Year 1119 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. June 28 – Battle of Ager Sanguinis: The Crusader army of the Principality of Antioch under Roger of Salerno is ambushed and annihilated by the combined Muslim forces of Ilghazi, the Artuqid ruler of Aleppo. Muslim troops are sack the port of Saint Symeon; the Crusader fortresses at Atarib, Sarmin, Ma'arrat al-Nu'man and Kafr Tab are captured. Ilghazi makes a triumphant entry at Aleppo, Crusader prisoners are dragged in chains – where they are tortured to death in the streets; the massacre leads to the name of Ager Sanguinis. August 14 – Battle of Hab: The Crusaders under King Baldwin II of Jerusalem defeat Ilghazi's army at Ariha in Syria. Baldwin manages to re-capture all of the Crusader returns to Antioch in triumph, he prevents Ilghazi from marching on Antioch. Autumn – Hugh de Payns founds the monastic order of the Knights Templar and becomes the first Grand Master. In association with Bernard of Clairvaux, a French abbot and religious leader, he creates the Latin Rule, the code of behavior of the Order.

The Templars get the primary task to protect the pilgrime-routes in Palestine. August 20 – Battle of Brémule: King Henry I of England defeats King Louis VI of France and his 400 knights in Normandy. A skirmish that begins with the French launching a fierce but disordered attack, ends with the French turning tail. Louis formally recognizes William Adelin as duke of Normandy. Robert I, 1st Lord of Annandale and confirms the church of St. Hilda of Middlesbrough to Whitby. September 19 – A severe earthquake hits Gloucestershire and Warwickshire. January 29 – Pope Gelasius II dies in exile after a 1-year pontificate at Abbey of Cluny, he is succeeded by Callixtus II as the 162nd pope of the Catholic Church. March – Olegarius Bonestruga, archbishop of Tarragona, preaches a Crusade against the Moors in Catalonia. Council of Reims: Callixtus II concludes peace with Henry I. There are 15 archbishops and over 200 bishops present. Council of Toulouse: The Catholic Church condemns the Petrobrusian heresy. Zhu Yu, a Chinese historian, writes his book Pingzhou Table Talks, the earliest known use of separate hull compartments in ships.

Zhu Yu's book is the first to report the use of a magnetic compass for navigation at sea. Although the first actual description of the magnetic compass is by another Chinese writer Shen Kuo in his Dream Pool Essays. February 28 – Xi Zong, Chinese emperor July 7 – Sutoku, Japanese emperor Ahmed-Al-Kabeer, Arab Sufi teacher Aldebrandus, bishop of Fossombrone Matthias I, duke of Lorraine Tancred, Norman nobleman William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey January 29 – Gelasius II, pope of the Catholic Church March 10 – Muirchertach Ua Briain, king of Munster March 29 – Peter de Honestis, Lombard monk June 20 – Henry de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Warwick June 27 – Herwig of Meissen, German bishop June 28 – Roger of Salerno, Norman nobleman July 17 – Baldwin VII, count of Flanders July 22 – Herbert de Losinga, English bishop August 4 – Landulf II, archbishop of Benevento September 13 – Gleb Vseslavich, Kievan prince October 13 – Alan IV, duke of Brittany Aedh Ua Con Ceannainn, king of Uí Díarmata Geoffrey de Clyve, English bishop Ibn Aqil, Persian theologian and jurist Johannes of Jerusalem, French abbot Robert the Leper, French nobleman Wang Ximeng, Chinese painter

Stellate ganglion

The stellate ganglion is a sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical ganglion and the first thoracic ganglion, which exists in 80% of cases. Sometimes the second and the third thoracic ganglia are included in this fusion. Stellate ganglion is big compared to much smaller thoracic and sacral ganglia and it is polygonal in shape. Stellate ganglion is located at the level of C7, anterior to the transverse process of C7 and the neck of the first rib, superior to the cervical pleura and just below the subclavian artery, it is superiorly covered by the prevertebral lamina of the cervical fascia and anteriorly in relation with common carotid artery, subclavian artery and the beginning of vertebral artery which sometimes leaves a groove at the apex of this ganglion. Relations of the apex of the stellate ganglion: covered by the endothoracic fascia and parietal pleura right stellate ganglion is in relation with right brachiocephalic vein anteriorly right stellate ganglion is in relation with sternal part of subclavian artery anteriorly laterally: first intercostal artery medially: longus colli muscle The stellate ganglia may be cut in order to decrease the symptoms exhibited by Raynaud's phenomenon and hyperhydrosis of the hands.

