Alberta general election, 1944

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Alberta general election, 1944
Alberta
← 1940 August 8, 1944 (1944-08-08) 1948 →

60 seats in the Legislative Assembly of Alberta
31 seats were needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Ernest Manning.jpg
Leader Ernest Manning James H. Walker
Party Social Credit Independent Movement
Leader since May 31, 1943 1944
Leader's seat Edmonton ran in Warner
Last election 36 seats, 42.9% 19 seats, 42.5%
Seats before 35 15
Seats won 51 3
Seat change Increase16 Decrease12
Popular vote 146,367 47,239
Percentage 50.5% 16.3%
Swing Increase7.6% Decrease26.2%

  Third party Fourth party
  Elmer E Roper.jpg
Leader Elmer E. Roper William J. Williams
Party Co-operative Commonwealth V&AF
Leader since 1942 1944
Leader's seat Edmonton Edmonton
Last election 0 seats, 11.1% pre-creation
Seats before 1 0
Seats won 2 1
Seat change Increase1 Increase1
Popular vote 70,307 3,532
Percentage 24.2% 1.2%
Swing Increase13.1%

Premier before election

Ernest Manning
Social Credit

Premier after election

Ernest Manning
Social Credit

The Alberta general election of 1944 was the tenth general election for the Province of Alberta, Canada. The Assembly was dissolved on July 8, 1944, and the vote was held on August 8, 1944, to elect members of the Legislative Assembly of Alberta.

Overview[edit]

The election was the first contested by leader Ernest C. Manning. He became leader after the death of Social Credit Party founder and premier William Aberhart in 1943. Manning steered the party down a more moderate path, largely dispensing with the party's social credit policies of monetary reform that it had been unable to implement.

Manning led Social Credit to a third term in government with a resounding victory in the 1944 election, winning over 50% of the popular vote on the first count of ballots, the Conservative party and former United Farmers continued their strategy of running joint candidates as independents. They were not supported by the Liberals who left the coalition and lost a significant share of the popular vote.

The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation entered the election with only one seat in the legislature belonging to party leader Elmer Roper who had won a 1942 by-election. Despite winning almost a quarter of the popular vote the party won only two seats in the general election.

Servicemen and veterans from World War II voted in the first phase of the election on August 4, 1944. There was also a second vote held to elect three Canadian Armed Forces representatives from amongst the Albertans who were in active service overseas, or those who missed the first vote.

Results[edit]

Party Party Leader candidates Seats Popular Vote
1940 Diss. Elected % Change First % % Change
  Social Credit Ernest C. Manning 57 36 35 51 +41.7% 146,367 50.46% +7.56%
  Independent James H. Walker 36 19 15 3 −84.2% 47,239 16.28% -26.19%
Canadian Armed Forces 32 * * 3 * 7,985 2.75% *
  Cooperative Commonwealth Elmer Roper 57 - 1 2 +50% 70,307 24.24% +13.13
  Veteran's & Active Force William J. Williams 1 * * 1 * 3,532 1.22% *
Labor–Progressive1 James A. MacPherson 30 - - - - 12,003 4.14% +3.79%
     Labor United Enoch Williams 1 * * - * 1,788 0.62% *
Single Tax Martin Madge 1 * * - * 480 0.16% *
Farmer–Labour Victor Johanson 1 * * - * 390 0.13% *
  Others 0 2 5 See the 9th Alberta Legislative Assembly
    Vacant * 1
Totals 216 57 57 60 +5.26% 290,091 100%

Notes:

1 Compared to the Communist Party results from the previous election.

* Party did not nominate candidates in the previous election.

The campaign[edit]

The 1944 election, was the first general election contested by Premier Ernest Manning. Manning had taken over the Social Credit Party from William Aberhart who died unexpectedly a year earlier. Social Credit faced opposition from the Independents led by James Walker who had also just been elected leader and the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation who had just managed to win a seat in a by-election in Edmonton and win a majority in the 1944 Saskatchewan general election. Like Social Credit and the Independents they were also contesting their first general election with new leader Elmer Roper.

