1.
Supergravity
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In theoretical physics, supergravity is a field theory that combines the principles of supersymmetry and general relativity. Together, these imply that, in supergravity, the supersymmetry is a local symmetry, since the generators of supersymmetry are convoluted with the Poincaré group to form a super-Poincaré algebra, it can be seen that supergravity follows naturally from local supersymmetry. Like any field theory of gravity, a supergravity theory contains a field whose quantum is the graviton. Supersymmetry requires the graviton field to have a superpartner and this field has spin 3/2 and its quantum is the gravitino. The number of fields is equal to the number of supersymmetries. The first theory of local supersymmetry was proposed in 1975 by Dick Arnowitt, Supergravity theories with N>1 are usually referred to as extended supergravity. Some supergravity theories were shown to be related to certain higher-dimensional supergravity theories via dimensional reduction, in these classes of models collectively now known as minimal supergravity Grand Unification Theories, gravity mediates the breaking of SUSY through the existence of a hidden sector. MSUGRA naturally generates the Soft SUSY breaking terms which are a consequence of the Super Higgs effect, radiative breaking of electroweak symmetry through Renormalization Group Equations follows as an immediate consequence. One of these supergravities, the 11-dimensional theory, generated considerable excitement as the first potential candidate for the theory of everything and these problems are avoided in 12 dimensions if two of these dimensions are timelike, as has been often emphasized by Itzhak Bars. Today many techniques exist to embed the model gauge group in supergravity in any number of dimensions. For example, in the mid and late 1980s, the gauge symmetry in type I. In type II string theory they could also be obtained by compactifying on certain Calabi–Yau manifolds, today one may also use D-branes to engineer gauge symmetries. In 1978, Eugène Cremmer, Bernard Julia and Joël Scherk found the action for an 11-dimensional supergravity theory. This remains today the only known classical 11-dimensional theory with local supersymmetry, other 11-dimensional theories are known that are quantum-mechanically inequivalent to the CJS theory, but classically equivalent. For example, in the mid 1980s Bernard de Wit and Hermann Nicolai found an alternate theory in D=11 Supergravity with Local SU Invariance. In 1980, Peter Freund and M. A. Rubin showed that compactification from 11 dimensions preserving all the SUSY generators could occur in two ways, leaving only 4 or 7 macroscopic dimensions, unfortunately, the noncompact dimensions have to form an anti-de Sitter space. Many of the details of the theory were fleshed out by Peter van Nieuwenhuizen, Sergio Ferrara, the initial excitement over 11-dimensional supergravity soon waned, as various failings were discovered, and attempts to repair the model failed as well. Problems included, The compact manifolds which were known at the time and which contained the standard model were not compatible with supersymmetry, and could not hold quarks or leptons

2.
M-theory
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M-theory is a theory in physics that unifies all consistent versions of superstring theory. The existence of such a theory was first conjectured by Edward Witten at a string theory conference at the University of Southern California in the spring of 1995, Wittens announcement initiated a flurry of research activity known as the second superstring revolution. Prior to Wittens announcement, string theorists had identified five versions of superstring theory, although these theories appeared, at first, to be very different, work by several physicists showed that the theories were related in intricate and nontrivial ways. In particular, physicists found that apparently distinct theories could be unified by mathematical transformations called S-duality and T-duality, Wittens conjecture was based in part on the existence of these dualities and in part on the relationship of the string theories to a field theory called eleven-dimensional supergravity. Modern attempts to formulate M-theory are typically based on theory or the AdS/CFT correspondence. Investigations of the structure of M-theory have spawned important theoretical results in physics and mathematics. More speculatively, M-theory may provide a framework for developing a theory of all of the fundamental forces of nature. One of the deepest problems in physics is the problem of quantum gravity. The current understanding of gravity is based on Albert Einsteins general theory of relativity, however, nongravitational forces are described within the framework of quantum mechanics, a radically different formalism for describing physical phenomena based on probability. String theory is a framework that attempts to reconcile gravity. In string theory, the particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings. String theory describes how strings propagate through space and interact with each other, in a given version of string theory, there is only one kind of string, which may look like a small loop or segment of ordinary string, and it can vibrate in different ways. On distance scales larger than the scale, a string will look just like an ordinary particle, with its mass, charge. In this way, all of the different elementary particles may be viewed as vibrating strings, one of the vibrational states of a string gives rise to the graviton, a quantum mechanical particle that carries gravitational force. There are several versions of string theory, type I, type IIA, type IIB, the different theories allow different types of strings, and the particles that arise at low energies exhibit different symmetries. For example, the type I theory includes both open strings and closed strings, while types IIA and IIB include only closed strings, each of these five string theories arises as a special limiting case of M-theory. This theory, like its string theory predecessors, is an example of a theory of gravity. It describes a force just like the familiar gravitational force subject to the rules of quantum mechanics, in everyday life, there are three familiar dimensions of space, height, width and depth

3.
