United Arab Emirates
In 2013, the UAEs population was 9.2 million, of which 1.4 million are Emirati citizens and 7.8 million are expatriates. The country is a federation of seven emirates, and was established on 2 December 1971, the constituent emirates are Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ras al-Khaimah and Umm al-Quwain. Each emirate is governed by a monarch, they jointly form the Federal Supreme Council. One of the monarchs is selected as the President of the United Arab Emirates, Islam is the official religion of the UAE and Arabic is the official language. The UAEs oil reserves are the seventh-largest in the world while its natural gas reserves are the worlds seventeenth-largest, Sheikh Zayed, ruler of Abu Dhabi and the first President of the UAE, oversaw the development of the Emirates and steered oil revenues into healthcare and infrastructure. The UAEs economy is the most diversified in the Gulf Cooperation Council, while its most populous city of Dubai is an important global city, the country remains principally reliant on its export of petroleum and natural gas.
The UAE is criticised for its rights record, including the specific interpretations of Sharia used in its legal system. The UAEs rising international profile has led analysts to identify it as a regional. It appears the land of the Emirates has been occupied for thousands of years, there is no proof of contact with the outside world at that stage, although in time it developed with civilisations in Mesopotamia and Iran. This contact persisted and became wide-ranging, probably motivated by trade in copper from the Hajar Mountains, in ancient times, Al Hasa was part of Al Bahreyn and adjoined Greater Oman. Sassanid groups were present on the Batinah coast, in 637, Julfar was an important port that was used as a staging post for the Islamic invasion of the Sassanian Empire. The area of the Al Ain/Buraimi Oasis was known as Tuam and was an important trading post for camel routes between the coast and the Arabian interior. The earliest Christian site in the UAE was first discovered in the 1990s, a monastic complex on what is now known as Sir Bani Yas Island.
Thought to be Nestorian and built in 600 AD, the church appears to have been abandoned peacefully in 750 AD and it forms a rare physical link to a legacy of Christianity which is thought to have spread across the peninsula from 50 to 350 AD following trade routes. Certainly, by the 5th century, Oman had a bishop named John – the last bishop of Oman being Etienne, in 676 AD. This led to a group of travelling to Medina, converting to Islam and subsequently driving a successful uprising against the unpopular Sassanids. Following the death of Prophet Muhammad, the new Islamic communities south of the Persian Gulf threatened to disintegrate, with insurrections against the Muslim leaders. The Caliph Abu Bakr sent an army from the capital Medina which completed its reconquest of the territory with the battle of Dibba in which 10,000 lives are thought to have been lost
Qatar, officially the State of Qatar, is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. Its sole land border is with Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its surrounded by the Persian Gulf. A strait in the Persian Gulf separates Qatar from the island country of Bahrain, as well as sharing maritime borders with the United Arab Emirates. Following Ottoman rule, Qatar became a British protectorate in the early 20th century until gaining independence in 1971, Qatar has been ruled by the House of Thani since the early 19th century. Sheikh Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani was the founder of the State of Qatar, Qatar is a hereditary monarchy and its head of state is Emir Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani. Whether it should be regarded as a constitutional or a monarchy is a matter of opinion. In 2003, the constitution was approved in a referendum. In early 2017, Qatars total population was 2.3 million,313,000 Qatari citizens and 2.6 million expatriates, Qatar is a high income economy and is a developed country, backed by the worlds third largest natural gas reserves and oil reserves.
The country has the highest per capita income in the world, Qatar is classified by the UN as a country of very high human development and is the most advanced Arab state for human development. Qatar is a significant power in the Arab world, supporting several rebel groups during the Arab Spring both financially and through its globally expanding media group, Al Jazeera Media Network. For its size, Qatar wields disproportionate influence in the world, Qatar will host the 2022 FIFA World Cup, becoming the first Arab country to do so. A century later, Ptolemy produced the first known map to depict the peninsula, the map referenced a town named Cadara to the east of the peninsula. The term Catara was exclusively used until the 18th century, after which Katara emerged as the most commonly recognised spelling, the modern derivative Qatar was adopted as the countrys name. In Standard Arabic, the name is pronounced, while in the local dialect it is, Human habitation of Qatar dates back to 50,000 years ago.