The stage for the general election was set when Social Credit won a critical by-election in Red Deer in December 1943, the by-election win gave momentum to Social Credit as they picked it up from the Independents. After the election they decided to speed up their plans and hold the election in the summer time.[1]

Two major changes occurred this election with the way that votes were to be counted and who could vote. Ballots in single member electoral districts were now allowed to be marked with an "X" to indicate a first choice preference. Prior to this election high numbers of ballots had been declared as spoiled because they were not marked with a "1". Preferences beyond the first choice still had to be marked with a number indicating that preference,[2] the 1944 election also marked the first time that Japanese Canadians were eligible to vote in a provincial election. There were two thousand Japanese who had previously been evacuated from British Columbia to Alberta under war time provisions who were qualified to vote under the eligibility rules.[3]

After the writ was dropped the single biggest issue of the campaign turned out to be a referendum on the future of the Cooperative Commonwealth, the Independents and Social Credit were each asking their supporters to vote "1" and "2" for their respective parties to ensure the Commonwealth is defeated.[4]

Social Credit[edit]

Social Credit had been re-elected to with a thin majority government in 1940 after failing to implement its monetary theory policy that had allowed it to sweep to power in the 1935 election, the party was also rebounding in popularity since Ernest Manning became Premier in 1943 after the death of William Aberhart. Manning steered the party away from its previous policies that included Social Credit monetary theory and media control.

The centre piece of Social Credit's policy in this election was a plan on refunding Alberta's large debt that had been built up under the Liberal and United Farmer administrations.

Independents[edit]

The Independents led into the election by James Walker had been organized as a coalition of Conservatives, Liberals and United Farmers who grouped together to defeat the Social Credit government in 1937, the coalition which was organized under the parent group, the Independent Citizen's Association. Despite being an organized party all candidates ran and those who were elected did so as Independents, the coalition started falling apart when the Alberta Liberal Party left just before the 4th Legislative Session opened in February 1944.[5]

Walker was elected leader of the Independent Citizens Association at a convention held in Calgary on January 23, 1944, he defeated David Elton in a two-way contest.[6] There was considerable interest in the convention as over 300 delegates from across Alberta showed up to vote. Walker was elected on the first ballot winning a decisive victory, this was the first time since the Association had been created that a permanent leader was selected.[7]

Cooperative Commonwealth[edit]

The Cooperative Commonwealth federation had enjoyed tremendous growth over the past couple of years; in 1942 the provincial branch reorganized at a convention in Edmonton and merged the provincial branch of the Canadian Labor Party into the Cooperative Commonwealth. Prior to that date the two parties had been an affiliated but operated separately,[8] after the merger the party won a by-election to elect their leader to the Assembly in Edmonton on September 22, 1942.[9] Shortly before the writs were dropped in this election the Saskatchewan C.C.F had just swept the 1944 Saskatchewan general election. Manning had called the general election to defuse a possible surge in support for the CCF.[5]

The Cooperative Commonwealth provincially had struck a deal with the Labor Progressive to run fusion candidates some electoral districts, the first time this agreement was put to work was in the December 1943 Red Deer by-election where James MacPherson Labor Progressive leader came out and endorsed C.C.F. candidate E.J. Johns, this was the first provincial election to date where the C.C.F. had managed to field a full slate of candidates. They were the only other party in 1944 to do so other than Social Credit.

Labor Progressive[edit]

The Labor Progressive party led by James MacPherson had aimed to run candidates in the major cities and in mining communities,[5] the party had contested elections previously under the Communist banner, but had changed names to be in line with the federal party. In electoral districts where Labor Progressive candidates did not run, the party ran fusion candidates with the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation.[10] A proposal by the Labor Progressive party to run fusion candidates at the federal level with the Cooperative Commonwealth and rejected by the national council.

