Year 1107 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. January 8 – King Edgar dies at Edinburgh Castle after a 9-year reign, he is succeeded by his brother Alexander I –, married to Sybilla of Normandy. A split of unity, between Alexander and his younger brother David I, makes David co-ruler in Lothian and Strathclyde, he does not receives the title of king, but of "Prince of the Cumbrians". August 11 – The Investiture Controversy is resolved, by the reconciliation of Henry I and Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury and the mass consecration of bishops by Anselm at the royal Palace of Westminster: William Giffard to Winchester, Roger to Salisbury, Reynelm to Hereford, William Warelwast to Exeter and Urban to Llandaff. Roger of Salisbury is appointed Justiciar in this year. Spring – Duke Bolesław III along with his ally King Coloman of Hungary, invades Bohemia in order to aid Duke Svatopluk in gaining the Bohemian throne; the Polish expedition is a complete success: on May 14 Svatopluk is installed as Duke of Bohemia in Prague.
King Henry V demands tribute from Svatopluk as his vassal of the Holy Roman Empire. Autumn – King Sigurd I sails for the Holy Land with 60 ships on the first stage of the Norwegian Crusade to Palestine. Now 17, he is the first European king to support the Crusaders in the Levant. Sigurd leaves his older brother Eystein I to rule the kingdom in his absence – and visits England, France and Sicily en route. October 9 – Bohemond I, prince of Antioch, lands with his army in Epirus near Avlona, he plunders the countryside and marches to Dyrrhachium. November – Siege of Dyrrhachium: Bohemond I begins the siege of the Adriatic port city of Dyrrhachium held by its doux Alexios Komnenos. Winter – Bolesław III undertakes a punitive expedition against his half-brother Zbigniew with the help of Kievan and Hungarian allies. Saracen pirates raid the Benedictine monastery of Saint Honorat, on the Lérins Islands. June – Kilij Arslan I, sultan of Sultanate of Rum, conquers Mosul, but he is defeated and killed by Seljuk forces under Muhammad I Tapar supported by the Ortoqids and Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan.
The Crusaders under Tancred, prince of Galilee, recover the Cilician cities of Tarsus and Mamistra conquered by Emperor Alexios I 3-years ago. Joscelin I, lord of Turbessel, is released by Ilghazi for a ransom of 20,000 dinars and the promise of military aid. Emir Fadl ibn Rabi'ah is expelled by ruler of Damascus in Syria. August 9 – Emperor Horikawa dies after a 20-year reign and is succeeded by his 4-year-old son Toba as emperor of Japan. Chinese authorities print paper money in three colors to thwart counterfeiting. Emperor Hui Zong writes his Treatise on Tea, the most detailed description of the Song sophisticated style of tea ceremony. June 12 – Gao Zong, Chinese emperor Anthelm of Belley, French prior and bishop Enrico Dandolo, doge of Venice Falaki Shirvani, Persian poet and writer Kenkai, Japanese Shingon Buddhist monk Stephen Kontostephanos, Byzantine general William III, count of Nevers and Auxerre January 8 – Edgar, king of Scotland April 12 – Burchard, bishop of Basel May 24 – Raymond of Burgundy, count of Galicia August 9 – Horikawa, emperor of Japan September 26 – Maurice, bishop of London Changlu Zongze, Chinese Chan Buddhist monk Cheng Yi, Chinese neo-confusian philosopher Kilij Arslan I, sultan of the Sultanate of Rum Mi Fu, Chinese painter and calligrapher Richard de Redvers, Norman warrior and nobleman Robert Fitzhamon, Norman warrior and nobleman Roger Bigod, Norman knight and nobleman
Pyromania is the third studio album by English rock band Def Leppard, released on 20 January 1983 through Vertigo Records in UK and Europe and through Mercury Records in the US. The first album to feature guitarist Phil Collen who replaced founding member Pete Willis, Pyromania was produced by Robert John "Mutt" Lange; the album was a shift away from the band's traditional heavy metal roots toward more radio-friendly glam metal and hard rock, finding massive mainstream success. Pyromania charted at No. 2 on the Billboard 200, No. 4 on the Canadian RPM Album chart and No. 18 on the UK Albums Chart. Selling over ten million copies in the US, it has been certified diamond by the RIAA; the album was recorded with original guitarist Pete Willis, whose rhythm guitar tracks appear on all songs. Toward the end of the recording sessions, Willis was fired for excessive alcohol abuse, was replaced by guitarist Phil Collen, who contributed a few guitar solos as well as additional guitar parts that had not yet been recorded by Willis.
On the original LP release, Willis is visible in the background of the photograph of lead singer Joe Elliott, while Collen is given his own personal photo as the new full-time member of the group. The album can be seen as a transitional one between the heavy metal sound of their first two albums and the beginning of the radio-friendly direction of releases; the album featured heavy metal rockers such as "Rock! Rock!", "Stagefright" and "Die Hard the Hunter" as well as Top-40 hits "Photograph", "Rock of Ages" and "Foolin'". Pyromania has received positive reviews, being considered, along with its follow-up, one of the band's finest efforts to date, one of "Mutt" Lange's best productions. David Fricke of Rolling Stone praised Leppard for putting "much-needed fire back on the radio", producing sophisticated music "more charged than most of the synthesized disco that passes for'modern music'" over the airwaves. AllMusic reviewer Steve Huey stated that Pyromania was "where the band's vision coalesced and gelled into something more."