Introduction to M-theory
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In non-technical terms, M-theory presents an idea about the basic substance of the universe. So far no evidence exists showing that M-theory is a description of the real world. Interest in this theory is mainly driven by mathematical elegance, starting in the 1960s, other subatomic particles began being discovered. In the 1970s, it was discovered that protons and neutrons are made up of smaller particles called quarks. The Standard Model is the set of rules that describes the interactions of these particles, in the 1980s, a new mathematical model of theoretical physics, called string theory, emerged. However, to string theory mathematically consistent, the universe the strings exist in must have ten dimensions. This contradicts the experience that our universe has four dimensions. The number of dimensions was later increased to 11 based on interpretations of the 10-dimensional theory that led to five partial theories. Supergravity theory also played a significant part in establishing the necessity of the 11th dimension and these strings vibrate in multiple dimensions, and depending on how they vibrate, they might be seen in three-dimensional space as matter, light or gravity. It is the vibration of the string which determines whether it appears to be matter or energy, String theory, as mentioned above, ran into a problem, another version of the equations was discovered, then another, and then another. Eventually, five string theories were developed. The main differences between the theories were principally the number of dimensions in which the developed, and their characteristics. Furthermore, all these appeared to be workable. Scientists were not comfortable with five seemingly contradictory sets of equations to describe the same thing, in 1994, Edward Witten of the Institute for Advanced Study suggested that the five different versions of string theory might be describing the same thing seen from different perspectives. He proposed a theory called M-theory, in which the M is not specifically defined but is generally understood to stand for membrane. The words matrix, master, mother, monster, mystery, M-theory brought all of the string theories together. It did this by asserting that strings are really one-dimensional slices of a two-dimensional membrane vibrating in 11-dimensional spacetime, M-theory is not complete, but the underlying structure of the mathematics has been established and is in agreement with all the string theories. Furthermore, it has passed tests of internal mathematical consistency

4.
Superstring theory
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Superstring theory is an attempt to explain all of the particles and fundamental forces of nature in one theory by modelling them as vibrations of tiny supersymmetric strings. Since the second superstring revolution, the five superstring theories are regarded as different limits of a single theory tentatively called M-theory, the development of a quantum field theory of a force invariably results in infinite possibilities. Development of quantum theory of gravity therefore requires different means than those used for the other forces, according to the theory, the fundamental constituents of reality are strings of the Planck length that vibrate at resonant frequencies. Every string, in theory, has a resonance, or harmonic. Different harmonics determine different fundamental particles, the tension in a string is on the order of the Planck force. The graviton, for example, is predicted by the theory to be a string with wave amplitude zero, since its beginnings in late sixties, the theory was developed through several decades of intense research and combined effort of numerous scientists. It has developed into a broad and varied subject with connections to quantum gravity, particle and condensed matter physics, cosmology, superstring theory is based on supersymmetry. No supersymmetric particles have been discovered and recent research at LHC, for instance, the mass constraint of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model squarks has been up to 1.1 TeV, and gluinos up to 500 GeV. No report on suggesting large extra dimensions has been delivered from LHC, there have been no principles so far to limit the number of vacua in the concept of a landscape of vacua. Our physical space is observed to have three spatial dimensions and, along with time, is a boundless four-dimensional continuum known as spacetime. However, nothing prevents a theory from including more than 4 dimensions, in the case of string theory, consistency requires spacetime to have 10 dimensions. If the extra dimensions are compactified, then the six dimensions must be in the form of a Calabi–Yau manifold. Within the more complete framework of M-theory, they would have to form of a G2 manifold. Calabi-Yaus are interesting mathematical spaces in their own right, a particular exact symmetry of string/M-theory called T-duality, has led to the discovery of equivalences between different Calabi-Yaus called Mirror Symmetry. Superstring theory is not the first theory to propose extra spatial dimensions and it can be seen as building upon the Kaluza–Klein theory, which proposed a 4+1-dimensional theory of gravity. When compactified on a circle, the gravity in the extra dimension precisely describes electromagnetism from the perspective of the 3 remaining large space dimensions, also, to obtain a consistent, fundamental, quantum theory requires the upgrade to string theory—not just the extra dimensions. Theoretical physicists were troubled by the existence of five separate superstring theories, the five consistent superstring theories are, The type I string has one supersymmetry in the ten-dimensional sense. This theory is special in the sense that it is based on unoriented open and closed strings, the type II string theories have two supersymmetries in the ten-dimensional sense

5.
