SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

1127

Year 1127 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. March 2 – Charles I, count of Flanders, is murdered, he has no children, King Louis VI appoints William Clito as new ruler. But the Flemish towns of Bruges, Saint-Omer and Ypres recognize Thierry of Alsace as rival count. Summer – King Roger II of Sicily claims the Hauteville possessions in Italy as well the overlordship of Capua. However, a coalition of Norman noblemen in Apulia and Calabria resist against Sicilian rule; the same year, Roger regains control over Malta after a rebellion. Roger II establishes a pact with the maritime Republic of Savona to guarantee the security of the Mediterranean Sea following an Almoravid raid against the Sicilian realm. December 18 – Conrad III is elected and crowned as anti-king of Germany at Nuremberg. King Henry I arranges the marriage of his daughter Matilda to the 14-year-old Geoffrey of Anjou; this is done to ensure an alliance between England and Anjou, to prevent Fulk allying with Louis VI. Henry I has the English nobles swear allegiance to Matilda as the rightful heir to the throne.

She becomes Queen of Normandy when he dies. Imad ad-Din Zengi, a Turkish military leader, becomes governor of Mosul, he seizes the cities of Nisibin and Harran in the Jazira Region. January 9 – Jin–Song Wars: Jurchen forces sack the Chinese capital of Kaifeng of the Northern Song Dynasty during the Jingkang Incident, they capture Emperor Qin Zong, along with his father, Hui Zong, members of the House of Zhao. June 12 – Qin Zong's younger brother, the 20-year-old Gao Zong, re-establishes the Song Dynasty in Lin'an and is proclaimed emperor; the Kalyan minaret is completed in Bukhara. April 16 – Felix of Valois, French nobleman and hermit May 23 – Uijong, Korean ruler of Goryeo July 23 – Zhao Fu, emperor of the Song Dynasty October 18 – Go-Shirakawa, Japanese emperor November 27 – Xiao Zong, Chinese emperor Bolesław I, duke of Wrocław Henry I, count of Champagne Julian of Cuenca, Spanish bishop Yang Wanli, Chinese politician and poet February 7 – Ava, German poet February 10 – William IX, duke of Aquitaine March 2 – Charles I, count of Flanders March 23 – Ottone Frangipane, Italian Benedictine monk May 16 – Gens du Beaucet, French hermit and saint August 12 – Jordan of Ariano, Norman warrior and nobleman September 1 – Álmos, duke of Hungary and Croatia October 1 – Morphia of Melitene, queen of Jerusalem November 1 – Zhang Bangchang, ruler of Da Chu November 12 – Godbald, bishop of Utrecht December 19 – Jordan II, prince of Capua Fujiwara no Hiroko, Japanese empress consort Fulcher of Chartres, French priest and chronicler Gilla Críst Ua Máel Eóin, Irish historian and abbot Gualfardo of Verona, Italian trader and hermit Minamoto no Yoshimitsu, Japanese samurai William II, Norman duke of Apulia and Calabria William III, count of Burgundy Zhu, Chinese empress of the Song Dynasty

Mubarak al-Duri

An Iraqi doctor, Mubarak al-Duri ran an agricultural project owned by Osama bin Laden from 1992–94, is alleged to have procured weapons and equipment overseas. In the 1980s, he was living in Tucson, Arizona where he was in contact with Wadi al-Hage, who lived in the city; the pair were associated with the city's fledgling Maktab al-Khidamat. While living in Khartoum in 1991, al-Duri shared an office with Al-Jihad member Abu Hassan el Masry, he was a personal friend of Syrian-American honey producer Mohammed Loay Bayazid, believed to have recruited him.al-Duri worked for the agricultural firm named Al-Thimar al-Mubaraka which exported corn and sunflower seeds, employed 10,000 workers, was in charge of their Al-Damazin Farms project, which included 4,000 seasonal workers tending nearly a million acres. An agricultural engineer named Mohammad Zeki Mahjoub met with al-Duri, at the request of Bin Laden and became the farms' Deputy General Manager. On October 17, 1993, al-Duri wrote Mahjoub a reference letter vouching for his work with the farms in al-Damazin from February 1992 until May 1993.

