China, officially the Peoples Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the worlds most populous country, with a population of over 1.381 billion. The state is governed by the Communist Party of China and its capital is Beijing, the countrys major urban areas include Shanghai, Beijing, Shenzhen and Hong Kong. China is a power and a major regional power within Asia. Chinas landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes, the Himalaya, Karakoram and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third and sixth longest in the world, Chinas coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers long and is bounded by the Bohai, East China and South China seas. China emerged as one of the worlds earliest civilizations in the basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, Chinas political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties, in 1912, the Republic of China replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the communist Peoples Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War.
The Communist Party established the Peoples Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory. China had the largest economy in the world for much of the last two years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the introduction of reforms in 1978, China has become one of the worlds fastest-growing major economies. As of 2016, it is the worlds second-largest economy by nominal GDP, China is the worlds largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a nuclear weapons state and has the worlds largest standing army. The PRC is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U. N. Security Council in 1971. China is a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the BCIM, the English name China is first attested in Richard Edens 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa.
The demonym, that is, the name for the people, Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn, and perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit Cīna. Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata, there are, other suggestions for the derivation of China. The official name of the state is the Peoples Republic of China. The shorter form is China Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó and it was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to Chinas Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing
People's Liberation Army
The Chinese Peoples Liberation Army is the armed forces of the Communist Party of China and the Peoples Republic of China. The PLA consists of five service branches, the Ground Force, Air Force, Rocket Force. The PLA is the worlds largest military force, with a strength of approximately 2,183,000 personnel. In September 2015, Xi Jinping, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, the PLAs insignia consists of a roundel with a red star bearing the Chinese characters for Eight One, referring to the Nanchang Uprising which began on August 1,1927. The PLA is under the command of the Central Military Commission of the CPC and its commander in chief is the Chairman of the Central Military Commission. The Ministry of National Defense, which operates under the State Council and this conception of the role of the PLA requires the promotion of specialised officers who can understand modern weaponry and handle combined arms operations. Units around the country are assigned to one of five Theater commands by geographical location, Military service is compulsory by law, compulsory military service in China has never been enforced due to large numbers of military and paramilitary personnel.
In times of emergency, the Peoples Armed Police and the Peoples Liberation Army militia act as a reserve. They were known as the Chinese Workers and Peasants Red Army, between 1934 and 1935, the Red Army survived several campaigns led against it by Chiang Kai-Shek and engaged in the Long March. After the Japanese surrendered in 1945, the Communist Party merged the Eighth Route Army and New Fourth Army and they eventually won the Chinese Civil War, establishing the Peoples Republic of China in 1949. The PLA saw a reorganisation with the establishment of the Air Force leadership structure in November 1949 followed by the Navy leadership the following April. In 1950, the structures of the artillery, armoured troops, air defence troops, public security forces. The chemical warfare defence forces, the forces, the communications forces. During the 1950s, the PLA with Soviet assistance began to transform itself from a peasant army into a modern one, part of this process was the reorganisation that created thirteen military regions in 1955.
The PLA contained many former National Revolutionary Army units and generals who had defected to the PLA, Ma Hongbin and his son Ma Dunjing were the only two Muslim generals who led a Muslim unit, the 81st corps, to ever serve in the PLA. Han Youwen, a Salar Muslim general, defected to the PLA, in November 1950, some units of the PLA under the name of the Peoples Volunteer Army intervened in the Korean War as United Nations forces under General Douglas MacArthur approached the Yalu River. Under the weight of offensive, Chinese forces drove MacArthurs forces out of North Korea and captured Seoul. The war served as a catalyst for the modernisation of the PLAAF
Guizhou, formerly romanized as Kweichow, is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country. The area was first organized as a region of a Chinese empire under the Tang. During the Mongolian Yuan dynasty, the character 矩 was changed to the more refined 貴, the region formally became a province in 1413, with an eponymous capital also called Guizhou but now known as Guiyang. From around 1046 BCE to the emergence of the Qin Dynasty, during the Warring States period, the Chinese state of Chu conquered the area, and control passed to the Dian Kingdom. During the Three Kingdoms period, parts of Guizhou were governed by the Shu Han state based in Sichuan, followed by Cao Wei, during the 8th and 9th centuries in the Tang Dynasty, Chinese soldiers moved into Guizhou and married native women. Their descendants are known as Lǎohànrén, in contrast to new Chinese who populated Guizhou at times and they still speak an archaic dialect. Many immigrants to Guizhou were descended from soldiers in garrisons who married these pre-Chinese women.
It was during the following Ming Dynasty, which was again led by Han Chinese. The Ming established many garrisons in Guizhou from which to pacify the Yao and Miao minorities during the Miao Rebellions, chinese-style agriculture flourished with the expertise of farmers from Sichuan and its surrounding provinces into Guizhou. Wu Sangui was responsible for the ousting the Ming in Guizhou, after the Second Opium War, criminal triads set up shop in Guangxi and Guizhou to sell British opium. For a time, Taiping Rebels took control of Guizhou, Han Chinese soldiers moved into the Taijiang region of Guizhou, married Miao women, and their children were brought up as Miao. More unsuccessful Miao rebellions occurred during the Qing, in 1735, from 1795–1806, after the overthrow of the Qing in 1911 and following Chinese Civil War, the Communists took refuge in Guizhou during the Long March. While the province was ruled by the Guomindang warlord Wang Jialie. As the Second Sino-Japanese War pushed Chinas Nationalist Government to its southwest base of Chongqing, after the Chinese economic reform began in 1978, geographical factors led Guizhou to become the poorest province in China, with a GDP growth average of 9 percent from 1978–1993.
