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1106

Year 1106 was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. Spring – Bohemond I, prince of Antioch, marries Constance of France in the cathedral of Chartres. Philip agrees to marry the 9-year-old Cecile of France, to Tancred. Meanwhile, Bohemond mobilishes an expeditionary force to begin a campaign against Emperor Alexios I. August 7 – Emperor Henry IV escapes his captors at Ingelheim, he enters into negotiations at Cologne with English and Danish noblemen, begins to collect an army to oppose his son Henry V but dies at Liège after a 49-year reign. Henry leads an successful expedition against Count Robert II of Flanders and is forced to swear his allegiance to him. September 28 – Battle of Tinchebray: King Henry I defeats and imprisons his older brother Robert II, duke of Normandy, in Devizes Castle. Edgar Atheling and the 3-year-old William Clito, son of Robert, are taken prisoner. Henry places his nephew William in the custody of Helias of count of Arques. Autumn – Bohemond I returns to Apulia with an expeditionary force to prepare an offensive against the Byzantines.

He is accompanied by his newlywed wife followers. Sultan Yusuf ibn Tashfin dies after a 45-year reign, he is succeeded by his 22-year-old son Ali ibn Yusuf as ruler of the Almoravid Empire. Ali appoints his brother Tamin ibn Yusuf as governor of Al-Andalus. Bolesław III, duke of Poland, begins a civil war against his half-brother Zbigniew, for control over Lesser Poland and Silesia; the city of Balaguer is conquered from the Moors by count of Urgell. Roger le Poer, bishop of Salisbury, is granted land in south Wales by Henry I, he starts the construction of Kidwelly Castle on the banks of the river Gwendraeth. Magnus Erlendsson becomes Earl of Orkney. February 2 – A comet is seen and reported by several civilisations around the world. Lasting for 40 days, the comet grows in brightness until fading away. Alexios Komnenos, Byzantine co-emperor Celestine III, pope of the Catholic Church David FitzGerald, bishop of St. Davids Fujiwara no Michinori, Japanese nobleman Hugh II, French nobleman Hugh de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Bedford Ibn Asakir, Syrian scholar and historian Jeong Jung-bu, Korean military leader Magnus I, king of Sweden Matilda of Anjou, duchess of Normandy Minamoto no Yorimasa, Japanese military leader Xing, Chinese empress February 3 – Khalaf ibn Mula'ib, Uqaylid emir April 16 – Arnold I, Lotharingian nobleman May 1 – Conon, Lotharingian nobleman May 19 – Geoffrey IV, French nobleman June 16 – Benno, bishop of Meissen June 24 – Yan Vyshatich, Kievan nobleman August 7 – Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor August 23 – Magnus, German nobleman September 13 – Peter, French nobleman September 17 – Manasses II, archbishop of Reims October 7 – Hugh of Die, French bishop Ali ibn Tahir al-Sulami, Syrian jurist and philologist Domnall Ua Conchobair, king of Connacht Gonzalo Núñez de Lara, Castilian nobleman Hugh of Fauquembergues, prince of Galilee Jikirmish, Seljuk ruler John of Lodi, Italian hermit and bishop Li Gonglin, Chinese painter and antiquarian Lothair Udo III, margrave of the Nordmark Máel Muire mac Céilechair, Irish cleric and writer Minamoto no Yoshiie, Japanese samurai Nathan ben Jehiel, Italian Jewish lexicographer Richard II, prince of Capua Yusuf ibn Tashfin, sultan of Morocco

Racial antisemitism

Racial antisemitism is prejudice against Jews based on a belief or assertion that Jews constitute a distinct racial or ethnic group that has inherent traits or characteristics that are in some way abhorrent or inherently inferior or otherwise different from that of the rest of society. The abhorrence may be expressed in the form of caricatures. Racial antisemitism may present Jews, as a group, as being a threat in some way to the values or safety of society. Racial antisemitism could be seen as worse than religious antisemitism because for religious antisemites conversion was an option and once converted the'Jew' was gone. With racial antisemitism a Jew could not get rid of their Jewishness; the premise of racial antisemitism is that Jews are a distinct racial or ethnic group, compared to religious antisemitism, prejudice against Jews and Judaism on the basis of their religion. According to William Nichols, religious antisemitism may be distinguished from modern antisemitism based on racial or ethnic grounds.

"The dividing line was the possibility of effective conversion... a Jew ceased to be a Jew upon baptism." However, with racial antisemitism, "Now the assimilated Jew was still a Jew after baptism.... From the Enlightenment onward, it is no longer possible to draw clear lines of distinction between religious and racial forms of hostility towards Jews... Once Jews have been emancipated and secular thinking makes its appearance, without leaving behind the old Christian hostility towards Jews, the new term antisemitism becomes unavoidable before explicitly racist doctrines appear."In the context of the Industrial Revolution, following the emancipation of the Jews and the Haskalah, many Jews urbanized and experienced a period of greater social mobility. With the decreasing role of religion in public life and the simultaneous tempering of religious antisemitism, a combination of growing nationalism, the rise of eugenics, resentment of the socio-economic success of the Jews, the influx of Ashkenazi Jews from Eastern Europe, soon led to the newer, more virulent, racist antisemitism.