Injection of local anesthetics near the stellate ganglion can sometimes mitigate the symptoms of sympathetically mediated pain such as complex regional pain syndrome type I, PTSD. Injection is given near the Chassaignac's Tubercle due to this being an important landmark lateral to the cricoid cartilage, it is thought. Stellate ganglion block shows great potential as a means of reducing the number of hot flushes and night awakenings suffered by breast cancer survivors and women experiencing extreme menopause. Complications associated with a stellate ganglion block include Horner's syndrome, accidental intra-arterial or intravenous injection, difficulty swallowing, vocal cord paralysis, epidural spread of local anaesthetic, pneumothorax. Blunt needling of the stellate ganglion with an acupuncture needle is used in traditional Chinese medicine to decrease sympathetically mediated symptoms as well. Block of the stellate ganglion has been explored in coronary artery bypass surgery, as well as posttraumatic stress disorder.

Left stellectomy is a treatment strategy in prolonged QT syndrome because activity of the stellate ganglia drives prolonged QT. However, this therapy is only offered to patients who are on a beta blocker and experience frequent shocks from an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, because stellectomy causes Horner's syndrome; the stellate ganglion lies in front of the neck of the first rib. The vertebral artery lies anterior to the ganglion as it has just originated from the subclavian artery. After passing over the ganglion, the artery enters the vertebral foramen and lies posterior to the anterior tubercle of C6

Modular Ocean Model

The Modular Ocean Model is a three-dimensional ocean circulation model designed for studying the ocean climate system. The model is developed and supported by researchers at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory in Princeton, NJ, USA. MOM has traditionally been a level-coordinate ocean model, in which the ocean is divided into boxes whose bottoms are located at fixed depths; such a representation makes it easy to solve the momentum equations and the well-mixed, weakly stratified layer known as the ocean mixed layer near the ocean surface. However, level coordinate models have problems when it comes to the representation of thin bottom boundary layers and thick sea ice. Additionally, because mixing in the ocean interior is along lines of constant potential density rather than along lines of constant depth, mixing must be rotated relative to the coordinate grid- a process that can be computationally expensive. By contrast, in codes which represent the ocean in terms of constant-density layers - representation of the ocean mixed layer becomes a challenge.

MOM3, MOM4, MOM5 are used as a code base for the ocean component of the GFDL coupled models used in the IPCC assessment reports, including the GFDL CM2. X physical climate model series and the ESM2M Earth System Model. Versions of MOM have been used in hundreds of scientific papers by authors around the world. MOM4 is used as the basis for the El Nino prediction system employed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction. MOM owes its genesis to work at GFDL in the late 1960s by Mike Cox; this code, along with a version generated at GFDL and UCLA/NCAR by Bert Semtner, is the ancestor of many of the level-coordinate ocean model codes run around the world today. In the late 1980s, Ron Pacanowski, Keith Dixon, Tony Rosati at GFDL rewrote the Bryan-Cox-Semtner code in a modular form, enabling different options and configurations to be more generated and new physical parameterizations to be more included; this version, released on December 5, 1990, became known as Modular Ocean Model v1.0.

Further development by Pacanowski, aided by Charles Goldberg and encouraged by community feedback, led to the release of v2.0 in 1995. Pacanowski and Stephen Griffies released v3.0 in 1999. Griffies, Matthew Harrison and Pacanowski, with considerable input from a scientific community of hundreds of users, resulted in significant evolution of the code released as v4.0 in 2003. An update, v4.1 was released by Griffies in 2009, as was the latest version v5.0, released in 2012. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory MOM6 project MOM5 community website NOAA/GFDL Modular Ocean Model home page History of MOM MOM5 manual MOM4p1 manual MOM4 manual MOM3 manual MOM2 manual MOM1 manual Cox code technical report