10th Engineer Brigade (Romania)
- 10th Engineer Brigade - Brăila
- 10th Engineer Brigade in Brăila
1. Romanian Land Forces – The Romanian Land Forces is the army of Romania, and the main component of the Romanian Armed Forces. In recent years, full professionalisation and a major equipment overhaul have transformed the nature of the force, the Romanian Land Forces were founded on 24 November 1859. They participated in World War I, together with the Russian Empire forces in actions against the Central Powers and, despite initial setbacks, during most of World War II Romanian forces supported the Axis powers, fighting against the Soviet Union on the Eastern Front. From August 1944 until the end of the war, Romania fought against Germany under the control of the Soviet Union, when the communists seized power after the Second World War, the army underwent reorganisation and sovietization. Following the Romanian Revolution, due to shortage of funds, many units were disbanded, likewise, Romanian military capability declined because of a lack of fuel as well as training.8 billion dollars in 2007. Conscription has been abolished and professionalisation has been completed, the first attempt to create an independent Romanian army was made by Gheorghe Magheru during the 1848 Wallachian Revolution, and it was based at Râureni. However, Magheru rapidly ordered his troops to disband when the Ottoman forces swept into Bucharest to stop the revolution and they participated in the Siege of Plevna and several other battles. The Romanians won the war, but suffered about 27,000 casualties, until World War I, the Romanian army didnt face any other serious actions. The Romanian Army entered the Second Balkan War against Bulgaria, allowing Romania to annex Southern Dobruja, although some 330,000 troops were mobilised, the Romanians met little resistance in Bulgaria and as such this is not considered a major conflict in Romanian history. This was due to claims on land. This area no longer belongs to Romania, on July 6,1916, Romania declared war on Germany and Austria-Hungary, following the initial success of the Brusilov Offensive. The Romanian armies entered Transylvania, together with Russian forces, however, German forces under the command of General Erich von Falkenhayn stalled the attack in November,1916, and drove back the Romanians. At the same time, Austrian and Turkish troops invaded southern Romania, the Central Powers drove deep into Romania and conquered the south of the country by the end of 1916. The Romanian forces, led by Marshal Constantin Prezan, retreated into the north-east part of Romania, General Alexandru Averescu led the Second Army in the victories of the Battle of Mărăşti and the Battle of Mărăşeşti. As a result of the Russian Revolution, Romania was left isolated and unable to continue the war, later on, in 1919, Germany agreed, in the Treaty of Versailles Article 259, to renounce all the benefits provided to it by the Treaty of Bucharest in 1918. After the successful offensive on the Thessaloniki front, which put Bulgaria out of the war, Romania re-entered the war on November 10,1918, after World War I, Transylvania proclaimed union with the Kingdom of Romania. As a result, in April 1919, the newly established Hungarian Soviet Republic vowed to retake the region by force, the Romanian Army defeated the Hungarians and conquered Budapest in August 1919. From 1921 to 1939 in Transylvania Inspectorate General of Army no.3 had subordinate the 6th and 7th Army Corps, after 1 April 1921 to 23 March 1939, C.6 ARomanian Land Forces – The coat of arms and the identification flag