Settlements and tools dating back to the Stone Age have been unearthed in the peninsula, Mesopotamian artefacts originating from the Ubaid period have been discovered in abandoned coastal settlements. Al Daasa, a settlement located on the western coast of Qatar, is the most important Ubaid site in the country and is believed to have accommodated a small seasonal encampment. Kassite Babylonian material dating back to the second millennium BC found in Al Khor Islands attests to trade relations between the inhabitants of Qatar and the Kassites in modern-day Bahrain, among the findings were 3,000,000 crushed snail shells and Kassite potsherds. It has been suggested that Qatar is the earliest known site of shellfish dye production, in 224 AD, the Sasanian Empire gained control over the territories surrounding the Persian Gulf
Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, historically known as Hellas, is a country in southeastern Europe, with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2015. Athens is the capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is strategically located at the crossroads of Europe, situated on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the northeast. Greece consists of nine regions, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Crete. The Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a vast number of islands, eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as polis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea.
Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming a part of the Roman Empire and its successor. The Greek Orthodox Church shaped modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World, falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence. Greeces rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, among the most in Europe, Greece is a democratic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, and a very high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001. Greeces unique cultural heritage, large industry, prominent shipping sector. It is the largest economy in the Balkans, where it is an important regional investor, the names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, all three stages of the stone age are represented in Greece, for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries and these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, and the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek. The Mycenaeans gradually absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC and this ushered in a period known as the Greek Dark Ages, from which written records are absent. The end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to 776 BC, the Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, in 508 BC, Cleisthenes instituted the worlds first democratic system of government in Athens
Qatar Stars League
The Qatar Stars League, formerly known as the Q-League, is the highest professional league in Qatari football, with the next tier being the Qatargas League. The leagues first season was played in 1963, although the first official season occurred in 1972, the leagues most recent winner was Lekhwiya SC, and the club who has won the most cumulative championships is Al Sadd SC, with 12. The league currently features 14 clubs, with one club being demoted to make room for one club being promoted, the league title has been won by 8 different clubs since its inception. There are 2 divisions in the Qatari football structure and the league has seen one club promoted and relegated each year except in expansion seasons. The Qatar Stars League, previously known as the Q-League currently features 14 teams, the top four clubs at the end of the regular league system participate in the Qatar Crown Prince Cup, which was formed in the 1994/95 season. The Qatar Stars League has slowly expanded since the turn of the moving from 9 clubs to 10 clubs.
There are currently 4 official amateur football leagues in Qatar, three amateur leagues are under the jurisdiction of the Qatar International Amateur Football League, and the fourth, known as the Qatar Amateur League is recognized by the QFA. Inaugurated in November 2013, the QAL has 14 teams, all of which were established through the countrys government and that year, the top league expanded to 12 clubs. In May 2013, the QFA again expanded the league by two teams, bringing the total number of clubs in the first division to 14. The first unofficial season of the Qatar Stars League was the 1963/64 season,3 years after the formation of the QFA, similarly, a second division was created during this time. For many years, there was no promotion or relegation system, in 1972/73, the first official season was played. Al Estaqlal, now known as Qatar SC, won the first championship, the first time there was a playoff for the championship was in 1980, between Al Sadd and Al Arabi. Al Sadd won the match 1–0, although a second division had been in place for some time, there was no relegation or promotion system.
