TDF time signal
TéléDiffusion de France broadcast the TDF time signal, controlled by LNE–SYRTE, from the Allouis longwave transmitter at 162 kHz, with a power of 2 MW. It was known as FI or France Inter because the signal was formerly best known for broadcasting the France Inter AM signal and this signal ceased at the end of 2016, but the transmitter remains in use for its time signal and other digital signals. In 1980, the first atomic clock was installed to regulate the carrier frequency and it requires a more complex receiver than the popular DCF77 service, but the much more powerful transmitter gives it a much greater range of 3500 km. The signal is almost continuous but there is a regularly scheduled interruption for maintenance every Tuesday and this used to be from 01,03 to 05,00, but with the cessation of audio signals, it has been moved to 08,00 to 12,00. The signal was formerly 2000 kW, but has reduced to 1500 kW. TéléDiffusion de France uses an amplitude modulated longwave transmitter station, Time signals are transmitted by phase-modulating the carrier by ±1 radian in 0.1 s every second except the 59th second of each minute.
This modulation pattern is repeated to indicate a binary one, the time transmitted is the local time of the upcoming minute. Bit 15 is reserved to indicate abnormal transmitter operation, as extensions to the DCF77 code, bit 14 is set during public holidays, and bit 13 is set the day before public holidays. Unlike DCF77, bit 19 is not used for leap second warnings, bit 1 is used to warn of a positive leap second, and bit 2 is used to warn of a negative leap second. In case of a second, an additional zero bit is inserted between bits 2 and 3. The relative uncertainty of the frequency is 2 parts in 1012. One signal element is sent at each second between 0 and 58. Two signal elements are sent in sequence to represent a binary one, during ramp B of the initial signal element, the exact point the signal phase is at zero represents the top of the UTC second. Since the phase is the integral of the frequency, this phase modulation at 40 rad/s corresponds to a square frequency modulation with a deviation of 20/π ≈6.37 Hz.
Both the average phase and the frequency deviation are thus zero. Additional non-timing data is sent by phase modulation during the rest of each second, but the second marker is always preceded by 100 ms without any phase modulation. The signal is not phase-modulated at all during the 59th second past the minute, loop antenna Allouis longwave transmitter, the facility used for its transmission. Standard Frequency and Time Signal Stations On Longwave and Shortwave, archived from the original on 2006-08-18
WBNW is a business talk radio station in the Boston market. The station is owned by Money Matters Radio, Inc. and is licensed to Concord and it is simulcast on sister station WESO in nearby Southbridge, much of its programming has been relayed on WPLM in Plymouth. WBNWs flagship program, Money Matters, is syndicated to other stations in the Eastern United States through the Money Matters Radio Network. Recently talk hosts Michael Graham, Don Imus, and John Batchelor were added to the lineup, the station first took to the air August 28,1989 as WADN, with a folk music format. Much of the staff had previously worked at an earlier Boston-area folk music station. Original owner Walden Communications Company sold the station to Assabet Communications Corporation on June 4,1993, Money Matters Radio bought WADN in 1998, it had produced the stations morning show, simulcast on WPLM and, initially, on WNRB and Attleboro-based WARA, since 1997. The call letters were changed to WBNW on December 1,1998, the station currently belongs to a partnership led by Canadian American investment counsellor Barry Armstrong.
Official website Query the FCCs AM station database for WBNW Radio-Locator Information on WBNW Query Nielsen Audios AM station database for WBNW
Low frequency or LF is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range of 30 kHz–300 kHz. As its wavelengths range from ten kilometres to one kilometre, respectively, LF radio waves exhibit low signal attenuation, making them suitable for long-distance communications. In Europe and areas of Northern Africa and Asia, part of the LF spectrum is used for AM broadcasting as the longwave band, in the western hemisphere, its main use is for aircraft beacon, navigation and weather systems. A number of time signal broadcasts are broadcast in this band, because of their long wavelength, low frequency radio waves can diffract over obstacles like mountain ranges and travel beyond the horizon, following the contour of the Earth. This mode of propagation, called ground wave, is the mode in the LF band. Ground waves must be polarized, so monopole antennas are used for transmitting. The attenuation of signal strength with distance by absorption in the ground is lower than at higher frequencies, low frequency ground waves can be received up to 2,000 kilometres from the transmitting antenna.
Low frequency waves can travel long distances by reflecting from the ionosphere, although this method. Reflection occurs at the ionospheric E layer or F layers, skywave signals can be detected at distances exceeding 300 kilometres from the transmitting antenna. In Europe and Japan, many low-cost consumer devices have since the late 1980s contained radio clocks with an LF receiver for these signals. Since these frequencies propagate by ground wave only, the precision of time signals is not affected by varying propagation paths between the transmitter, the ionosphere, and the receiver. In the United States, such devices became feasible for the market only after the output power of WWVB was increased in 1997 and 1999. Radio signals below 50 kHz are capable of penetrating ocean depths to approximately 200 metres, the longer the wavelength, the British, Indian, Swedish, United States and possibly other navies communicate with submarines on these frequencies. In addition, Royal Navy nuclear submarines carrying ballistic missiles are allegedly under standing orders to monitor the BBC Radio 4 transmission on 198 kHz in waters near the UK.