2. Tisza – The Tisza or Tisa is one of the main rivers of Central Europe. Once, it was called the most Hungarian river because it flowed entirely within the Kingdom of Hungary, today, it crosses several national borders. The Tisza begins near Rakhiv in Ukraine, at the confluence of the White Tisa, from there, the Tisza flows west, roughly following Ukraines borders with Romania, then Hungary, and finally Serbia. It traverses Hungary from north to south, a few kilometers south of the Hungarian city of Szeged, it enters Serbia. Finally, it joins the Danube near the village of Novi Slankamen in Vojvodina, the Tisza drains an area of about 156,087 km2 and has a length of 965 km —the largest catchment and greatest length of any of the Danubes tributaries. Its mean annual discharge is 792 m3/s and it contributes about 13% of the Danubes total runoff. Attila the Hun is said to have been buried under a section of the river Tisza. The river was known as the Tisia in antiquity, other ancient names for it included Tissus and Pathissus and it may be referred to as the Theiss in older English references, after the German name for the river, Theiß. It is known as the Tibisco in Italian, and in older French references it is referred to as the Tibisque. Modern names for the Tisza in the languages of the countries it flows through include, Romanian, Tisa, Ukrainian, Тиса, Slovak, Tisa, Hungarian, Tisza, Serbian, Тиса, the length of the Tisza in Hungary used to be 1419 km. It flowed through the Great Hungarian Plain, which is one of the largest flat areas in central Europe. Since plains can cause a river to flow very slowly, the Tisza used to follow a path with curves and turns. After several small-scale attempts, István Széchenyi organised the regulation of the Tisza which started on August 27,1846, and substantially ended in 1880. The new length of the river in Hungary was 966 km, in the 1970s, the building of the Tisza Dam at Kisköre started with the purpose of helping to control floods as well as storing water for drought seasons. However, the resulting Lake Tisza became one of the most popular tourist destinations in Hungary since it had similar features to Lake Balaton at drastically cheaper prices and was not crowded, the Tisza is navigable over much of its course. The river opened up for international navigation only recently, before, Hungary distinguished national rivers and international rivers, after Hungary joined the European Union, this distinction was lifted and vessels were allowed on the Tisza. Conditions of navigation differ with the circumstances, when the river is in flood, it is often unnavigable, the Tisza has a rich and varied wildlife. Over 200 species of birds reside in the reserve of TiszafűredTisza – The Tisza in Szeged, Hungary
3. Satu Mare – Satu Mare is a city with a population of 102,400 and the capital of Satu Mare County, Romania, as well as the center of the Satu Mare metropolitan area. Mentioned in the Gesta Hungarorum as Castrum Zotmar, the city has a history going back to the Middle Ages, today, it is an academic, cultural, industrial and business centre in northwestern Romania. Satu Mare is situated in Satu Mare County, in northwest Romania, the city is located at an altitude of 126 metres on the Lower Someș alluvial plain, spreading out from the Administrative Palace at 25 October Square. The boundaries of the municipality contain an area of 150.3 square kilometres, the formation of the current terrain of the city, dating from the late Pliocene in the Tertiary period, is linked to the clogging of the Pannonian Sea. Layers of soil were created from deposits of sand, loess and gravel, over this base, decaying vegetation gave rise to podsolic soils, which led to favorable conditions for crops. The water network around Satu Mare is composed of the Someș River, Pârâul Sar in the north, because the land slopes gently around the city, the Someș River has created numerous branches and meanders. After systematisation works in 1777, the number of meanders in the city dropped to 9 downstream and 5 upstream, the total length of the river now being at 36.5 kilometres within the city. Systematisation performed up to the mid-19th century configured the existing Someș riverbed, in 1970, the embankments were raised by 2 metres –3 metres, protecting 52,000 hectares within the city limits and restoring nearly 800 ha of agricultural land that had previously been flooded. The flora associated with the town of Satu Mare is characteristic for the area with trees of soft essence like wicker, indigenous poplar, maple. Grassland vegetation is represented by Agrostis stolonifera, Poa trivialis, Alopecurus pratensis, Satu Mare has a continental climate, characterised by hot dry summers and cold winters. The average annual temperature is 9.6 °C, or broken down by seasons, Spring 10.2 °C, Summer 19.6 °C, Autumn 10.8 °C, prevailing wind currents blow in from the northwest, bringing spring and summer rainfall. Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year-round, the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is Cfb. Until 1925, in Romanian, the name Sătmar was used, archaeological evidence from Țara Oașului, Ardud, Medieșu Aurit, Homoroade, etc. clearly shows settlements in the area dating to the Stone Age and the Bronze Age. There is also evidence that the local Dacian population remained there after the Roman conquest in 101/106 AD, later, these lands formed part of Menumoruts holdings, one of the important defensive fortresses dating to the 10th century was at Satu Mare, as mentioned in the Gesta Hungarorum. Later, they were joined by more German colonists from beyond the Someș River, in 1562 the citadel was besieged by Ottoman armies led by Pargalı İbrahim Pasha of Buda and pasha Maleoci of Timișoara. Then the Habsburgs besieged it, leading the fleeing Transylvanian armies to set it on fire, after a period when it changed hands, the town came under Ottoman control in 1661. Called Sokmar by the new authorities, it was a center within the Şenköy sanjak of Varat Eyalet. This status held until 1691, when Austria expelled the Ottomans during the Great Turkish War, in the Middle Ages, Satu Mare and Mintiu were two distinct entitiesSatu Mare – Left to right: Dacia Hotel, Firemen's Tower, Vécsey Palace (art museum), Chain Church, Roman Catholic cathedral
4. Matei Basarab – Matei Basarab was a Wallachian Voivode between 1632 and 1654. Much of Mateis reign was spent fighting off incursions from Moldavia, which he accomplished in 1637,1639. He was a ruler, and is noted for introducing the printing press to Wallachia and creating the first Wallachian code of laws as well as patronizing art. He built more than 45 churches and monasteries, being compared to Stephen the Great and his election in 1632 signified the first official exception to a rule set by custom. Basarab was merely a boyar and one not related to previous Princes, the reason for this choice has been explained as a reaction of indigenous boyars against competition from newly infiltrated Greeks and Levantines. It may also be because of special circumstances that Matei used the surname Basarab – associated as it is with a fabricated legitimate lineage. Matei Basarabs rule also coincides with the last stage in the decay of the lesser nobility and it seems that the Prince was planning emancipation from Ottoman rule, as well as domination over Moldavia. He maintained a relationship with the Transylvanian ruler George II Rákóczi, an ambitious, stronger. He was married to Elena Năsturel, Matei Basarab and his contemporary, the Moldavian Prince Vasile Lupu are credited with introducing the first written laws of the two Principalities. However, these two identical sets of laws do not go against tradition, being merely the Romanian translation of Byzantine customs. The two collections under Matei Basarab are Pravila de la Govora in 1640 and Pravila lui Matei Basarab in 1652, brătianu, Sfatul domnesc și Adunarea Stǎrilor în Principatele Române, Bucharest,1995Matei Basarab – Matei Basarab with his son (left) and his wife (right)
5. Alba Iulia – Alba Iulia is a city located on the Mureş River in Alba County, Transylvania, Romania, with a population of 63,536 as of 2011. Since the High Middle Ages, the city has been the seat of Transylvanias Roman Catholic diocese, between 1541 and 1690 it was the capital of the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom and the latter Principality of Transylvania. Alba Iulia is historically important for Romanians, Hungarians and Transylvanian Saxons, the city administers four villages, Bărăbanț, Micești, Oarda and Pâclișa. During the Roman period the settlement was called Apulum, when the settlement – upon Roman ruins – became the seat of a dukedom in the 10th century, the population