Farmer-Labor[edit]

Victor Johanson Farmer-Labor Leader

The Farmer-Labor election committee was a minor political party created by Victor Johanson. He was a farmer residing near the small town of Bentley, Alberta. Johanson was originally selected as a fusion candidate for the Labor Progressive and Cooperative Commonwealth to contest the Rocky Mountain House electoral district. Shortly before the general election was called the Rocky Mountain House Cooperative Commonwealth electoral district association broke away and voted not to support Johanson and nominate their own candidate instead. Johanson decided to create his own Farmer-Labor banner that he and his supporters operated under.[11]

Johanson's Farmer-Labor banner was the least successful of the four single candidate banners that operated in the general election. Johanson would finish last in his district and the provincial standings winning just 0.13% of the total popular vote in the province. After the election Johanson did not return to contest another provincial election and effectively ending the party.

The Farmer-Labor 1944 general election platform consisted of seven policy planks, these planks covered primarily local issues to appeal to coal miners working and living at Nordegg, Alberta. Crop insurance and raised commodity prices was also promised to appeal to area farmers. Policy planks were also added to help veterans returning from the war. Improvements for local transportation infrastructure issues rounded out the rest of the Farmer-Labor platform.[12]

Farmer-Labor Platform

  • Adequate prices for all farm produce.
  • Better system for providing for crop losses and improvement in the Prairie Farmers' Assistance Act.
  • More liberal grants for roads in rural areas, based on funds collected from car and truck licenses and taxes collected from gasoline sales in each district.
  • A hard-surfaced road to the company town of Nordegg. Labor Legislation and a Labor Code of Rights to be administered by the Minister of Labor.
  • Old age pensions at a younger age, regardless of property owned. A more liberal monthly pay so that the pensioners can enjoy a better life then at present.
  • Rehabilitation of the Armed Forces in Peacetime Production and a higher standard of living than in the past.
  • Better opportunities for the youth in the post-war years.

Election night[edit]

On election night Manning's Social Credit party won a landslide majority with many rural districts being decided on first ballot results, the opposition was contained in Calgary and Edmonton as Social Credit swept the rural districts. The Independents failing to run a candidate in every riding were seen by the voters as lacking credibility, most of their voters swung to Social Credit as a strategic vote to prevent the Cooperative Commonwealth from electing members,[13] the opposition conceded defeat just twenty six minutes after the polls closed.[14]

Soldiers' vote[edit]

The second phase of the general election took place beginning in November 1944 and ending January 1945. Three members of the armed forces commissioned in World War II were elected to represent Alberta service men and women fighting or stationed overseas; in addition those who were in veterans hospitals at the time of the vote and retired service personnel who already returned from duty but missed the August 4, 1944 vote. This election was not run under the Elections Act and was instead run from an executive council order, this meant that the laws regarding eligibility by age and the Single Transferable Vote system did not apply to the soldiers' vote. Saskatchewan was the only other province or state to implement an election for service men in World War II.[15]

The service men vote had been pushed for by the Cooperative Commonwealth opposition. Elmer Roper harshly criticized the Social Credit government for having no plans to make voting options available for men serving overseas, the Social Credit government responded by announcing that there would be an election of the soldiers' representatives, but it had not decided the date of the vote prior to the first phase of general election being completed.[16] The soldiers' Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) were meant to be non-partisan and sat on the opposition side of the Assembly. The order in council forebode any candidate running in the election from contesting it along party lines, the vote also temporarily increased the number of seats in the Assembly from 57 to 60. One member represented each branch of the service: Army, Navy and Air Force, this was the second at-large soldiers' war time vote held in the province's history, the first being the soldiers' and nurses vote held as the second part of the 1917 Alberta general election.

