Year 1102 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. Spring – A Fatimid expeditionary force invades Palestine and launches attacks into the Kingdom of Jerusalem; the Crusaders defeat a Fatimid rearguard near Ascalon, capture the city after a 3-year siege. The Crusaders capture with support of the Genoese fleet Caesarea Maritima. A number of Genoese trading colonies are established along the Mediterranean coast. Siege of Tripoli: The Crusaders under Raymond IV begin the siege of Tripoli; the garrison calls for assistance, but a Seljuk relief army from Damascus and Homs is defeated by Raymond. May 17 – Battle of Ramla: The Crusaders under King Baldwin I are defeated by the Fatimid army at Ramla. Baldwin and his companions escape through the enemy lines to Arsuf. May 27 – The Crusaders under Baldwin I break their way out of Jaffa, encircled by the Fatimid army. A charge of the French cavalry breaks the enemy force them to retreat to Ascalon. Raymond IV is imprisoned by nephew of Bohemond I and regent of the Principality of Antioch.

Dagobert of Pisa is deposed as Patriarch of Jerusalem. The Venetians establish a new trade emporium in Sidon. May 5 – The short-lived principality created by Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar ends: Valencia is captured by Almoravid forces under Sultan Yusuf ibn Tashfin, it is recaptured and burned by King Alfonso VI. June 4 – Władysław I Herman, duke of Poland, dies at Płock after a 23-year reign, he leaves the succession to be disputed between Bolesław III Wrymouth. The Pacta Conventa formed by the Croatian nobility, recognize King Coloman as their overlord, initiating the personal union between the two kingdoms. Coloman is crowned king of Croatia. King Henry I captures Arundel Castle after having besieged Earl Robert of Bellême. Robert is banished to Normandy. Council of London: A church council convened by Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, bans sodomy and the sale of Christian slaves to non-Christian countries, reforms the clergy. Henry I orders the tomb of Edward the Confessor be opened; the Westminster monks start to claim Edward as a saint.

February 7 – Matilda, Holy Roman Empress October 25 – William Clito, count of Flanders Chekawa Yeshe Dorje, Tibetan Buddhist monk Eleanor of Champagne, French noblewoman Gilla na Naemh Ua Duinn, Irish poet and writer Henry II, margrave of the Northern March Klængur Þorsteinsson, bishop of Skálholt Liang Hongyu, Chinese general Nerses IV, Catholicos of Armenia Peter of Tarentaise, French abbot and bishop Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick Zhu, Chinese empress of the Song Dynasty April 9 – Raoul II, Norman nobleman May 19 – Stephen II, French nobleman and crusader June 4 – Władysław I Herman, duke of Poland July 29 – Albert III, count of Namur November 1 – Anna Dalassena, Byzantine noblewoman Ermengol V, count of Urgell Felicia of Sicily, queen of Hungary Fujiwara no Kanshi, Japanese empress Giselbert II, count of Roussillon Guglielmo Embriaco, Genoese merchant Hugh VI, French nobleman and crusader Khön Könchok Gyalpo, Tibetan Buddhist monk Mahmud al-Kashgari, Turkish lexicographer Maurice, cardinal-bishop of Porto Odo I, duke of Burgundy Odon de Châtillon, cardinal-bishop of Ostia Stephen I, count palatine of Burgundy Walter Giffard, 1st Earl of Buckingham Xiang, Chinese empress and regent

Goods and Services Tax (India)

Goods and Services Tax is an indirect tax used in India on the supply of goods and services. It is a comprehensive, destination based tax: comprehensive because it has subsumed all the indirect taxes except a few state taxes. Multi-staged as it is, the GST is imposed at every step in the production process, but is meant to be refunded to all parties in the various stages of production other than the final consumer and as a destination based tax, it is collected from point of consumption and not point of origin like previous taxes. Goods and services are divided into five different tax slabs for collection of tax - 0%, 5%, 12%, 18% and 28%. However, petroleum products, alcoholic drinks, electricity are not taxed under GST and instead are taxed separately by the individual state governments, as per the previous tax system. There is a special rate of 3 % on gold. In addition a cess of 22% or other rates on top of 28% GST applies on few items like aerated drinks, luxury cars and tobacco products.

