10th Missouri Infantry Regiment (Confederate)

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10th Missouri Infantry
Active September 1862 to April 9, 1865
Country  Confederate States of America
Allegiance  Missouri
Branch  Confederate States Army
Type Infantry
Engagements

Prairie Grove
Helena
Little Rock
Red River Campaign
Battle of Pleasant Hill

Jenkins' Ferry
Commanders
Until 12/7/1862 Alexander E. Steen
12/7/1862 to 12/2/1863 A.C. Pickett
12/2/1863 to 6/8/1865 William M. Moore

The 10th Regiment Missouri Infantry was an infantry regiment that served in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. It was also known as the 12th Regiment or Steen's Regiment, the latter referring to the first regimental commander Alexander E. Steen.[1]

History[edit]

The regiment was mustered east of Fort Smith, Arkansas in Camp Mulberry on November 10, 1862, the regiment was made up by approximately 650 soldiers with a variety of equipment. These soldiers mainly came from previously established units that had been disbanded, these units include a battalion of William O. Coleman's former cavalry regiment led by Alexander E. Steen. Other company sized elements included those from John M. Johnson's mounted and two more former Missouri State Guard units that had been led by John W. Priest and John H. Winston.[2]

In December, within a month of the formation of the regiment, they marched north to meet Union forces at the Battle of Prairie Grove, on December 7, 1862, as part of Parson's brigade, the 10th was aligned to defend the main Confederate body of forces. By mid-day, Parson's brigade was moved up to the main line driving Union forces back, this gain was stalled by Union artillery. The attack cost the regiment dearly; casualties totaled 31 dead, 62 wounded and 3 missing, including the deaths of both the commander, Colonel Alexander E. Steen, and executive officer, Lieutenant Colonel Chappell. Confederate forces were withdrawn by the field commander, Major General Thomas C. Hindman, after the death of the regimental commander, Alexander Corbin Pickett was promoted to the command. The regiment retreated to Van Buren, Arkansas and in the beginning of the new year moved on to Little Rock until May.[2]

In late May, Major General Sterling Price ordered the 10th to join his forces, marching them northeast of Little Rock in Jacksonport. Now with Price's division, in late June they moved southeast to the Mississippi River to confront the a Union garrison at Helena, Arkansas, this move was hard, taking 12 days, marching across flooded river bottoms. In the pre-dawn hours of July 4, 1863, simultaneous attacks against Batteries A, C and D were planned, the 10th, in formation with the Missouri Brigade, prepared to attack Union troops on Graveyard Hill or Battery C at 4:00 am, quickly running the Union troops out of their fortifications.[3] The rest of Price's division was not quite as successful, meeting with strong resistance and leaving the 10th without proper support. Left without a choice, Pickett called for a retreat of his division, with disastrous results; the division was left nearly decimated with 11 killed, 41 wounded and 237 captured with only 236 able bodied soldiers remaining. By August, the 10th returned to defend Little Rock against Union assault, however, the attack came to a different point in the city, leaving the regiment spared from harm, with the city falling into Union influence, the regiment was forced south to Arkadelphia on September 10.[4]

After the devastating blow suffered by the regiment, additional troops and unit realignment was necessary, the 12th Missouri Infantry Regiment, also devastated by the effects of war, restructured with their 200 remaining men into two companies, replacing Company F and G. Company F was transferred to the 38th Arkansas Infantry Regiment, the few remaining men of the original Company G were transferred to Company K.[5]

In late March 1864, the 10th was assigned to a brigade commanded by Colonel Simon P. Burns. Early April, Union forces under command of Major General Nathaniel Banks' army. Union forces marching towards Shreveport, Louisiana, in the Red River Campaign, the 10th standing in the way under its assigned division commanded by General Parsons. Marching Pleasant Hill, Louisiana, the brigade took position to charge the opposing forces on April 9, 1864. Confusion ensued with a surprise attack by a counter attack against the brigade. By the time confederate forces rallied, Union forces retreated from the field, the battle cost the regiment 10 dead and 25 wounded.[5]

The division went on the offensive, marching north towards Camden, to attack a garrison of troops commanded by General Frederick Steele. Federal troops fled, with Parson's division in pursuit, on April 30, the Confederate division caught up with the union troops at Jenkins' Ferry. In a driving rain storm, Confederate forces engaged the Federal troops, however, through the course of battle, the Union forces largely escaped across the Saline River by way of pontoon bridges. Jenkins' Ferry concluded the 10th Missouri Infantry Regiment's wartime combat engagements, but not before inflicting yet more casualties; 3 dead and 8 wounded, including the death of Lieutenant Colonel Simon Harris.[6]

The 10th wrapped up its war time experience in southern Arkansas and in Northern Louisiana, on June 8, 1865, the soldiers of the 10th Missouri Infantry Regiment received their paroles. Finally they boarded the steamer E. H. Fairchild for their return trip home.[7]