The writ period began in late November 1944. A total of 32 candidates registered to run in the election, the seat provided for the Army was hotly contested with 22 candidates, the Navy had three candidates and the Air Force had 7 candidates. The polls were open a record length of time as the voting was conducted from January 8, 1945, to January 20, 1945. Polling stations were set up on the front lines and at army bases where Albertans were stationed around the world. Four Chief Returning Officers were appointed to conduct the vote, a record that stands to this day, the vote was conducted under First Past the Post rules with no ballot transfers. The official results from the vote conducted in Alberta were released on January 31, 1945, the votes for the rest of the world were released on January 6, 1945.

An oddity of this vote is that the Government of Alberta did not print an official document detailing the election results or expenses of operating the election for the general public as it did with the rest of the general election that year, this was because the executive council order made by the Social Credit government did not require it. Full printing of the official results did appear in both the Calgary Herald and the Calgary Albertan as they were announced by the Chief Electoral Officer at a press conference held in Edmonton on February 5, 1945, the Herald was the only newspaper to break down the results by counting station.[17]

Turnout for this election was generally low; the election came during the closing months of World War II when Germany was on its heels and starting to collapse. In addition to the heavy fighting there were also large numbers of troops in transit during the voting period. Chief Returning Officer Robert Addison estimated that almost 3,300 Alberta soldiers eligible were unable to vote because of being in transit to various fronts, the returns themselves were counted in four places, voting conducted in Alberta was counted and released in Edmonton first, while voting conducted overseas was counted in London and sent to Edmonton by telegraph. The highest turnout came by Army soldiers fighting in Italy and the lowest turnout was in the Mediterranean with only five service-men voting. No statistics were released on how many service men and woman were eligible to vote in total.

Voters for this election were eligible to cast a ballot if they were residents of Alberta for one full calendar year prior to enlisting in the military, the only other eligibility requirement was that they missed casting a ballot in their home electoral district during the first phase of the election.

The Government of Alberta commissioned four Chief Electoral Officers to help run the election, the election proved to be a logistical challenge as no similar election had ever been conducted on a worldwide scale. Robert Addison was in charge of overseeing the election in Edmonton and coordination operations around the world. James Thompson was Chief Returning Office in charge of overseeing the vote in the Mediterranean and the Franco-Belgian Fighting Fronts. A.P. Van Buren was in charge of Canada, United States and Alaska, Newfoundland, Bermuda, Nassau and Jamaica. L.P. Danis was the Chief Returning Officer for France, Belgium and Holland, the jobs of the Chief Electoral Officers included finding out where Albertans were stationed, setting up polling stations, and overseeing collection of ballots. In some cases polling stations were set up directly in the trenches causing delays to the election as election staff came under hostile fire.[18]

Not much is known about the election campaigns, as there was very little information published in the press about the election, the results showed there were no clear front runners in all three races. The Navy vote saw Loftus Dudley Ward hold a lead when the first votes for Alberta were released by the Chief Electoral Officer on January 31, 1945. Ward managed to hang on to win despite getting very few overseas votes; in the Air Force vote, Joseph Roy Burton was marginally leading the field after the Alberta votes were released. On the final total Frederick Colbourne won with a surge of overseas votes. James Harper Prowse was the biggest surprise in the Army race as he had only 34 votes before surging to win with 1,050 after the final totals were released.

Results[edit]