Pre-GST, the statutory tax rate for most goods was about 26.5%, Post-GST, most goods are expected to be in the 18% tax range. The tax came into effect from 1 July 2017 through the implementation of the One Hundred and First Amendment of the Constitution of India by the Indian government; the GST replaced. The tax rates and regulations are governed by the GST Council which consists of the finance ministers of the central government and all the states; the GST is meant to replace a slew of indirect taxes with a federated tax and is therefore expected to reshape the country's 2.4 trillion dollar economy, but it's implementation has received criticism. Positive outcomes of the GST includes the travel time in interstate movement, which dropped by 20%, because of disbanding of interstate check posts; the reform of India's indirect tax regime was started in 1986 by Vishwanath Pratap Singh, Finance Minister in Rajiv Gandhi’s government, with the introduction of the Modified Value Added Tax. Subsequently, Prime Minister P V Narasimha Rao and his Finance Minister Manmohan Singh, initiated early discussions on a Value Added Tax at the state level.

A single common "Goods and Services Tax" was proposed and given a go-ahead in 1999 during a meeting between the Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee and his economic advisory panel, which included three former RBI governors IG Patel, Bimal Jalan and C Rangarajan. Vajpayee set up a committee headed by the Finance Minister of West Bengal, Asim Dasgupta to design a GST model; the Asim Dasgupta committee, tasked with putting in place the back-end technology and logistics. It came out for rolling out a uniform taxation regime in the country. In 2002, the Vajpayee government formed a task force under Vijay Kelkar to recommend tax reforms. In 2005, the Kelkar committee recommended rolling out GST as suggested by the 12th Finance Commission. After the defeat of the BJP-led NDA government in the 2004 Lok Sabha election and the election of a Congress-led UPA government, the new Finance Minister P Chidambaram in February 2006 continued work on the same and proposed a GST rollout by 1 April 2010. However, in 2011, with the Trinamool Congress routing CPI out of power in West Bengal, Asim Dasgupta resigned as the head of the GST committee.

Dasgupta admitted in an interview. In the 2014 Lok Sabha election, the Bharatiya Janata Party-led NDA government was elected into power. With the consequential dissolution of the 15th Lok Sabha, the GST Bill – approved by the standing committee for reintroduction – lapsed. Seven months after the formation of the Modi government, the new Finance Minister Arun Jaitley introduced the GST Bill in the Lok Sabha, where the BJP had a majority. In February 2015, Jaitley set another deadline of 1 April 2017 to implement GST. In May 2016, the Lok Sabha passed the Constitution Amendment Bill, paving way for GST. However, the Opposition, led by the Congress, demanded that the GST Bill be again sent back for review to the Select Committee of the Rajya Sabha due to disagreements on several statements in the Bill relating to taxation. In August 2016, the Amendment Bill was passed. Over the next 15 to 20 days, 18 states ratified the Constitution amendment Bill and the President Pranab Mukherjee gave his assent to it.

A 21-member selected committee was formed to look into the proposed GST laws. After GST Council approved the Central Goods and Services Tax Bill 2017, the Integrated Goods and Services Tax Bill 2017, the Union Territory Goods and Services Tax Bill 2017, the Goods and Services Tax Bill 2017, these Bills were passed by the Lok Sabha on 29 March 2017; the Rajya Sabha passed these Bills on 6 April 2017 and were enacted as Acts on 12 April 2017. Thereafter, State Legislatures of different States have passed respective State Goods and Services Tax Bills. After the enactment of various GST laws and Services Tax was launched all over India with effect from 1 July 2017; the Jammu and Kashmir state legislature passed its GST act on 7 July 2017, thereby ensuring that the entire nation is brought under an unified indirect taxation system. There was to be no GST on the purchase of securities; that continues to be governed by Securities Transaction Tax. The GST was launched at midnight on 1 July 2017 by the President of India, the Government of India.

