection around Tring which is in the Chilterns. The countys borders are approximately the watersheds of the Colne and Lea, hertfordshires undeveloped land is mainly agricultural and much is protected by green belt. The countys landmarks span many centuries, ranging from the Six Hills in the new town of Stevenage built by local inhabitants during the Roman period, Leavesden filmed much of the UK-based $7.7 Bn box office Harry Potter film series and has the countrys studio tour.
Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill and his martyrs cross of a yellow saltire on a blue background is reflected in the flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire. Hertfordshire is well-served with motorways and railways, providing access to London. The largest sector of the economy of the county is in services, Hertfordshire was the area assigned to a fortress constructed at Hertford under the rule of Edward the Elder in 913. Hertford is derived from the Anglo-Saxon heort ford, meaning deer crossing, the name Hertfordshire is first recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 1011. Deer feature in many county emblems, there is evidence of humans living in Hertfordshire from the Mesolithic period. It was first farmed during the Neolithic period and permanent habitation appeared at the beginning of the Bronze Age and this was followed by tribes settling in the area during the Iron Age. 293 the first recorded British martyrdom is believed to have taken place.
Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill. His martyrs cross of a saltire on a blue background is reflected in the flag. He is the Patron Saint of Hertfordshire, with the departure of the Roman Legions in the early 5th century, the now unprotected territory was invaded and colonised by the Anglo-Saxons. By the 6th century the majority of the county was part of the East Saxon kingdom
The regiment was first raised in 1633 as the Royal Regiment of Foot by Sir John Hepburn, under a royal warrant from Charles I, on the Scottish establishment for service in France. It was formed from a nucleus of Hepburns previous regiment, formerly in Swedish service, when in France it absorbed the remnants of a number of other Scottish mercenary units which had fought in Swedish service, and by 1635 had swelled to some 8,000 men. Lord James Douglas was appointed the new colonel, and the name of the corps was altered to the Régiment de Douglas, numbering some 1200 Scotsmen. The regiment fought with distinction under Douglas until he was killed in a skirmish near Douai in 1645 and his elder brother Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus, was appointed in his place. In all the regiment served in France from 1633 to 1661, because the regiment had been formed by Royal Warrant, it was legally part of the Crowns armed forces, even though it had been out of the country for three decades. As such, it was recalled to secure the coronation of Charles II.
1678 marked the end of French service, with the regiment placed permanently on the English establishment. It was posted to Ireland in 1679, and in 1680 the regiment was sent to Tangier, in 1684, the regiment was titled His Majestys Royal Regiment of Foot, and withdrawn to England. In 1685 they fought for James II in the Monmouth Rebellion, at the Battle of Sedgemoor, in 1688, they were the only regiment of the army to remain loyal to James in the Glorious Revolution. During the War of the Grand Alliance, the regiment fought at the Battle of Walcourt, the Battle of Steenkerque, the Battle of Landen and they spent the late 1690s on garrison duty in Ireland. During the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment fought at the Battles of Schellenberg and Blenheim, the Battle of Ramillies, the Battle of Oudenarde and the Battle of Malplaquet. In 1751, the regiment was titled the 1st Regiment of Foot, the 2nd Battalion was sent to Nova Scotia in 1757, and saw service in the Seven Years War, capturing Louisburg in 1758, Guadeloupe in 1762 and Havana in 1763, returning home in 1764.
Both served as garrisons in the Mediterranean, the 1st in Gibraltar from 1768–75, and the 2nd in Minorca from 1771–75. The 1st Battalion was sent to the West Indies in 1781, fought in the capture of Sint Eustatius that year, and was itself captured at St. Kitts in January 1782 but exchanged in the year. The 1st Battalion had returned to the West Indies as a garrison in 1790, the West Indies were hotbeds of disease, and the battalion lost more than half its strength to disease in this period. It was reformed from militia volunteers in Ireland in 1798, This year saw a major rebellion erupt in Ireland after years of simmering tension, the Lothian Fencibles fought with distinction at the Battle of Vinegar Hill, one of the more important engagements of the rebellion. After the rebellion was over in Ireland they were used in raids on the coast of Spain in 1800. Meanwhile, from 1793 to 1801, the 2nd Battalion was based in the Mediterranean, both battalions were subsequently dispatched to the West Indies, the 1st from 1801 to 1812, and the 2nd from 1803 to 1806
Wisbech is a market town, inland port and civil parish in the Fens of Cambridgeshire, England. It has a population of 31,573, the tidal River Nene runs through the centre of the town and is spanned by two bridges. The name is believed to mean on the back of the Ouse, Ouse being a common Celtic word relating to water, and the name of a river that once flowed through the town. Since 2011, Wisbech has become the second largest town in Cambridgeshire (after St Neots, during the Iron Age, the area where Wisbech would develop lay in the west of the Brythonic Iceni tribes territory. Like the rest of Cambridgeshire, Wisbech was part of the kingdom of East Anglia after the Anglo-Saxon invasion, the first authentic reference to Wisbech occurs c. 1000, when Oswy and Leoflede, on the admission of their son Aelfwin as a monk, in 1086 Wisbech was held by the abbot, there may have been some 65 to 70 families, or about 300 to 350 persons, in Wisbech manor. Among those held there were John Feckenham, the last Abbot of Westminster, the castle was rebuilt in the mid-17th century, and again in 1816 by Joseph Medworth, who developed The Crescent, familiar as the setting in numerous costume dramas.
Peckover House, with its walled garden, was built for the Quaker banking family in 1722. Formerly known as Bank House, the Peckover Bank became part of Barclays Bank, at this time Wisbech was on the estuary of the River Great Ouse, but silting caused the coastline to move north, and the River Nene was diverted to serve the town. The Wisbech Canal joining the River Nene at Wisbech was subsequently filled in, on 27 June 1970, the heaviest point rainfall was recorded in Wisbech, when 2 inches fell in just 12 minutes during the Rose Fair. On 21 September 1979, two Harrier jump jets on a training exercise collided over Wisbech, one landed in a field and the other in a residential area. Two houses and a bungalow were demolished on Ramnoth Road, causing the death of Bob Bowers, his two-year-old son Jonathan Bowers, the five-mile, £6 million A47 Wisbech/West Walton bypass opened in spring 1982. The port now houses a number of berths for yachts adjacent to the Boathouse development. On 19 January 2012, BBC Look East reported that there were growing tensions in the town where one-third of the population are East European migrants, the towns market days are Thursday and Saturday.
There were harbour quay lines either side of the River Nene – M&GN Harbour West branch, the Wisbech and March Bramleyline heritage railway would like to restore and re-open the remaining March to Wisbech line as a tourist line similar to the Mid-Norfolk Railway at Dereham. When the line has been fully re-opened, following HM Rail Inspectorate approval, rail services would run between March Elm Road and Wisbech East. It is hoped that a new station will be built at Coldham on the site of the old stations Down platform, there is an active campaign to reopen the March to Wisbech line as part of the national rail network, with direct services to Cambridge or possibly Peterborough. A report published in 2009 by ATOC indicated this as viable, and is now supported by Wisbech Town Council, the Angles Theatre is a thriving professional theatre, run almost entirely by volunteers and backed by many leading names including Derek Jacobi, Jo Brand and Cameron Mackintosh