Canadian Army vote official results[19]
Service rank Name Votes % Home
Captain James Harper Prowse 1,050 17.14% Edmonton
Lieutenant Colonel Eric Wyld Cormack 1,020 16.65% Alix
Colonel E.B. Wilson 514 8.39% Edmonton
Sapper Eric Joseph Poole 472 7.71% Red Deer
Brigadier M.C. Gernard Renvoize Bradbrook 384 6.27% Calgary
Captain James Blakley Corbet 236 3.85% Edmonton
Regimental Quartermaster Sergeant A. Begg 224 3.66% Medicine Hat
Captain William Thomas Sabine 224 3.66% Edmonton
Craftsman Arthur Frank Balfour 221 3.61% Calgary
Sergeant Clarence Alexander Mumford 203 3.31% Calgary
Corporal Donald Hugh McLeod 201 3.28% Calgary
Captain Robert Hugh Miller 187 3.05% Edmonton
Sergeant Douglas Sterling McLaughlin 170 2.78% Kinuso
Sergeant Alfred Sigman Brooks 160 2.61% Purple Springs
Major Wilford Addinell 157 2.56% Edmonton
Lieutenant James Reginald Dowdell 120 1.96% Edmonton
Squadron Quartermaster Sergeant David Elliot Scott 118 1.93% Stony Plain
Major William Graham Ledingham 110 1.80% Calgary
Corporal Alex Brown Johnston 106 1.73% Picture Butte
Regimental Quartermaster Sergeant H.A.L. Duffin 102 1.67% Calgary
Warrant Officer Class II Robert Duncan McIlroy 92 1.50% Vulcan
Support Bernard LaFleur 54 0.88% McLennan
Total Valid Ballots 6,125 100%
Royal Canadian Air Force vote official results[19]
Service rank Name Votes % Home
Wing Commander Frederick C. Colborne 252 20.88% Calgary
Warrant Officer Joseph Roy Burton 244 20.22% Edmonton
Sergeant James Melville Bell 181 14.99% Edmonton
Flight Officer Niel Allen Bell 178 14.75% Wayne
Sergeant Frank Pierpoint Appleby 149 12.34% Athabasca
Flight Officer Claude Andrew Cambell 126 10.44% Edmonton
Flight Officer Harold E. Bronson 77 6.38% Cherhill
Total Valid Ballots 1,207 100%
Royal Canadian Navy vote official results[19]
Service rank Name Votes % Home
Chief Petty Officer Loftus Dudley Ward 293 44.87% Calgary
Lieutenant John P. Dewis 191 29.25% Canmore
Leading Writer John Francis McVean 169 25.88% Edmonton
Total Valid Ballots 653 100%

Key races[edit]

Edmonton[edit]

Edmonton candidate composition
Affiliation #
  Cooperative Commonwealth 5
  Independent 4
Labor–Progressive 5
  Social Credit 5
  Veterans' and Active Force 1

The Edmonton electoral district returned five members by single transferable vote on election night. There were twenty candidates in place in the district including four party leaders. Social Credit leader Ernest Manning, who had been appointed Premier in 1943 was easily the most recognizable candidate in the field. Elmer Roper Cooperative Commonwealth leader had won a seat in Edmonton almost two years earlier in a by-election, the other party leaders were James MacPherson Labor Progressive leader and William J. Williams, leader of the Veterans' and Active Force.

Red Deer[edit]

The results of the December 1943 by-election in Red Deer had led Social Credit government to speed up plans for the general election. Incumbent Social Credit MLA David Ure was running for his second term in office.

Rocky Mountain House[edit]

Farmer-Labor candidate and leader Victor Johanson was nominated at a joint Cooperative Commonwealth Labor Progressive convention on February 17, 1944. Shortly before the election the Cooperative Commonwealth riding association broke off and nominated candidate George Morrison to run under their banner.[11] Incumbent Social Credit MLA Alfred Hooke had just been appointed by Premier Manning as Provincial Secretary, when he formed his government in 1943, the Independents did not nominate a candidate in this riding. On election night Hooke was easily re-elected winning on the first ballot.[20]

Warner[edit]

The Warner electoral district was hotly contested by Independent leader James Walker and Provincial Treasurer Solon Low. Low had been defeated by Walker in the 1940 general election and won a by-election held in the Vegreville electoral district on June 20, 1940, the field of candidates was rounded out by W.M. Madge who ran under the Single Tax banner and R.B. Eshorn of the Cooperative Commonwealth, on election night, Low won a stunning first ballot victory defeating Walker.

Members elected[edit]

For complete electoral history, see individual districts.