The launch was marked by a historic midnight session of both the houses of parliament convened at the Central Hall of the Parliament. Tho

Mu'in al-Madi

Mu'in al-Madi was a Palestinian Arab politician and member of the Arab Higher Committee. He was one of the founders of the al-Istiqlal party, which espoused Arab nationalism. Al-Madi helped organize the 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine. Mu'in was born to the large landowning Palestinian Arab family, al-Madi, in the town of Ijzim west of the Jezreel Valley; the al-Madi family rose to prominence in the first half of the 19th century under Sheikh Mas'ud al-Madi, originating from Ijzim where they owned considerable amounts of land. They expanded their holdings to the city of Haifa and dominated swathes of territory along the Mediterranean coast of Palestine, stretching from Jaffa to villages north of Haifa. Mu'in's father, Abdullah al-Madi, was a member of Haifa's municipal council from 1902-05 and 1912. Mu'in received his primary education at the government-run al-Rushdiyya School in Haifa, finishing in 1908, he enrolled in the al-Mulkiyya School in Istanbul where he learned the Turkish language.

After graduating in 1912, he began his career as an Ottoman clerk in the town of Kashmuna in Anatolia. In 1914, al-Madi was elected head of Acre's municipality and leader of Baysan. On August 1, 1915, upon suspicion of helping Arab nationalists, he was transferred to Beirut to serve as governmental employee. Following this demotion, he was tried by a military tribunal on charges of "conspiracy against the Ottoman state," but the charges were acquitted when his father interfered on his behalf. Al-Madi's demotion and trial left him embittered with the Ottoman authorities and after his release, he took up an alias and hid in the house of an Arab Christian, Najib al-Hakim, in Damascus. From 1918, al-Madi was among the focal members of an emerging group of Arab nationalists based in Haifa and linked to the pan-Arab movement of Syria which included Rashid al-Haj Ibrahim, a prominent businessman and local Haifan leader, he had joined the nationalist underground organization, al-Fatat. Al-Madi's activities centered on the Hashemites, who led the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Turks in 1917.

He served under the short-lived Damascus-based government of King Faisal ibn al-Hussein, a Hashemite, in 1920. During this period, he was appointed governor of al-Karak in Transjordan, as well as the Director of Intelligence. After the dissolution of the pan-Arab government in May 1921, al-Madi returned to Ijzim, his background in addition to his education, allowed him to take controversial stands without affecting his position as an Arab nationalist. He was one of the few members in this movement to make compromises with the question of establishing an Arab Legislative Council. By 1924, he formed a base of support in Haifa, he and Najib al-Hakim joined and offered their services without charge to the Haifa branch of the Palestine Arab Workers Society upon its founding in 1925, in order to counter the influence of the Jewish labor organization, Histadrut. On August 2, 1932, al-Madi became one of nine Palestinians who founded the al-Istiqlal party which espoused pan-Arabism, independence from Great Britain, the assertion of the Palestinian Arab identity within Greater Syria.

He was one of the organizers of the 1933 anti-British demonstrations in Jaffa. He was appointed to the Arab Higher Committee, established in early 1936 by the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Mohammad Amin al-Husayni. In June, he was dispatched to Baghdad, he managed to convince Yasin al-Hashimi, the Prime Minister of Iraq, to release Fawzi al-Qawuqji from the army to lead an Arab volunteer army against the British in Palestine. He was again sent to Iraq in January 1937, as well as to Riyadh, to garner support for the Arab revolt in Palestine, initiated the year prior, he was exiled with most of the Palestinian Arab leadership and was one of the first leaders to meet with al-Husayni in Lebanon to discuss a new Arab strategy. In January 1938, the French Mandate authorities had al-Madi banished to Alexandretta in northern Syria. Al-Madi received amnesty in 1946; the re-established AHC again appointed him a member in January 1947. He could not attend the London Conference that year due to an illness and was temporarily replaced by Sami Taha.

Because of al-Husayni's unwillingness to include wider representation in the AHC, al-Madi resigned in mid-1947. After the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, al-Madi fled his native village for Damascus where he died in 1957