However, in 1981, such a system was put in place for the first time, five clubs participated in the second division that year. In 1994, for one season, the QFA launched a new system where matches ending in draws would end in a penalty shoot-out to determine the winner and this was put in place in an effort to improve attendance. Three second division clubs were dissolved in the 1990 season, Al Nasr, Al Tadamon, many of their players were distributed to first division clubs and became prominent players in Qatari football history, such as Fahad Al Kuwari, Ahmed Al Kuwari and Hamad Al Khalifa. After the dissolution of these clubs, there was no longer any relegation or promotion for five years, in 1995/96, the second division was brought back with five clubs, while there ten clubs participating in the first division. Another method the QFA attempted to develop the league was allocating each Q-League club with a sum of $10,000,000 to buy big-name foreign players in order to increase popularity in 2003
Oman Football Association
The Oman Football Association is the governing body of football in Oman. It was founded in 1978, has been a member of the Asian Football Confederation, despite being a young association, their achievement at the youth level is impeccable. Also in the same tournament Mohamed Al Kathiri was awarded most valuable player and was given the golden ball, at the senior level, success has been far and few. However, lately they seemed to have announced their arrival at the senior events and they reached the Asian Cup, China 2004 final rounds and did well against Asian champions Japan. Later in 2007 they reached the Asian Cup once again, in the Gulf Cup, they reached the final twice, only to lose to Qatar and later, UAE, before winning it as hosts in 2009. Players such as Imad Ali Al-Hosni have been impressive and are looked at as the future of Omani football, in addition, Oman is looking to take advantage of FIFAs assistance in the GOAL project to further develop the game in Oman. Also Goalkeeper Ali Al-Habsi is leading the path of Omani football to Europe, along with Al-Habsi, Khalifa Ayil has sparked interest from Arsène Wenger of Arsenal.
Oman has a total of 45 clubs divided into three divisions, the First Division has 12 clubs, Second Division has 13 clubs while the Third Division has 20 clubs. Oman Football Association at the FIFA website, Oman Football Association at AFC site Oman Football Association Official website
Football in Qatar
Football in Qatar is organized by the Qatar Football Association. Football is the one sport in Qatar. Football was introduced to the country in 1948 when oil workers organized a match among themselves, the first football club was established in 1950 under the name Al-Najah, which went on to form Al Ahli. This was followed by the organization of the first football tournament in 1951 called Izz al-Din Championship by the Qatar Oil Company, in the late 1950s, the name was changed to Pukett Cup. The Qatar Football Association was formed in 1960 and the first league season was launched in 1963–64, League matches were played in Doha Stadium, which accommodated the first grass football pitch in the region. Attendance at QSL matches ranges between 2,000 and 10,000, depending on the popularity of the teams. In a 2014 survey conducted by Qatari government ministries and departments, lack of time, unsuitable atmospheres for females and the presence of paid fans were all major factors for not attending.
The highest deterrent was climate, which was cited by seventy-three percent respondents as impacting their decision to attend a football match, the program involves seeking the opinion and advice of people in majlises, as well as encouraging large-scale community involvement, particularly by women. Qatar football league system Qatari clubs in the AFC Champions League List of football stadiums in Qatar
Greece national football team
The Greek national football team represents Greece in association football and is controlled by the Hellenic Football Federation, the governing body for football in Greece. Greeces home ground is Karaiskakis Stadium in Piraeus, Greece is one of only ten national teams to have been crowned UEFA European Champions. The UEFA Euro 2004 marked a point in Greeces football history when they were crowned European champions, in only their second participation in the tournament. Their triumph gave them a qualification for the 2005 FIFA Confederations Cup, the first appearance of a Greek national football team was at the 1906 Intercalated Games in Athens. Later, the Greek team participated in the Inter-Allied Games in Paris, following the end of World War I, a notable figure during these years was Giorgos Kalafatis and manager of the team. During the next decades, the Greek team did not manage to have any success, the countrys economical and social problems and after World War II, did not allow successful preparation of the national team.
In the final tournament, Greece was drawn into group A with West Germany, the Netherlands, in their first game, Greece held the Dutch until the only goal of the game was scored with a penalty kick by Kist, in the 65th minute. Three days Greece played Czechoslovakia in Rome, after holding the Czechoslovakians 1–1 at the end the first half, Greece eventually lost 3–1. The teams success in qualifying for the 1994 FIFA World Cup in the United States, Greece finished first and undefeated in their qualifying group, surpassing Russia in the final game. In the final tournament Greece were drawn into Group D with Nigeria, after the successful qualifying campaign, expectations back in Greece were high as no one could imagine the oncoming astounding failure. It is worth mentioning that all players of the squad, including the three goalkeepers, took part in three games, something very rare. This tournament was humiliating for the Greek squad, in their first game against Argentina at Foxboro Stadium just outside Boston, they lost 4–0.
