The 10th century is the period from 901 to 1000 in accordance with the Julian calendar, and the last century of the 1st millennium. In China the Song dynasty was established, the Muslim World, experienced a cultural zenith, especially in Spain under the Caliphate of Córdoba. Additionally, it was the zenith for the Byzantine and Bulgarian Empires, medievalist and historian of technology Lynn White said that to the modern eye, it is very nearly the darkest of the Dark Ages, but concluded that. If it was dark, it was the darkness of the womb, similarly, Helen Waddell wrote that the 10th century was that which in the textbooks disputes with the seventh the bad eminence, the nadir of the human intellect. In the 15th century, Lorenzo Valla described it as the Century of Lead and Iron, one estimate said that the tenth century saw fewer deaths in war than any other century since 3000 BC. The beginning of the Medieval Warm Period The Byzantine empire reaches the height of its military,909, The Fatimid Caliphate arises in eastern Algeria. 948, The Nri Kingdom in what is now Southeastern Nigeria starts,980, Al-Azhar University is established in Cairo by the Fatimid dynasty. The Christian Nubian kingdom reaches its peak of prosperity and military power Collapse of the central lowland Maya civilization, in 907, Sumbing volcano erupts, according to Rukam inscription. In 907, King Balitung creates the Mantyasih inscription containing the list of Medang kings, moves the capital from Mamrati to Poh Pitu, in 910, Parantaka I of the Chola Dynasty drives out the Pandyan from southern India into Lanka, which he also eventually conquers. In 914, The Warmadewa dynasty rules Bali, in 919, the first use of gunpowder in battle occurs with the Chinese Battle of Langshan Jiang, where the Wuyue naval fleet under Qian Yuanguan defeats the Wu fleet. Qian had used flamethrowers ignited by gunpowder fuses to burn the Wu fleet, in 928, Ziyarid dynasty is established in northern Iran. In 928, During the reign of King Wawa, the capital of Medang Kingdom in Mataram is devastated, in 929, Mpu Sindok moves the seat of power of the Medang Kingdom from Mataram in Central Java to Tamwlang in East Java and establishes Isyana Dynasty. The shift is probably as a result of the eruption of Mount Merapi and/or invasion from Srivijaya, in 930s, Persian Shia Buyid dynasty establishes and controls central and western part of Iran as well as most of Iraq. In 936, Goryeo Dynasty unifies Later Three Kingdoms of Korea, in 937, Mpu Sindok moves the capital again from Tamwlang to Watugaluh, both near bank of Brantas River in modern Jombang in East Java. In 960, Zhao Kuangyin establishes Song dynasty, in 960 Seljuks convert to Islam. In 975, Ghaznavids dynasty, as the first Turk Sultanate, was established in Central Asia, in 979, Song dynasty reunites China. In 980s, Dynastic marriage between princess Mahendradatta of Javanese Isyanas and king Udayana of Balinese Warmadewas, in 990, Airlangga, son of King Udayana and Queen Mahendradatta was born in Bali. In 996, Dharmawangsa commissioned the translation of the Mahabharata into Old Javanese, in 999, Samanid dynasty was defeated and conquered by Ghaznavids
Eastern Hemisphere at the beginning of the 10th century
This statue of a yogini goddess was created in Kaveripakkam in Tamil Nadu, India, during the 10th century.