Guizhou is a province, although its higher altitudes are in the west. It lies at the end of the Yungui Plateau. Guizhou has a humid climate. Its annual average temperature is roughly 10 to 20 °C, with January temperatures ranging from 1 to 10 °C, like in Chinas other southwest provinces, rural areas of Guizhou suffered severe drought during spring 2010
Guiyang is the capital of Guizhou province of Southwest China. It is located in the center of the province, situated on the east of the Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau, and on the bank of the Nanming River. The city has an elevation of about 1,100 meters and it has an area of 8,034 square kilometers. During the 2010 census, its population was 4,324,561, Guiyang was a 7th-century military outpost under the Sui and Tang, when the area around it was known as Juzhou. It grew into a city named Shunyuan under the Mongolian Yuan dynasty sometime between their 1279 southwestern campaigns and 1283, by the time Guizhou became a full province in 1413, its capital at Guiyang was known as Guizhou. It became a seat under the Ming and Qing. Guiyang grew rapidly during the development of the southwest that occurred after the Japanese invasion of China during World War II and it has grown rapidly since Deng Xiaopings economic reforms reached it in the 1990s. Guiyang has a four-season, monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate, tempered by its low latitude and it has cool winters and moderate-temperature summers, the majority of the years 1,118 millimetres of precipitation occurs from May to July.
The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 5.1 °C in January to 23.9 °C in July, rain is common throughout the year, with occasional flurries in winter. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 12 percent in January to 41 percent in August, average monthly relative humidity is consistently above 75% throughout the year. The moderate temperature together with other factors including air quality, wind speed, the entire Guiyang municipality currently consists of six districts, one county-level city and three counties. The districts are Nanming, Huaxi, Baiyun, the county-city is Qingzhen and the counties are Kaiyang and Xiuwen. Guiyangs GDP, ¥249 billion Income per capita, ¥24,961 per year, per person Unemployment rate, less than 4% Guiyang is the economic, the GDP per capita was ¥46,108 in 2013. Wholesale operations include large regional produce and industrial, wal-Marts southwest China regional vegetable and produce distribution center is located in Guiyang. There are many foreign brands implanted in Guiyang, such as McDonald, Burger King, H&M, Most of the time, they are located near the various shopping centers.
The largest shopping centers are Hunter city plaza, Huaguoyuan Shopping Center, hydro-electric power generators are located along the citys main rivers including the Wu River. By 2007, the hydro electric plants supplied over 70 percent of the citys electricity. Coal is mined in the locality of Guiyang and Anshun, and there are large thermal generating plants at Guiyang and Duyun, a large iron and steel plant came into production in Guiyang in 1960, supplying the local machinery-manufacturing industry
Yunnan is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country. It spans approximately 394,000 square kilometres and has a population of 45.7 million in 2009, the capital of the province is Kunming, formerly known as Yunnan. The province borders Vietnam and Burma, Yunnan is situated in a mountainous area, with high elevations in the northwest and low elevations in the southeast. Most of the lives in the eastern part of the province. In the west, the altitude can vary from the peaks to river valleys as much as 3,000 metres. Yunnan is rich in resources and has the largest diversity of plant life in China. Of the approximately 30,000 species of plants in China. Yunnans reserves of aluminium, lead and tin are the largest in China, the Han Empire first recorded diplomatic relations with the province at the end of the 2nd century BC. It became the seat of a Sino-Tibetan-speaking kingdom of Nanzhao in the 8th centuryAD, Nanzhao was multi-ethnic, but the elite most-likely spoke a northern dialect of Yi.
The Mongols conquered the region in the 13th century, with local control exercised by warlords until the 1930s, as with other parts of Chinas southwest, Japanese occupation in the north during World War II forced another migration of majority Han people into the region. These two wave of migration contributed to Yunnan being one of the most ethnically diverse provinces of China, major ethnic groups include Yi, Hani, Zhuang and Miao. The Yuanmou Man, a Homo erectus fossil unearthed by railway engineers in the 1960s, has determined to be the oldest-known hominid fossil in China. By the Neolithic period, there were settlements in the area of Lake Dian. These people used tools and constructed simple wooden structures. Around the 3rd century BC, the area of Yunnan around present day Kunming was known as Dian. The Chu general Zhuang Qiao entered the region from the upper Yangtze River and he and his followers brought into Yunnan an influx of Chinese influence, the start of a long history of migration and cultural expansion.
In 221 BC, Qin Shi Huang unified China and extended his authority south and counties were established in Yunnan. An existing road in Sichuan – the Five Foot Way – was extended south to present day Qujing