may have been Slavic. The early Slavic name of the settlement was Bălgrad, the old Romanian name of the town was Bălgrad, originated from Slavic. The Hungarian name Gyulafehérvár is a translation of the earlier Slavic form and its prefix Iulia refers to Gyula, a mid-tenth-century Hungarian warlord who was baptized in Constantinople. The citys Latin name in the 10th century was Civitatem Albam in Ereel, the first part of the name Alba denotes the ruins of the Roman fort Apulum. Later in the Middle Ages, different names occurred as Frank episcopus Belleggradienesis in 1071, Albae Civitatis in 1134, Belegrada in 1153, Albensis Ultrasilvanus in 1177, eccl. Micahelis in 1199, Albe Transilvane in 1200, Albe Transsilvane in 1201, castrum Albens in 1206, canonicis Albensibus in 1213, under the influence of the Hungarian Gyulafehérvár, the towns Latin name eventually became Alba Julia or Alba Yulia. Its modern name Alba Iulia is an adoption of the towns medieval Latin name and it started to spread in Romanian common speech in the 18th century. The modern name has officially used since the town became part of Romania. The sixteenth-century German name was Weyssenburg, the Saxons renamed the town to Karlsburg in honor of Charles VI. In Yiddish and Hebrew Karlsburg was prevalent, in Ladino sources Carlosburg, Alba Carolina was also a medieval Latin form of its name. After Dacia became a province of the Roman Empire, the capital of Dacia Apulensis was established here, Apulum was the largest city in Roman Dacia and was the seat of the XIII Gemina Legion. Apulum is the largest castrum located in Romania, occupying 37.5 hectares, geula was baptized in the Byzantine Empire and built around 950 in Alba Iulia the first church of Transylvania. The ruins of a church were discovered in 2011, the present Catholic cathedral was built in the 12th or 13th century. In 1442, John Hunyadi, Voivode of Transylvania, used the citadel to prepare for a battle against the Ottoman Turks. The cathedral was enlarged during his reign and he was entombed there after his death, in 1541 - after the partition of the Kingdom of Hungary - Alba Iulia became the capital of the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom and after the Principality of Transylvania and remained so until 1690Alba Iulia – Alba Iulia
6. 8th Mixed Artillery Brigade (Romania) – From 1 November 2010 it current name is the 8th LAROM Brigade Alexandru Ioan Cuza. The 8th LAROM Brigade Alexandru Ioan Cuza is a Multiple Rocket Launcher brigade of the Romanian Land Forces and it was formed 1 July 1916, and was named after the Romanian Domnitor and politician Alexandru Ioan Cuza. The Brigade is subordinated to the Romanian Land Forces and has its headquarters in Focşani, since October 2004, there are no more conscripts in the structures subordinated to the Brigade, all the personnel is professional. The 1st regiment participated in the Battle of Mărăşeşti, while the 5th regiment took part of the Battle of Turtucaia. During World War II, both the 1st and 5th regiments made part of the Romanian forces invading Odessa, the 5th regiment cannons were the first Romanian Army’s cannons to hit Odessa, the 1st regiment was also involved in the Battle of Stalingrad, and the Battle of Budapest8th Mixed Artillery Brigade (Romania) – Official insignia of the 8th LAROM Brigade
7. 61st Anti-aircraft Missiles Regiment (Romania) – The 61st Anti-aircraft Missiles Regiment Pelindava is an air defense regiment of the Romanian Land Forces. Its headquarters are located in Craiova, the regiment was part of the 6th Anti-aircraft Missile Brigade, which was disbanded in 2006, due to a reorganization process of the Romanian Land Forces. Later on, it was part of the 53rd Anti-Aircraft Missiles Regiment subordinated to the 1st Infantry Division and this unit operated the S-75 Volhov and the modern MIM-23 Hawk surface-to-air missile systems. The main units of the regiment were the 1st Anti-aircraft Missiles Battalion, Official Site of the Romanian Land Forces Official Site of the 1st Territorial Army Corps61st Anti-aircraft Missiles Regiment (Romania) – MIM-23 Hawk missile system.