He described the songs as "driven by catchy, shiny melodic hooks instead of heavy guitar riffs, although the latter do pop up once in a while", added that "transcendent hard rock perfection on Pyromania was successful. Sputnikmusic staff reviewer enthusiastic recommended the album, "filled with tight musicianship, infectious melodies and anthemic choruses" "to pretty much anyone… No matter what their taste in music is."In contrast, Canadian journalist Martin Popoff considers Pyromania the beginning of Leppard's "creative degeneration" and criticizes Lange's "painstaking approach to detail" that strips the album "of its sweat and grit", making it sound "phony"."I remember meeting Phil Lynott…" recalled Joe Elliott. "We'd delivered Pyromania and, with us sharing a label with Lizzy, he'd heard it. He put his hand on my shoulder and said,'I heard your album – it's the reason I've split the band. I can't compete with that.' The crappiest backhand compliment I've had. I wish I had been brave enough to shove him up against the wall and say,'Well, make a better album then!'
But I just said,'Oh,' and scuttled off."With its melodic hooks and heavy MTV exposure, Pyromania became a massive success, was a major catalyst for the 1980s melodic hard rock movement. The album sold six million copies in the US in its original release, it has since been certified diamond. In 1989, it was re-released by audio fidelity company Mobile Fidelity Sound Labs as part of their Ultradisc series."Photograph", "Rock of Ages" and "Foolin'" became top 40 singles on the Billboard Hot 100 in the US, with the first two reaching the top 20. "Photograph" and "Rock of Ages" both topped the Billboard Top Rock Tracks while "Foolin'" and "Too Late for Love" made the Top 10. "Comin' Under Fire", "Billy's Got a Gun" and "Action! Not Words" made the top 40 of the Top Rock Tracks chart. In Canada, "Rock of Ages" charted highest at No. 24, while "Photograph" and "Foolin'" reached 32 and 39, respectively. The hard rock nature of the songs resulted in some Top 40 radio stations choosing to play only one or two of the singles, rather than all three.
At CHUM-AM in Toronto, one of Canada's largest audience Top 40 stations at the time, "Rock of Ages" never reached its Top 30 countdown. It topped the chart at many album-oriented rock stations such as Q107 in Toronto. In 2004, the album was ranked No. 384 on Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. In 2006, Q magazine placed the album at No. 35 in its list of "40 Best Albums of the'80s". In 2015, Rolling Stone ranked Pyromania at No. 17 among the 50 Greatest Hair Metal Albums of All Time, in 2017, the same magazine listed the album at No. 52 on its list of the 100 Greatest Metal Albums of All Time. "Comin' Under Fire" and "Action! Not Words" are listed inversely on the original Mercury vinyl release. Joe Elliott – lead vocals Steve Clark – lead & rhythm guitars, guitar solos, backing vocals, acoustic guitars on "Die Hard the Hunter" and "Foolin'" Rick Savage – bass guitar, backing vocals, Moog bass synthesizer on "Rock of Ages" Rick Allen – drums, backing vocals Pete Willis – rhythm guitars on all tracks Phil Collen – guitar solos (tra
The Miss Nicaragua contest is the national beauty pageant of Nicaragua and is a franchise of Silhuetas modeling agency. Each Nicaraguan department may choose a representative who enters the Miss Nicaragua finals, traditionally held at the Rubén Darío National Theater; the winner is crowned at the conclusion of the final competition. The pageant has been held since 1955 and is responsible for selecting the country's representatives to Miss Universe and Miss International; the winner goes to the first runner-up to Miss International. Since 2018 Miss Nicaragua only franchised the Miss Universe pageant and in 2019 Miss Charm International. Participants for the Miss Nicaragua contest must be between 18 and 28 years old, not married, have no children. After participants are chosen, 16 candidates represent their region; the majority of Miss Nicaragua winners have been from Managua. Some years, the pageant has had a theme. Luminous future". Despite only having had only three Miss Universe semi-finalists to date, Nicaragua has done well in other international beauty pageants.
The following women have represented Nicaragua in the Big Four international beauty pageants, the four major international beauty pageants for women. These are Miss Universe, Miss International and Miss Earth; the winner of Miss Nicaragua represents her country at the Miss Universe. On occasion, when the winner does not qualify a runner-up is sent. In 1979 and 1996 Nicaragua did not compete at the Miss Universe competition; the Miss Nicaragua Runner-up goes to Miss International. After losing the franchise of Miss World the second title of Miss Nicaragua participants to Miss International competition. Sometimes the winner or other candidates will be able to compete at the pageant. From 1960 to 2005 the second title of Miss Nicaragua represented Nicaragua at Miss World. In another reason the main winner could be competing at Miss World. Began 2006 Miss Nicaragua dropped the franchise of Miss World and in 2011 another team acquired the Miss World license. Before 2010 Miss Nicaragua franchised the Miss Earth pageant.
Most of the winners participated to Miss Earth. Since 2010 the Nuestra Belleza Nicaragua winner goes to Miss Earth; the runners-up and semi-finalists of the Miss Nicaragua pageant are sometimes sent to represent Nicaragua in other international beauty pageants. Winners include Sharon Amador, the first finalist in Miss Nicaragua 2006. Sharon won the Miss Ambar Mundial pageant in 2006. In 2010, the franchise for Miss Earth Nicaragua was awarded to Nuestra Belleza Nicaragua. Miss Nicaragua 2013, Nastassja Bolívar was dethroned after competing at the Miss Universe 2013 in Moscow, Russia. Miss Nicaragua Official site