Four days Greece suffered another 4–0 blow from Bulgaria at Soldier Field in Chicago, in the end, Greece were eliminated in the first round by losing all three games, scoring no goals and conceding ten. Greece failed to qualify for the Euro 1996 finishing third in the group behind Russia, in their 1998 World Cup qualifying tournament the team finished only one point shy of second-placed Croatia after a 0–0 draw by the eventual Group winners, the Danish. Greece started the process for the Euro 2004 in poor fashion losing at home to Spain and away to Ukraine. Greece were the second-least favorite in the competition to win, with Latvia being the least favorite, Greece were considered as outsiders and underdogs and were given odds of 150–1 of winning before the tournament. Very few people expected Greece to proceed to the quarter-finals, let alone win the tournament, Greece won with a 25-yard strike from Giorgos Karagounis and a penalty from Angelos Basinas. Four days later, Greece stunned Spain in front of a largely Spanish crowd with a 1–1 draw after being down 1–0 at half time, Greece fell behind from a defensive lapse, which allowed Fernando Morientes to score
Abdelkarim Hassan is a Qatari footballer who currently plays for Al Sadd as a defender. He currently plays for the Qatar Olympic team and the Senior national team, Abdelkarim named Hassane, graduated from Aspire Academy in 2011. He was the youngest player to appear in the 2011 AFC Champions League at 17 years old and his team subsequently emerged champions of the Champions League that year. He was awarded Young Player of the Year in the 2012–13 Qatar Stars League, statistics accurate as of 24 May 2014 1Includes Emir of Qatar Cup. Abdelkarim scored a goal against UAE U20 in the 10th International Friendship Youth Tournament, in a friendly match against the Malaysia U-23 side on 17 June 2012, Abdelkarim sparked a mass melee between the two sides after a two-footed lunge on Mohd Azrif in the 43rd minute. He was duly shown a red card for his challenge, afterwards, a Malaysian player, Nazmi Faiz, ran half the length of the pitch to confront him, and punched him. Being 5 inches shorter than Abdelkarim, Nazmis punch turned into nothing more than a push on his chest, Nazmi Faiz was shown a red card, whereas Qatar went on to lose 2–0.
He scored a goal in Qatars opening game against Maldives in the stage for the 2014 AFC U-22 Asian Cup. Abdelkarim made his debut for the national team on November 18,2010 against Haiti. He was the youngest player to appear in the squad list for the 2011 Asian Cup at the age of 17 years and 123 days old. He scored Qatars only goal against Malaysia in the 2015 AFC Asian Cup qualifiers to ensure Qatar a berth in the Asian Cup and he scored a goal in Qatars 4–1 victory against Yemen in the qualifiers. Though his team lost all their group games in the 2015 AFC Asian Cup. A FIFA. com featured article theorized that he would form the basis of young players who go on to represent Qatar at the 2022 FIFA World Cup, as of match played 29 May 2016. Qatar score listed first, score column indicates score after each Hassan goal. com Abdelkarim Hassan at Soccerway
Penalty kick (association football)
A penalty kick is a method of restarting play in association football, taken from 11 metres out from the goal, on the penalty mark. Penalty kicks are performed during normal play and they are awarded when a foul that is punishable by a direct free kick is committed within the offending players own penalty area. Similar kicks are made in a penalty shootout in some tournaments to determine which team is victorious after a drawn match, in practice, penalties are converted to goals more often than not, even against world class goalkeepers. This means that penalty awards are often decisive, especially in low-scoring games, the referee gives the ball to the non-offending team. The goalkeeper must stand on the line between the post until the ball is kicked. Lateral movement is allowed, but the keeper is not permitted to come off the goal line by stepping or lunging forward until the ball is in play. When the goalkeeper indicates to the referee that they are ready, once the shooter has started their approach to the ball, they are not permitted to interrupt it.