Scientific racism, the ideology that genetics played a role in group behavior and characteristics, was respected and accepted as fact between 1870 and 1940. It was not only antisemites who believed in race science but educated Jews, among others, as well; this acceptance of race science made it possible for antisemites to clothe their hatred of Jews in scientific theory. The logic of racial antisemitism was extended in Nazi Germany, where racial antisemitic ideas were turned into laws, which looked at the "blood" or ethnicity of people, rather than their current religious affiliations, their subsequent fate would be determined purely on that basis; when added to its views on the Jewish racial traits which Nazi pseudoscience devised, the logic of racial antisemitism led to the Holocaust as a way to eradicate conjured up "Jewish traits" from the world. Racial antisemitism has existed alongside religious antisemitism since at least the Middle Ages, maybe longer. In Spain before the Edict of Expulsion of 1492, Spanish Jews who converted to Catholicism, their descendants, were called New Christians.

They were accused of lapsing back to their former religious practices. To isolate conversos, the Spanish nobility developed an ideology called "cleanliness of blood"; the conversos were called "New Christians" in order to indicate their inferior status within society. That ideology was a form of racism, because in the past, there were no grades of Christianity and converts to Christianity had equal standing with life-long Christians. Cleanliness of blood was an issue of ancestry, not an issue of personal religion; the first statute of purity of blood appeared in Toledo in 1449, where an anti-converso riot lead to conversos being banned from most official positions. These statutes were condemned by both the monarchy and the Church. However, the New Christians were hounded and persecuted by the Spanish Inquisition after 1478, the Portuguese Inquisition after 1536, the Peruvian Inquisition after 1570 and the Mexican Inquisition after 1571, as well as the Inquisition in Colombia after 1610. In Medieval Europe, all Asian peoples were thought of as being the descendants of Shem.

By the 19th century, the term Semitic was confined to the ethnic groups which have spoken Semitic languages or had origins in the Fertile Crescent, as the Jews in Europe did. These peoples were considered to be a distinct race. However, some antisemitic racial theorists of the time argued that the Semitic peoples arose from the blurring of distinctions between separate races; this supposed process was referred to as semiticization by the race-theorist Arthur de Gobineau. Gobineau himself did not consider the Semites to be a lesser race, he broke people up into three races: white and yellow. The Semites, like the Aryans came from Asia and were white. Over time each of the groups had mixed with black blood; the Aryans had stayed pure longer and it was not until more recent times that they had mixed. It was this mixing of races; this idea of racial "confusion" was taken up by the Nazi ideologue Alfred Rosenberg. It was used by the Nazis to perpetuate the idea; the term semiticization was first used by Gobineau to label the blurring of racial distinctions that, in his view, had occurred in the Middle East.

Gobineau had an essentialist model of race based on the three distinct racial groups, though he had no clear account of how this division arose. When these races mixed this caused "degenerati

Alexandra, Princess of Leiningen

Princess Alexandra of Hanover, Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Princess of Leiningen, is the wife of Andreas, 8th Prince of Leiningen. Born in Hanover, Lower Saxony, Alexandra is the youngest daughter of Ernest Augustus, Prince of Hanover, his wife, Princess Ortrud of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, her eldest brother is Ernst August, Prince of Hanover, current head of the House of Hanover and her sister-in-law is Princess Caroline of Monaco. Alexandra married Andreas on 5 October 1981 at Germany, in a civil marriage, they were remarried six days in a religious ceremony at Gmunden-am-Traunsee, Upper Austria, Austria. In 1997 this marriage was cited as the most recent example of intra-marriage among the descendants of Queen Victoria and King Christian IX. Alexandra was loaned a tiara, an heirloom of the House of Welf, by her cousin Elizabeth II for the wedding. Alexandra and Andrea have three children: Ferdinand Heinrich Emich Christian Karl, Hereditary Prince of Leiningen, he married Princess Viktoria-Luise of Prussia on 29 April 2017 and religious on 16 September 2017.

Princess Olga Margarita Valerie Elisabeth Stephanie Alexandra of Leiningen. Prince Hermann Ernst Johann Albrecht Paul of Leiningen he married Isabelle Heubach on 25 March 2017 and religious on 1 July 2017. 18 February 1959 – 5 October 1981: Her Royal Highness Princess Alexandra of Hanover 5 October 1981 – 24 May 1991: Her Royal Highness Princess Alexandra of Leiningen, Princess of Hanover 24 May 1991 – 30 October 1991: Her Royal Highness Princess Alexandra, The Hereditary Princess of Leiningen, Princess of Hanover 30 October 1991 – present: Her Royal Highness Princess Alexandra, The Princess of Leiningen, Princess of HanoverIn addition, members of her birth family bear the style Prince/Princess of Great Britain and Ireland pursuant to a 1931 declaration by the Head of House Hanover, in contravention of British Letters Patent of 1917 which restricted the princely title to children and grandchildren of British sovereigns