[21] District Elected Member Party Incumbent Party Result
  Acadia-Coronation Clarence Gerhart Social Credit Clarence Gerhart Social Credit Re-elected
  Alexandra Selmer Berg Social Credit Selmer Berg Social Credit Re-elected
  Athabasca Gordon Lee Social Credit Gordon Lee Social Credit Re-elected
  Banff-Cochrane Arthur Wray Social Credit Frank Laut Independent Defeated
  Beaver River Lucien Maynard Social Credit Lucien Maynard Social Credit Re-elected
  Bow Valley-Empress Wilson Cain Social Credit Wilson Cain Social Credit Re-elected
  Bruce James L. McPherson Social Credit James L. McPherson Social Credit Re-elected
  Calgary Andrew Davison Independent Andrew Davidson Independent Re-elected
  Howard MacDonald Independent John J. Bowlen Independent Defeated
  Rose Wilkinson Social Credit James Mahaffy Independent Retired
  Fred Anderson Social Credit Fred Anderson Social Credit Re-elected
  Aylmer Liesemer Cooperative Commonwealth Vacant
  Camrose Chester Sayers Social Credit Chester Sayers Social Credit Re-elected
  Cardston Nathan Eldon Tanner Social Credit Nathan Eldon Tanner Social Credit Re-elected
  Clover Bar Floyd M. Baker Social Credit Floyd Baker Social Credit Re-elected
  Cypress Edith Thurston Social Credit Fay Jackson Independent Retired
  Didsbury Howard Hammell Social Credit Ernest Brown Independent Retired
  Drumheller Gordon Taylor Social Credit Gordon Taylor Social Credit Re-elected
  Edmonton Elmer Roper Cooperative Commonwealth Elmer Roper Cooperative Commonwealth Re-elected
  Ernest Manning Social Credit Ernest Manning Social Credit Re-elected
  John P. Page Independent John P. Page Independent Re-elected
  William Williams Veteran's & Active Force Hugh John MacDonald Independent Retired
  Norman James Social Credit Norman James Social Credit Re-elected
  Edson Norman Willmore Social Credit Angus James Morrison Labor Retired
  Gleichen George E. Bell Social Credit Donald James McKinnon Independent Defeated
  Grande Prairie Ira McLaughlin Social Credit Lewis O'Brien Independent Retired
  Grouard William Fallow Social Credit Joseph Tremblay Liberal Retired
  Hand Hills Wallace Warren Cross Social Credit Wallace Warren Cross Social Credit Re-elected
  Lac Ste. Anne Albert Bourcier Social Credit Albert Bourcier Social Credit Re-elected
  Lacombe Duncan MacMillan Social Credit Duncan MacMillan Social Credit Re-elected
  Leduc Ronald Ansley Social Credit Ronald Ansley Social Credit Re-elected
  Lethbridge John Landeryou Social Credit Peter M. Campbell Independent Retired
  Little Bow Peter Dawson Social Credit Peter Dawson Social Credit Re-elected
  Macleod James Hartley Social Credit James Hartley Social Credit Re-elected
  Medicine Hat John Lyle Robinson Social Credit John Lyle Robinson Social Credit Re-elected
  Okotoks-High River Ivan Casey Social Credit John Broomfield Independent Defeated
  Olds Norman E. Cook Social Credit Norman E. Cook Social Credit Re-elected
  Peace River William Gilliland Social Credit Eld Martin Independent Defeated
  Pembina Robin Jorgenson Social Credit George MacLachlan Independent Defeated
  Pincher Creek-Crowsnest Ernest Duke Social Credit Ernest Duke Social Credit Re-elected
  Ponoka Ora Moore Social Credit Percy McKelvey Independent Retired
  Red Deer David Ure Social Credit David Ure Social Credit Re-elected
  Redwater James Popil Social Credit James Popil Social Credit Re-elected
  Rocky Mountain House Alfred Hooke Social Credit Alfred Hooke Social Credit Re-elected
  Sedgewick Albert Fee Social Credit Albert Fee Social Credit Re-elected
  Spirit River Henry DeBolt Social Credit Henry DeBolt Social Credit Re-elected
  St. Albert Charles Holder Social Credit Lionel Tellier Independent Retired
  St. Paul Joseph Beaudry Social Credit Joseph Beaudry Social Credit Re-elected
  Stettler William Mackie Social Credit Chester Reynolds Independent Social Credit Retired
  Stony Plain Cornelia Wood Social Credit Cornelia Wood Social Credit Re-elected
  Taber Roy Lee Social Credit Roy Lee Social Credit Re-elected
  Vegreville Michael Ponich Social Credit Solon Low Social Credit Re-elected
  Vermilion William Cornish Social Credit William Fallow Social Credit Re-elected
  Wainwright William Masson Social Credit William Masson Social Credit Re-elected
  Warner Solon Low Social Credit James Walker Independent Defeated
  Wetaskiwin John Wingblade Social Credit John Wingblade Social Credit Re-elected
  Willingdon William Tomyn Social Credit William Tomyn Social Credit Re-elected

