SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Kwame Nkrumah Mausoleum

The Kwame Nkrumah Mausoleum and memorial park is located in downtown Accra, the capital of Ghana. It is dedicated to the prominent Ghanaian President Kwame Nkrumah; the memorial complex was dedicated in 1992, is situated on the site of the former British colonial polo grounds in Accra. The mausoleum, designed by Don Arthur, houses the bodies of Kwame Nkrumah and his wife Fathia Nkrumah; the building is meant to represent an upside down sword. The mausoleum is clad from top to bottom with Italian marble, with a black star at its apex to symbolize unity; the interior boasts marble flooring and a mini mastaba looking marble grave marker, surrounded by river-washed rocks. A skylight at the top in the mausoleum illuminates the grave; the mausoleum is surrounded by a symbol of life. A video of the mausoleum can be found here. Mausoleum Other modern African leaders mausoleum Mausoleum of Mohammed V Bourguiba mausoleum El Alia Cemetery, Mausoleum of the Late President, Algeria; the Dr. John Garang De Mabior mausoleum in South Sudan.

Agostinho Neto's Mausoleum in Angola. Mausolée du Président Mathieu Kerekou, Benin. Omar Bongo's Mausoleum in Gabon. Léon M'ba's Memorial Mausoleum in Gabon. Mausoleum of Late President Levy Mwanawasa, Frederick Chiluba and Michael Sata at Embassy Park in Lusaka, Zambia. Domoni Mosque Mausoleum Indoor inside first president of Comoros, Ahmed Abdallah's Mausoleum. Marien Ngouabi's mausoleum in Brazzaville, The Republic of Congo. Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza's mausoleum in The Republic of Congo. Mausoleum of the late president Felix Houphouet-Boigny in Yamoussoukro, Côte d'Ivoire. Laurent Kabila's mausoleum in Kinshasa, The Democratic Republic of Congo. Gamal Abdel Nasser Mosque, is the Mausoleum of Gamal Abdel Nasser, in Egypt. Unknown Soldier Memorial Palm Grove Cemetery, Liberia. Centennial Pavilion, Mausoleum of the Late President William Tubman in Monrovia, Liberia. Late President Eyadema's Family Mausoleum in Togo. Kamuzu Banda Mausoleum, in Lilongwe, Malawi. Dr. Bingu wa Mutharika, President of Malawi built a mausoleum in which his late first wife and Bingu himself are buried.

Meles Zenawi's grave in Holy Trinity Cathedral, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. King Sobhuza II Memorial Park, Swaziland. Julius Nyerere's mausoleum in Mwalimu Nyerere Museum Centre, Tanzania; the Heroes Square, Mozambique. Amilcar Cabral's mausoleum in Guinea-Bissau. Mausoleum of the Late President of Kenya Mzee Jomo Kenyatta in Nairobi, Kenya. Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Mausoleum, Kenya. Camayanne Mausoleum and contains the tombs of Guinea national hero Samori Ture, Sekou Toure and Alfa Yaya. Nnamdi Azikiwe's Burial Site In Onitsha, Nigeria. Abubakar Tafawa Balewa's tomb, Nigeria. Mausoleum of Obafemi Awolowo, Ogun State, Nigeria. Mausoleum of Sani Abacha, Nigeria. National Heroes Acre in Harare, Zimbabwe. Kwame Nkrumah Memorial Park

Colognian phonology

This article covers the phonology of modern Colognian as spoken in the city of Cologne. Varieties spoken outside of Cologne are only covered where appropriate. Historic precedent versions are not considered. There are slight pronunciation variations in Colognian which can be considered regional within the city, some others more reflecting social status; the phonological impact of either is marginal. Spelling of Colognian can follow several standards. Pronunciation variations are allowed to show as variant spellings in all of them; because the spellings of single words may differ between systems, listing spellings in examples of phonological nature is not helpful. Thus, only IPA transcriptions are used here in examples. Colognian is part of the Continental West Germanic dialect continuum, it is a central Ripuarian language. Ripuarian languages are related to Moselle Limburgish. Local languages of all three groups are not understood at once by Colognian speakers, but comparatively learned. Other languages always spoken by Colognian speakers today are the Rhinelandic and Standard varieties of German.

Mixed language use is common today, so that in an average speakers awareness, Colognian lexemes are contrasting the two kinds of German ones as well. Colognian has about 60 base phonemes and some 22 double consonants and diphthongs, depending on analysis. With about 25 phonemes, the Colognian consonant system exhibits an average number of consonants in comparison with other languages. Notable differences with the enveloping German language are the absence of the fricative and the High German affricate /p͡f/. All Colognian consonants are pulmonic with the obvious exception of the glottal stop /ʔ/ which interrupts the pulmonic air flow. For a number of speakers, syllable-initial /v/ has a number of realizations in free variation:, and. While Colognian has only one lateral phoneme /l/, it has a variety of allophonic realizations. Arguably, is the most common. Retroflex or velar variants are possible; the phoneme may be velar. Because it corresponds to rhotic phonemes in other dialects and languages, many transcription systems represent this as /r/, though this is phonetically incorrect as does not appear in Colognian.

Some Landkölsch varieties of Ripuarian spoken outside the city have, or instead of the Colognian /ʁ/ in certain positions, or throughout. Though closely related, Colognian speakers consider these foreign sounds. Kölsch uses, or instead of, used in Standard German, in words such as "ich"; the /ɡ/ phoneme is pronounced in the beginning of a word, and, or in other word positions, depending on the syllable structure. /x/ becomes voiced due to coarticulations or liaison: → →. The phones and are, for the most part, no longer distinguishable, though they were different phonemes in the past. Acoustic discrimination between and appears nearly impossible. Though transcribed distinctly by one group of authors, there appears to be only one possible minimal pair. Acoustic discrimination between and is sometimes difficult and assimilation may cause them to overlap, but articulation differs; the Rheinische Dokumenta writing system does not distinguish between them, others most do. The phoneme /ɧ/ exists only in the syllable coda It has the allophones, in certain positions occurring both with and without coarticulation.

Whether the IPA symbol ⟨ɧ⟩ is a correct notation for the phone, is disputed. The phoneme / ʃ / has the allophone in certain prosodic circumstances; the phoneme /ʃ/ has allophonic variations. Positional ones include. Coarticulative variations cover a range from the standard English "light" to velarized and/or pharyngealized versions; the average Colognian is "darker" and spoken with the lips more protruded than English versions. Since the audible difference may be small despite different articulations, foreigners confuse it with the phone. Colognian, similar to German and other West Central German varieties, exhibits a phenomenon called terminal devoicing or Auslautverhärtung: in the word-final position, voiced consonant phonemes lose their voicing to become unvoiced. In the absence of liaisons and coarticulations, only the unvoiced, or fortis, variant is pronounced. For example, the words and have a stem-final /ɡ/. Consequentially, according to the Kölsch Akadamie orthographic rules, they are written as ⟨Sigg⟩ and ⟨Sigge⟩ while the more phonetic common, Wrede, spellings write ⟨Sick⟩ and ⟨Sigge⟩, respectively.

For the phoneme /s/ only, Colognian has initial voicing, quite like German has it. That means, /s/ never appears in word-initial position, only /z/ does. Where an unvoiced or fortis initial would be required, for instance in a word loaned from another language, /t͡s/ is used:, from Old French soupe, itself from Old High German supphan. Foreign words that are neologisms are adopted to Colognian phonotactic rules when pronounced.