Year 1108 was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. Spring – King Sigurd I sails from England, on the Norwegian Crusade to Palestine, he repels a Muslim fleet near the Tagus River attacks Sintra and Alcácer do Sal, defeats a second Muslim fleet further south. May 29 -- Battle of Uclés: Almoravid forces defeat the armies of León; the advance of the Reconquista is halted, the Berbers re-capture the towns of Uclés, Cuenca and Ocaña. The Christians, many of nobility, are beheaded. July 29 – King Philip I dies at Melun, after a 48-year reign, he is succeeded by his son Louis VI, who faces at the start of his rule insurrections, from feudal brigands and rebellious robber barons. September – Siege of Dyrrhachium: Italo-Norman forces under Bohemond I lift the siege due to illness and lack of supplies. Bohemond becomes a vassal of the Byzantine Empire by signing the Treaty of Devol. Autumn – The Principality of Nitra ceases to exist, after King Coloman of Hungary, deposes its last ruler, Álmos, duke of Croatia.

The consuls of Bergamo are first mentioned, indicating that the city has become an independent commune in Lombardy. Summer – Jawali Saqawa, Turkish ruler of Mosul, accepts a ransom of 30,000 dinar by Count Joscelin I and releases his cousin Baldwin II, count of Edessa, held as prisoner. Baldwin II marches out against Sidon, with the support of a squadron of sailor-adventurers from various Italian cities. A Fatimid fleet from Egypt defeats the Italians in a sea-battle outside the harbour; the Taira and Minamoto clans join forces to rule Japan, after defeating the warrior monks of the Enryaku-ji temple near Kyoto. The Taira replaces many Fujiwara nobles in important offices – while the Minamoto gains more military experience by bringing parts of Northern Honshu under Japanese control. Chichester Cathedral is consecrated under bishop of Chichester, in England. Construction begins on the tower of Winchester Cathedral, building continues until 1120. Pistoia Cathedral in Italy is damaged by a severe fire.

Andronikos Komnenos, Byzantine prince Baldwin IV, count of Hainaut Bohemond II, Italo-Norman prince of Antioch Derbforgaill, Irish princess Ghiyath ad-Din Mas'ud, Seljuk sultan Henry X, duke of Bavaria Leopold IV, duke of Bavaria January 4 – Gertrude, Grand Princess of Kiev March 18 – Abe no Munetō, Japanese samurai May 21 – Gerard, Norman archbishop of York May 29 García Ordóñez, Castilian nobleman Sancho Alfónsez, Castilian nobleman July 5 – Guy of Hauteville, Italo-Norman diplomat July 29 – Philip I, king of France November 15 – Enrico Contarini, bishop of Castello García Álvarez, Castilian official and military leader Gonzalo, bishop of Mondoñedo Gregory III, count of Tusculum Gundulf, bishop of Rochester Guy II, French nobleman and crusader Mafalda of Pulla-Calabria, Norman noblewoman Urse d'Abetot, Norman sheriff of Worcestershire Veera Ballala I, Indian ruler of the Hoysala Empire Wang, Chinese empress of the Song Dynasty

Dust devil

A dust devil is a strong, well-formed, short-lived whirlwind, ranging from small to large. The primary vertical motion is upward. Dust devils are harmless, but can on rare occasions grow large enough to pose a threat to both people and property, they are comparable to tornadoes in that both are a weather phenomenon involving a vertically oriented rotating column of wind. Most tornadoes are associated with a larger parent circulation, the mesocyclone on the back of a supercell thunderstorm. Dust devils form as a swirling updraft under sunny conditions during fair weather coming close to the intensity of a tornado. Dust devils form when a pocket of hot air near the surface rises through cooler air above it, forming an updraft. If conditions are just right, the updraft may begin to rotate; as the air rises, the column of hot air is stretched vertically, thereby moving mass closer to the axis of rotation, which causes intensification of the spinning effect by conservation of angular momentum. The secondary flow in the dust devil causes other hot air to speed horizontally inward to the bottom of the newly forming vortex.

As more hot air rushes in toward the developing vortex to replace the air, rising, the spinning effect becomes further intensified and self-sustaining. A dust devil formed, is a funnel-like chimney through which hot air moves, both upwards and in a circle; as the hot air rises, it cools, loses its buoyancy and ceases to rise. As it rises, it displaces air; this cool air returning acts as a balance against the spinning hot-air outer wall and keeps the system stable. The spinning effect, along with surface friction will produce a forward momentum; the dust devil is able to sustain itself longer by moving over nearby sources of hot surface air. As available hot air near the surface is channeled up the dust devil surrounding cooler air will be sucked in. Once this occurs, the effect is dramatic, the dust devil dissipates in seconds; this occurs when the dust devil is not moving fast enough or begins to enter a terrain where the surface temperatures are cooler. Certain conditions increase the likelihood of dust devil formation.