In the US, the Ground Wave Emergency Network or GWEN operated between 150 and 175 kHz, until replaced by satellite systems in 1999. GWEN was a land based military radio communications system which could survive, the 2007 World Radiocommunication Conference made this band a worldwide amateur radio allocation. An international 2.1 kHz allocation, the 2200 meter band, is available to amateur operators in several countries in Europe, New Zealand, Canada. The world record distance for a contact is over 10,000 km from near Vladivostok to New Zealand
Radio broadcasting is a unidirectional wireless transmission over radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a radio format. Audio broadcasting can be done via radio, local wire television networks, satellite radio. The signal types can be either analog audio or digital audio, the earliest radio stations were simply radiotelegraphy systems and did not carry audio. For audio broadcasts to be possible, electronic detection and amplification devices had to be incorporated, the thermionic valve was invented in 1904 by the English physicist John Ambrose Fleming. He developed a device he called an oscillation valve, the heated filament, or cathode, was capable of thermionic emission of electrons that would flow to the plate when it was at a higher voltage. Electrons, could not pass in the direction because the plate was not heated. Later known as the Fleming valve, it could be used as a rectifier of alternating current and this greatly improved the crystal set which rectified the radio signal using an early solid-state diode based on a crystal and a so-called cats whisker.
However, what was required was an amplifier. The triode was patented on March 4,1906, by the Austrian Robert von Lieben independent from that, on October 25,1906 and it wasnt put to practical use until 1912 when its amplifying ability became recognized by researchers. By about 1920, valve technology had matured to the point where radio broadcasting was quickly becoming viable, however, an early audio transmission that could be termed a broadcast may have occurred on Christmas Eve in 1906 by Reginald Fessenden, although this is disputed. Charles Herrold started broadcasting in California in 1909 and was carrying audio by the next year, in The Hague, the Netherlands, PCGG started broadcasting on November 6,1919, making it, arguably the first commercial broadcasting station. In 1916, Frank Conrad, an engineer employed at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, began broadcasting from his Wilkinsburg. Later, the station was moved to the top of the Westinghouse factory building in East Pittsburgh, Westinghouse relaunched the station as KDKA on November 2,1920, as the first commercially licensed radio station in America.
The commercial broadcasting designation came from the type of broadcast license, the first licensed broadcast in the United States came from KDKA itself, the results of the Harding/Cox Presidential Election. In 1920, wireless broadcasts for entertainment began in the UK from the Marconi Research Centre 2MT at Writtle near Chelmsford, England. A famous broadcast from Marconis New Street Works factory in Chelmsford was made by the famous soprano Dame Nellie Melba on 15 June 1920 and she was the first artist of international renown to participate in direct radio broadcasts. The 2MT station began to broadcast regular entertainment in 1922, the BBC was amalgamated in 1922 and received a Royal Charter in 1926, making it the first national broadcaster in the world, followed by Czech Radio and other European broadcasters in 1923
WKQW is a radio station broadcasting a sports talk format. It previously had an oldies format until July 13,2012 and before that, licensed to Oil City, Pennsylvania, USA, the station is currently owned by Clarion County Broadcasting Corporation. WKQW remains Venango Countys only locally operated and managed full-service radio station, WKQW was founded in 1982 by local broadcaster and engineer Stephen M. Olszowka, but would not go on the air until December 1987. For most of its years, WKQW operated out of an office at 234 Elm Street in Oil City. The station moved 222 Seneca Street in 1993 when WKQW-FM went on the air, Olszowka died suddenly on February 14,2004 at age 54 and ownership of the station passed to his mother Helen Gesing Olszowka. She sold the less than a year to William Hearsts Clarion County Broadcasting for $540,000. Hearst is the owner of WWCH and WCCR-FM, both of which are licensed to Clarion County Broadcasting. Obituary of Stephen M. Olszowka Query the FCCs AM station database for WKQW Radio-Locator Information on WKQW Query Nielsen Audios AM station database for WKQW
In broadcasting and radio communications, a call sign is a unique designation for a transmitter station. In North America, they are used for all FCC licensed transmitters, a call sign can be formally assigned by a government agency, informally adopted by individuals or organizations, or even cryptographically encoded to disguise a stations identity. The use of signs as unique identifiers dates to the landline railroad telegraph system. Because there was only one line linking all railroad stations. In order to time, two-letter identifiers were adopted for this purpose. This pattern continued in operation, radio companies initially assigned two-letter identifiers to coastal stations and stations aboard ships at sea. These were not globally unique, so a company identifier was added. Merchant and naval vessels are assigned call signs by their national licensing authorities, in the case of states such as Liberia or Panama, which are flags of convenience for ship registration, call signs for larger vessels consist of the national prefix plus three letters.