8. 265th Military Police Battalion (Romania) – The Romanian Military Police is the military police of the Romanian Armed Forces. It was formed in 1990, immediately after the Romanian Revolution, the history of the Romanian Military Police is close related to the history of the Romanian Gendarmerie, because the provost policing was a task of the Gendarmerie since its inception. It should also be noticed that at first the Gendarmerie was placed under the command of the Ministry of War. The archaic term of troops police could be found starting with 1850 in the structure of the armed forces, on that day King Carol I promulgated the Law of Rural Gendarmerie. To avoid any confusions, the new Law of Gendarmerie promulgated on March 24,1908, mentioned the following, Art.6, The Gendarmerie corps is a part of the Army. The dispositions of military rules and orders are applicable except some specific situations because of its mixed organisation – both civilian and military - and specific tasks, Art.7, The officers will be recruited from the armys personnel. The nominated persons will be assigned to the Gendarmerie troops by Kings order, during World War I the Military Police corps performed all its specific tasks, including combat missions, and provided assistance to the civilian population. The evolution of the events placed the Gendarmerie alternatively under the command of Ministry of War, in 1917 the Gendarmerie was reassigned to the Ministry of War. Therefore, Gendarmerie detachments were assigned to the General Staff headquarters as well and these detachments were led by infantry officers and their strength consisted of 27 gendarmes. During the interwar period, the Gendarmerie was placed again under Ministry of Interior command, the main mission is to perform the activity of civilian and military police across the country. It is subordinated to Ministry of War but may perform other activities required by the Minister of Interior. On 23 August 1944, the Romanian Government decided to leave the Axis and join the Allies, with the objective to regain Northern Transylvania and liberate Hungary. After the war, the police was disbanded along with the Gendarmerie. Starting with 1947, the communist regime established some separate branches as parts of the Ministry of Defense to deal with police matters. As a result, to this, Law and Discipline, Guide and Control of Military Traffic, Military Justice, each branch was assigned to different departments, breaking the chain of command - and making them quite inefficient. In 1990, after the Romanian Revolution, the Ministry of National Defence decided to all the former MP-type branches into a single structure called Military Police. On 12 March 1990, the Minister of National Defence issued an order to establish MP units/subunits all over Romania, starting on 15 May 1990, the 265 MP Battalion, the 286,282,295 and 302 companies were established under the Land Forces command. The 265th Military Police Battalion is the largest and most important MP unit and it was formed in May 1990 and its headquarters are located in Bucharest265th Military Police Battalion (Romania) – 265th Military Police Battalion exercise.
9. 49th NBC Defense Battalion (Romania) – The 1st Infantry Division Dacica was one of the major units of the Romanian Land Forces, with its headquarters located in Bucharest. It was the successor of the Romanian First Army. On 31 August 2015, 1st Infantry Division headquarters disbanded, to become, following the end of the war, the First Army was disbanded on 2 June 1947, with the units under its command being transferred to one of the four newly formed Military Regions. This reorganization process was applied to all Romanian armies, on 5 April 1980, the First Army is reestablished and headquartered in Bucharest, after being assigned units previously under the control of the 2nd Army Command. The latter is relocated to Buzău, dan Ghica-Radu was the intelligence office chief from 1998 until 2000. Units of the 1st Infantry Division are deployed in various theaters of operation around the world, such as Bosnia, Kosovo, Iraq and Afghanistan49th NBC Defense Battalion (Romania) – Official emblem of the 1st Infantry Division
10. Bucharest Garrison – The Bucharest Garrison is a military garrison located in Bucharest and subordinated to the Romanian Land Forces. The Garrison was initially formed in 1939 by a royal decree, after the end of the World War II, due to a Romanian - Soviet treaty as well as due to orders received from the Allied Control Commission, the garrison was disbanded. In 2002, the Bucharest Garrison was re-established, with the 30th Honor Guard Regiment, Official site of the Romanian Land Forces Official site of the Romanian Ministry of National Defence. Bucharest Garrison on the MoND siteBucharest Garrison – Official Insignia of the Bucharest Garrison
11. 9th Mechanized Brigade (Romania) – The 9th Mechanized Brigade Mărășești is a mechanized infantry brigade of the Romanian Land Forces. The unit was formed in 1879, after the Romanian War of Independence. In 1903 it was renamed to 9th Infantry Division, designation under which it participated in world wars. In World War I it fought during the Battle of Mărăşeşti where it defended the most difficult sector, for its heroic actions in this battle, the 9th Infantry Division received the honorific name Mărăşeşti. After World War II, the division went through some changes becoming the IXth Army Corps, Vasile Milea commanded the division in 1957-58. In 2004 the 34th Mechanized Vasile Lupu brigade was dissolved, with the remaining units passing to the Light Infantry Brigade headquartered at Clinceni, the land formerly occupied by the headquarters of the 34th Mechanized was given to the US army for a new base near the Mihail Kogălniceanu airport9th Mechanized Brigade (Romania) – The White Sharks patrolling in Iraq.