Flat barren terrain, desert or tarmac: Flat conditions increase the likelihood of the hot-air "fuel" being a near constant. Dusty or sandy conditions will cause particles to become caught up in the vortex, making the dust devil visible, but are not necessary for the formation of the vortex. Clear skies or cloudy conditions: The surface needs to absorb significant amounts of solar energy to heat the air near the surface and create ideal dust devil conditions. Light or no wind and cool atmospheric temperature: The underlying factor for sustainability of a dust devil is the extreme difference in temperature between the near-surface air and the atmosphere. Windy conditions will destabilize the spinning effect of a dust devil. On Earth, many dust devils are small and weak less than 3 feet in diameter with maximum winds averaging about 45 miles per hour, they dissipate less than a minute after forming. On rare occasions, a dust devil can grow large and intense, sometimes reaching a diameter of up to 300 feet with winds in excess of 60 mph and can last for upwards of 20 minutes before dissipating.

Dust devils do not cause injuries, but rare, severe dust devils have caused damage and deaths in the past. One such dust devil struck the Coconino County Fairgrounds in Flagstaff, Arizona, on September 14, 2000, causing extensive damage to several temporary tents and booths, as well as some permanent fairgrounds structures. Several injuries were reported. Based on the degree of damage left behind, it is estimated that the dust devil produced winds as high as 75 mph, equivalent to an EF-0 tornado. On May 19, 2003, a dust devil lifted the roof off a two-story building in Lebanon, causing it to collapse and kill a man inside. In East El Paso, Texas in 2010, three children in an inflatable jump house were picked up by a dust devil and lifted over 10 feet, traveling over a fence and landing in a backyard three houses away. In Commerce City, Colorado in 2018, a powerful dust devil hurtled two porta-potties into the air. No one was injured in the incident. In 2019 a large dust devil in Yucheng county, Henan province, China killed 2 children and injured 18 children and 2 adults when a bouncy castle was lifted into the air.

Dust devils have been implicated in around 100 aircraft accidents. While many incidents have been simple taxiing problems, a few have had fatal consequences. Dust devils are considered major hazards among skydivers and paragliding pilots as they can cause a parachute or a paraglider to collapse with little to no warning, at altitudes considered too low to cut away, contribute to the serious injury or death of parachutists. Dust devils small ones, can produce radio noise and electrical fields greater than 10,000 volts per meter. A dust devil picks up small dust particles; as the particles whirl around, they scrape into each other and become electrically charged. The whirling charged particles create a magnetic field that fluctuates between 3 and 30 times each second; these electric fields may assist the vortices in lifting material off the ground and into the atmosphere. Field experiments indicate that a dust devil can lift 1 gram of dust per second from each square metre of ground over which it passes.

A large dust devil measuring about 100 metres across at i

Trato Hecho (American game show)

Trato Hecho is the Spanish-language version of the Hatos-Hall game show, Let's Make a Deal, its title translates to "Done Deal". The show was produced in Mexico; the show lasted from January 10 to December 9, 2005. The host for this version was Guillermo Huesca, with an uncredited model referred to as la bella Elizabeth. In addition, several male actors, referred to as los Tratochicos, assisted with some deals and "modeled" some of the prizes and zonks, although they did not describe them, unlike English-language version announcers Jay Stewart and Jonathan Mangum who announced and "modeled" the Zonks. Gameplay proceeded in the exact manner as the English-speaking version, with the same wide range of deals. Contestants vied to improve their winnings without ending up with a Chasco, a booby prize equivalent to the "Zonks" on Let's Make a Deal. A trade was completed with the idiom "Trato Hecho, jamás deshecho" The budget for this version was quite small compared to the English-speaking version of the show.

Few cars were offered, the value of the Big Deal ranged from $3,000 to $6,000. However, a few nighttime specials of Trato Hecho were produced with a heftier budget. Trato Hecho, along with 100 mexicanos dijeron/100 mexicanos dijieron, ¿Qué dice la gente? & 100 latinos dijeron, are two classic 1970s game shows revived for Latin American audiences because of the close cultural connections with the US. Univision webpage Trato Hecho at "Let's Make a Deal worldwide" at