'Pataphysics
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Pataphysics or pataphysics is an absurdist, pseudo-scientific literary trope invented by French writer Alfred Jarry, that enigmatically resists being pinned down by a simple definition. A practitioner of pataphysics is a pataphysician or a pataphysicist, there are over one hundred differing definitions of ‘pataphysics. Pataphysics is the science of that which is superinduced upon metaphysics, whether within or beyond the latter’s limitations, … ‘Pataphysics will be, above all, the science of the particular, despite the common opinion that the only science is that of the general. ‘Pataphysics will examine the laws governing exceptions, and will explain the universe supplementary to this one, as cited in Pataphysics passes easily from one state of apparent definition to another. Thus it can present itself under the aspect of a gas, … Jarry performs humorously on behalf of literature what Nietzsche performs seriously on behalf of philosophy. Jarry mandated the inclusion of the apostrophe in the orthography, pataphysique and pataphysics, the words pataphysician or pataphysicist and the adjective pataphysical should not include the apostrophe. Only when consciously referring to Jarrys science itself should the word pataphysics carry the apostrophe, the term pataphysics is a paronym of metaphysics. These puns include patte à physique, as interpreted by Jarry scholars Keith Beaumont and Roger Shattuck, pas ta physique, Jarry considered Ibicrates and Sophrotatos the Armenian as the fathers of this science. The Collège de Pataphysique, founded in 1948 in Paris, France, is a society committed to learned, the motto of the college is Latin, Eadem mutata resurgo. The permanent head of the college is the Inamovable Curator, Dr. Faustroll, assisted by Bosse-de-Nage, the Vice-Curator is the first and most senior living entity in the colleges hierarchy. The current Vice-Curatrice is Tanya Peixoto of the London Institute of Pataphysics and she was elected in 2014 to succeed Her Magnificence Lutembi - a crocodile. Jean-Christophe Averty was appointed Satrap in 1990, publications of the college, generally called Latin, Viridis Candela, include the Cahiers, Dossiers and the Subsidia Pataphysica. The Oulipo began as a subcommittee of the college, although France had been always the centre of the pataphysical globe, there are followers up in different cities around the world. In 1966 Juan Esteban Fassio was commissioned to draw the map of the Collège de Pataphysique, the college stopped its public activities between 1975 and 2000, referred to as its occultation. However through that time, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, Canada, The Netherlands, in the 1950s, Buenos Aires in the Western Hemisphere and Milan in Europe were the first cities to have pataphysical institutes. London, Edinburgh, Budapest, and Liège, as well as many other European cities, during the Communist Era, a small group of pataphysicists in Czechoslovakia started a journal called PAKO, or Pataphysical Collegium. Alfred Jarrys plays had an impression on the countrys underground philosophical scene. The London Institute of Pataphysics was established in September 2000 to promote ‘pataphysics in the English-speaking world, the Institute also contains a pataphysical museum and archive and organised the Anthony Hancock Paintings and Sculptures exhibition in 2002