The ball must be stationary before the kick, and must be struck forwards, violation of these rules will result in a re-kick. After the penalty is taken properly, the ball may be played by any player except the one who executed the penalty kick. The kicker may not play the ball again until it has touched or played by another player on either team. For penalties taken near the end of time, play may be extended so that the penalty kick may be taken. A two-man penalty, or tap penalty, occurs when the penalty-taker, instead of shooting for goal, taps the ball slightly forward so that a team-mate can run on to it and shoot. The team-mate, like all other players, must be at least ten yards from the penalty mark when the ball is initially kicked and this strategy depends on the element of surprise, so that the team-mate can reach the ball ahead of any defenders. There is no requirement for the penalty taker to shoot for goal, the first recorded tap penalty was taken by Jimmy McIlroy and Danny Blanchflower of Northern Ireland against Portugal on 1 May 1957.
Another was taken by Rik Coppens and André Piters in the World Cup Qualifying match Belgium v Iceland on 5 June 1957, arsenal players Thierry Henry and Robert Pirès failed in an attempt at a similar penalty in 2005, during a Premier League match against Manchester City at Highbury. Lionel Messi tapped a penalty for Luis Suárez as Suárez completed his hat-trick on 14 February 2016 against league opponents Celta De Vigo, in the case of a player repeatedly infringing the laws during the penalty kick, the referee may caution the player for persistent infringement. Note that all offences that occur before kick may be dealt with in this manner, as with a direct free kick, the kicker may not touch the ball a second time, until another player has touched the ball. Another example of an infringement is when a player will run up, stop directly at the ball and this gives the goalkeeper no chance at saving it, and the result of this would be a free kick for the opposing team
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe.
The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established and episkyros were Greek ball games.
An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Qatar national football team
The Qatar national football team is the national team of Qatar and is overseen by the Qatar Football Association. The team has appeared in nine Asian Cup tournaments and Qatar hosted the 2011 Asian Cup and they play their home games at Khalifa International Stadium and Jassim Bin Hamad Stadium. The latter is the stadium for the team. By 1948, expatriate oil workers played the first official match in Qatar. The Qatar Football Association was formed in 1960, and the QFA joined FIFA in 1970, the plans came to fruition and in March 1970 the Gulf Cup of Nations was inaugurated. The Qatar national team played its first official match on March 27,1970 against hosts Bahrain, in the next edition of the Gulf Cup in 1972, Qatar was again relegated to last place after suffering 3 straight defeats. The next tournament in 1974 proved to be somewhat of a break-through for the Qataris as they achieved their first triumph in international football with a 4–0 victory over Oman. The Qataris lost out to Saudi Arabia in the semi-finals, the first time they entered the qualifying stages for the AFC Asian Cup was in 1975.
They were not successful in qualifying for the 1976 AFC Asian Cup, with Iraq, despite this setback, Qatar finished in 3rd place in the 4th Gulf Cup as the host nation the next year. The national team played its first FIFA World Cup qualifying match in 1977, Qatar was set to play UAE on 11 March 1977, but the last minute withdrawal of the UAE from the competition merely postponed Qatars debut until two days when Bahrain were defeated 2–0 in Doha. Their Asian Cup debut came in 1980 under legendary head coach Evaristo de Macedo and they had qualified for the tournament after topping a relatively easy group composing of Bangladesh and Afghanistan. Their showing in the tournament was unimpressive, making an early exit from the group stages with two defeats, one draw and one win. Qatar narrowly lost to Iraq in the finals of the 1984 Gulf Cup of Nations, nonetheless they were named runners-up and they failed to make it out of the preliminary stages of the 1982 and 1986 World Cup qualifying rounds.
However, the qualified for both the 1984 and 1988 editions of the Asian Cup. They fell short of qualifying for the semi-finals of the 1984 tournament and they missed out on a semi-final place in 1988, they notably defeated Japan by a score of 3–0. Qatar arguably reached its peak in the 1990s, attaining its highest-ever FIFA rating in August 1993, Qatar started off with an emphatic qualifying campaign for the 1990 World Cup, finishing at the top of their group. They were denied a spot in the World Cup after finishing below UAE, in 1990, the national team once again finished runners-up in the Gulf Cup as Kuwait won the final two matches of the tournament. Two years later, they won the competition on home soil for the first time under the leadership of Sebastião Lapola and they were named runners-up in the 1996 Gulf Cup