Regimental organization[edit]

The following outlines the recruitment of troops and commanders of the original companies, along with other details:

Field and staff officers[edit]

The first regimental commander was Colonel Alexander Early Steen. Steen was mortally wounded during combat during the Battle of Prairie Grove.[8]

The second commander, Alexander Corbin Pickett, took command after his predecessors death, he was voted out in a special election on December 2, 1863.[9]

The final commander, Colonel William M. Moore, replaced his predecessor, he remained in command until the regiment was paroled in Shreveport, Louisiana on June 8, 1865.[10]

Company "A"[edit]

The men from Company A were primarily recruited from Macon, Marion, Monroe, Platte and Randolph counties from Missouri.[11]

Company "B"[edit]

The men from Company B were primarily recruited from Clark, Franklin, Knox, Pettis, Platte, Scotland and St. Louis counties from Missouri.[11]

Company "C"[edit]

The men from Company C were primarily recruited from Douglas, Texas and Wright counties from Missouri.[11]

Company "D"[edit]

The men from Company D were primarily recruited from Dent and Phelps counties from Missouri.[11]

Company "E"[edit]

The men from Company E were primarily recruited from Maries and Phelps counties from Missouri.[11]

Company "F" (1862–63)[edit]

The men from Company F were primarily recruited from Lawrence county from Missouri and Fulton county from Arkansas, the company was transferred to the 38th Arkansas Infantry Regiment, becoming Company M.[11]

Company "F" (1863–65)[edit]

The creation of the second Company "F" was out of the former Companies B, C, F, G and K, of the 12th Regiment Missouri Infantry. Home for these men were primarily from Iron, Madison, Ripley and Washington counties from Missouri. [11]

Company "G" (1862–63)[edit]

The men from Company G were primarily recruited from Hickory, Phelps and Pulaski counties from Missouri. The company was consolidated with Company K.[11]

Company "G" (1863–65)[edit]

The creation of the second Company "F" was out of the former Companies A, D, E, H and I, of the 12th Regiment Missouri Infantry. Home for these men were primarily from Butler, Carter, Reynolds, Ripley, St. Francois and Wayne counties from Missouri.[12]

Company "H"[edit]

The men from Company H were primarily recruited from Gasconade, Maries and Osage counties from Missouri.[12]

Company "I"[edit]

The men from Company I were primarily recruited from St. Louis and Jefferson counties from Missouri.[12]

Company "K"[edit]

The men from Company K were primarily recruited from Maries and Miller counties from Missouri.[12]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Battle Unit Details – 10 Regiment, Missouri Infantry". National Park Service. November 10, 2014. Retrieved November 10, 2014. 
  2. ^ a b McGhee, James E. (2008). Guide to Missouri Confederate Units, 1861–1865. Fayetteville, Arkansas: University of Arkansas Press. pp. 220–221. ISBN 978-1-55728-870-7. 
  3. ^ United States War Department (1888). The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. XXII, Pt. I. Washington: Government Printing Office. p. 400. ISBN 978-0-918678-07-2. 
  4. ^ McGhee, James E. (2008). Guide to Missouri Confederate Units, 1861–1865. Fayetteville, Arkansas: University of Arkansas Press. p. 222. ISBN 978-1-55728-870-7. 
  5. ^ a b McGhee, James E. (2008). Guide to Missouri Confederate Units, 1861–1865. Fayetteville, Arkansas: University of Arkansas Press. p. 223. ISBN 978-1-55728-870-7. 
  6. ^ McGhee, James E. (2008). Guide to Missouri Confederate Units, 1861–1865. Fayetteville, Arkansas: University of Arkansas Press. pp. 223–224. ISBN 978-1-55728-870-7. 
  7. ^ McGhee, James E. (2008). Guide to Missouri Confederate Units, 1861–1865. Fayetteville, Arkansas: University of Arkansas Press. p. 224. ISBN 978-1-55728-870-7. 
  8. ^ Compiled military service record, Alexander E. Steen, Colonel, 10th Regiment Missouri Infantry; Civil War, Record Group 94. Washington, D.C.: National Archves. 
  9. ^ Compiled military service record, Alexander Corbin Pickett, Colonel, 10th Regiment Missouri Infantry; Civil War, Record Group 94. Washington, D.C.: National Archves. 
  10. ^ Compiled military service record, William M. Moore, Colonel, 10th Regiment Missouri Infantry; Civil War, Record Group 94. Washington, D.C.: National Archves. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h McGhee, James E. (2008). Guide to Missouri Confederate Units, 1861–1865. Fayetteville, Arkansas: University of Arkansas Press. p. 220. ISBN 978-1-55728-870-7. 
  12. ^ a b c d McGhee, James E. (2008). Guide to Missouri Confederate Units, 1861–1865. Fayetteville, Arkansas: University of Arkansas Press. p. 221. ISBN 978-1-55728-870-7. 

External links[edit]