12. 282nd Mechanized Brigade (Romania) – The 282nd Mechanized Brigade Union of the Principalities is a mechanized brigade of the Romanian Land Forces, originally formed as the 282nd Mechanized Regiment on 24 September 1968. The brigade is widely regarded as one of the units of the Romanian Land Forces. Its headquarters are located in Focşani. The brigade operates the TR-85 main battle tank, together with the subordinated units, the 282nd brigade has been deployed to peacekeeping missions in Angola, Kosovo, Afghanistan, and Iraq. 280th and 281st battalions were deployed since 2004 in Afghanistan as part of the ISAF, 300th battalion was deployed in 2008 as part of the ISAF in Afghanistan. 280th battalion was deployed in 2010 as part of the ISAF in Afghanistan, BDE HQ along with 280th battalion and 300th battalion were deployed in 2012 as part of the ISAF in Afghanistan. Official Site of the Romanian Land Forces Official Site of the 2nd Infantry Division The 282nd Mechanized Brigade282nd Mechanized Brigade (Romania) – A TR-85M1 company belonging to the 282nd Mechanized Brigade
13. 2nd Mountain Troops Brigade (Romania) – The 2nd Mountain Troops Brigade Sarmizegetusa is a mountain troops brigade of the Romanian Land Forces. The brigade was formed as the 2nd Mountain Troops Division on 1 August 1923. The 2nd Mountain Brigade is currently subordinated to the 2nd Infantry Division and has its headquarters in Braşov, units from the brigade were often deployed to peacekeeping missions in Afghanistan and Iraq. The structural reorganization process of the brigade was completed in early 2003, the 33rd Mountain Troops battalion is currently deployed in Afghanistan as part of the ISAF2nd Mountain Troops Brigade (Romania) – Romanian Mountain Troops (Vânători de Munte) from the 2nd and 61st Mountain Troops Brigade during a military competition (Army scouts contest).
14. 53rd Anti-Aircraft Missile Regiment (Romania) – The 53rd Anti-aircraft Missiles Regiment Trophaeum Traiani is an air defense regiment of the Romanian Land Forces. It is currently subordinated to the 2nd Infantry Division and its headquarters are located in Medgidia, the regiment was part of the 6th Anti-aircraft Missiles Brigade, which was disbanded in 2006, due to a reorganization process of the Romanian Land Forces. The unit currently operates the S-75 Volhov and the modern MIM-23 Hawk surface-to-air missile systems, the main units of the regiment are the 1st Anti-aircraft Missiles Battalion and the 2nd Anti-aircraft Missiles Battalion Pelendava. Official Site of the Romanian Land Forces Official Site of the 1st Territorial Army Corps53rd Anti-Aircraft Missile Regiment (Romania) – MIM-23 Hawk missile system.
15. 50th Anti-aircraft Missiles Regiment (Romania) – The 50th Anti-aircraft Missiles Regiment Andrei Mureşianu is an air defense regiment of the Romanian Land Forces. It is currently subordinated to the 4th Infantry Division and its headquarters are located in Floreşti, the regiment was part of the 6th Anti-aircraft Missiles Brigade, which was disbanded in 2006, during a reorganization of the Romanian Land Forces. The unit currently operates the SA-6 KUB and SA-8 OSA-AKM surface-to-air missile systems, 50th Anti-aircraft Missiles Regiment - Cluj-Napoca 3rd Air-defense Battalion Potaissa - Turda50th Anti-aircraft Missiles Regiment (Romania) – Romanian MIM-23 Hawk missile system.