United States merchant vessels are given call signs beginning with the letters W or K while US naval ships are assigned callsigns beginning with N, leisure craft with VHF radios may not be assigned call signs, in which case the name of the vessel is used instead. Ships in the US wishing to have a radio licence anyway are under F. C. C, class SA, Ship recreational or voluntarily equipped. Those calls follow the land mobile format of the initial letter K or W followed by 1 or 2 letters followed by 3 or 4 numbers. U. S. Coast Guard small boats have a number that is shown on both bows in which the first two digits indicate the length of the boat in feet. For example, Coast Guard 47021 refers to the 21st in the series of 47 foot motor lifeboats, the call sign might be abbreviated to the final two or three numbers during operations, for example, Coast Guard zero two one. Call signs in aviation are derived from several different policies, depending upon the type of flight operation, in most countries, unscheduled general aviation flights identify themselves using the call sign corresponding to the aircrafts registration number.
In this case, the sign is spoken using the International Civil Aviation Organization phonetic alphabet. Aircraft registration numbers internationally follow the pattern of a country prefix, for example, an aircraft registered as N978CP conducting a general aviation flight would use the call sign November-niner-seven-eight-Charlie-Papa. However, in the United States a pilot of an aircraft would normally omit saying November, at times, general aviation pilots might omit additional preceding numbers and use only the last three numbers and letters. This is especially true at uncontrolled fields when reporting traffic pattern positions, for example, Skyhawk eight-Charlie-Papa, left base
The station is currently owned by Exponent Broadcasting, Inc. The station had originally been broadcasting a variety of music, WXJOs transmitter is co-located with WDCY AM1520, and the stations signal is diplexed on to WDCYs antenna towers. In early December 2011, the station simulcasting on WANN-LD29. The station now broadcasts music in Spanish, WXJO has been granted an FCC construction permit to increase power to 10,000 watts daytime only and change the antenna from nondirectional to directional by erecting a second tower. In January 2016, the owners of WXJO filed an application to the Federal Communication Commission for special authorization to become silent. The reason given was At this time it is not financially feasible to operate WXJO, an application to assign the license to another party is pending. The station went on the air as WQXM on November 3,1986, originally licensed to serve the city of Gordon, in February 1989, the station changed its broadcast callsign to WYGO. Soon thereafter it changed call signs to WBNM in 1990, in March 2000, the station changed call signs to the current WXJO, previously used on what is now WFUN-FM95.5 Bethalto, Illinois.
In 2008, WXJOs city of license was moved to Douglasville from Gordon, Query the FCCs AM station database for WXJO Radio-Locator Information on WXJO Query Nielsen Audios AM station database for WXJO
WWVB is a time signal radio station near Fort Collins, Colorado and is operated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Most radio-controlled clocks in North America use WWVBs transmissions to set the correct time. A single complete frame of time begins at the start of each minute, lasts one minute, and conveys the year, day of year, minute. WWVB is co-located with WWV, an older time signal station that broadcasts on multiple short wave frequencies. While most time signals encode the time of the broadcasting nation. Radio-controlled clocks can apply time zone and daylight saving time offsets as needed to local time. The time used in the broadcast is set by the NIST Time Scale and this time scale is the calculated average time of an ensemble of master clocks, themselves calibrated by the NIST-F1 and NIST-F2 cesium fountain atomic clocks. In 2011, NIST estimated the number of clocks and wristwatches equipped with a WWVB receiver at over 50 million. LF and VLF broadcasts have long used to distribute time.
As early as 1904, the United States Naval Observatory was broadcasting time signals from the city of Boston as an aid to navigation and this experiment and others like it made it evident that LF and VLF signals could cover a large area using a relatively small amount of power. By 1923, NIST radio station WWV had begun broadcasting standard carrier signals to the public on frequencies ranging from 75 to 2,000 kHz and these signals were used to calibrate radio equipment, which became increasingly important as more and more stations became operational. Over the years, many radio navigation systems were designed using stable time, the most well-known of these navigation systems is LORAN-C, which allows ships and planes to navigate via reception of 100 kHz signals broadcast from multiple transmitters. What is now WWVB began as radio station KK2XEI in July 1956, the transmitter was located in Boulder and the effective radiated power was just 1.4 watts. Even so, the signal was able to be monitored at Harvard University in Massachusetts, the purpose of this experimental transmission was to show that the radio path was stable and the frequency error was small at low frequencies.
In 1962, NIST began building a new facility at a site near Fort Collins and this site became the home of WWVB and WWVL, a 20 kHz transmitter that was moved from the mountains west of Boulder. The site was attractive for several reasons, one being its exceptionally high ground conductivity, which was due to the high alkalinity of the soil. It was close to Boulder, which made it easy to staff and manage, but much farther away from the mountains. WWVB went on the air on July 5,1963, broadcasting a 5 kW ERP signal on 60 kHz