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Some Campaign Notes". VOL. XLIII, No. 2. Red Deer Advocate. January 12, 1944. p. 2. 
  2. ^ "Election Topics". Camrose Canadian. August 2, 1944. p. 1. 
  3. ^ "Decision". Time Magazine. August 14, 1944. Retrieved 2008-05-28. 
  4. ^ "Can The C.C.F. Make It?". Vol. XLIII, No. 30. Red Deer Advocate. July 26, 1944. p. 2. 
  5. ^ a b c "Mr. Manning says "GO"". Red Deer Advocate. July 12, 1944. p. 2. 
  6. ^ "James H. Walker Elected Leader of the Independent Assn". Vol XXXII, No. 46. The Herald-Tribune. January 27, 1944. p. 1. 
  7. ^ "Dr. L.J. O'Brien, M.L.A. Gives Impressions of the Calgary Convention". Vol XXXII, No. 46. The Herald-Tribune. January 27, 1944. p. 1. 
  8. ^ "The C.C.F. in Alberta". Red Deer Advocate. January 28, 1992. p. 2. 
  9. ^ "Past by-election results". Elections Alberta. Archived from the original on 2007-12-25. Retrieved 2008-05-28. 
  10. ^ "Eckville News". Vol. XLIII, No.4. Red Deer Advocate. January 26, 1944. p. 6. 
  11. ^ a b I. Kaila (August 2, 1944). "Use Your Vote". Vol XLIII, No.31. Red Deer Advocate. p. 5. 
  12. ^ "Programme Farmer-Labor Candidate". XLIII, No. 30. Red Deer Advocate. July 26, 1944. p. 2. 
  13. ^ "Two Elections". Time Magazine. August 21, 1944. Retrieved 2008-05-28. 
  14. ^ "Social Credit Government Wins in Landslide". Vol 47. - No. 32. The Olds Gazette. August 10, 1944. 
  15. ^ "Experiment in Democracy". Time Magazine. October 16, 1944. Retrieved 2008-05-27. 
  16. ^ "Alberta election to be Tuesday August 8th". Red Deer Advocate. July 12, 1944. p. 1. 
  17. ^ "Two Calgarians Win Elections For Servicemen". Calgary Herald. February 6, 1945. p. 2. 
  18. ^ "Service vote begins January 8, 1945, and ended January 20, 1945". Calgary Herald. January 5, 1945. p. 2. 
  19. ^ a b c "2 Calgarians Elected in Servicemen's Vote". The Albertan. February 6, 1945. p. 12. 
  20. ^ "Rocky Mountain House 1944 election results". Alberta Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on 2011-06-12. Retrieved 2008-06-02. 
  21. ^ "Official results of the general election held August 8, 1944". Chief Electoral Officer of Alberta. 

External links[edit]