He is reported to have lived in Richmond, British Columbia in the late 1990s. He was in contact with Mohammad Zeki Mahjoub. In 2005, Canadian judge Eleanor Dawson released a ruling that suggested that al-Duri maintained contact with Essam Marzouk while living in British Columbia. In November 2001, al-Duri was contacted by Sudanese intelligence services who informed him that the FBI had sent Jack Cloonan and several other agents, to speak with himself and Mohamed Loay Bayazid. Al-Duri and another Iraqi colleague agreed to meet with Cloonan in a safe house overseen by the intelligence service, they were asked whether there was any possible connection between Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda, laughed stating that Bin Laden hated the dictator who he believed was a "Scotch-drinking, woman-chasing apostate.”In 2002, the CIA sent Rolf Mowatt-Larssen to again interview al-Duri and Bayazid, to see if they couldn't be made to defect, although both refused. Now lives in hiding between the Gulf states and Iraq

Thomas P. O'Neill (historian)

Thomas P. O'Neill was an Irish historian, noted for his biographies of James Fintan Lalor and Éamon de Valera. Thomas Patrick O'Neill was born in Ballon, County Carlow on 1 November 1921, he was one of three sons of Thomas O'Neill, a farmer, his wife, Anna Maria. He attended the local national school, Knockbeg College, he went on to study in University College Dublin, graduating with an MA in 1946. He was married first to Máiread O'Connor. Following O'Connor's death in 1963, in 1965 he married Marie Hughes, civil servant, fellow historian, he had three sons. A condensed version of his Masters dissertation was published as a chapter in The great famine edited by R. D. Edwards and T. D. Williams. In fact as documented by Cormac O Gráda, R. D. Edwards relied on his post graduate student for much of the structuring of that work, O'Neill was able to contribute a chapter of his choosing. Sections relating to relief works were omitted, but O'Neill published these as journal articles, one of the few professional historians to study this aspect of the Irish famine at the time.

He is credited with pioneering use of archival material, with one criticism of the chapter being that he focused on the famine relief administrators and not the recipients. His work was the foundation on which further work analysing the relief effort was subsequently built; as well as contributing this chapter, O'Neill was involved in the overall formatting of the volume, devised the questionnaire sent out by the Irish Folklore Commission. It was from this questionnaire that Roger McHugh wrote up a chapter on the folk memories of the famine, statistical maps were devised from the data which appeared in the volume. O'Neill was appointed assistant keeper of printed books at the National Library of Ireland in 1947, leading to him developing an unparalleled knowledge of the manuscript material in the collections. Under the pen-name Lionel Thomas, he wrote propaganda for the Anti-Partition Campaign; as a fellow of the Library Association of Ireland, O'Neill published a pamphlet Sources of Irish local history in 1958.

It was a collection of eight articles from the LAI's journal, An Leabharlann, looking at types of sources and how librarians could use them to aid local historians written as "a user-friendly manual". The pamphlet remained a critical research tool for local historians for a long time. While at the National Library he acted as historical adviser on the documentary films about the 1916 Rising and the War of Independence, Mise Éire and Saoirse. O'Neill published an Irish language biography of James Fintan Lalor in 1962. O'Neill could both speak and write in Irish, but was assisted by Donncha Ó Céileachair in getting this book to a publishing standard; this biography drew on unused newspaper and archival sources, is still regarded as the standard text on Lalor. Among the discoveries that O'Neill made was that Lalor had corresponded with Sir Robert Peel regarding his animosity towards the repeal movements and made proposals to quash it with land reform. O'Neill was encouraged to suppress some less favourable facts about Lalor he uncovered, but he refused.

Due to his earlier work, also because he had worked with Frank Gallagher in the NLI, O'Neill was approached to work on the authorised biography of Éamon de Valera following the death of the previous author, Frank Gallagher, in 1962. Gallagher had only completed a few chapters on the Anglo-Irish treaty negotiations. A contract for the work was signed in 1962, O'Neill was formally seconded to the presidential staff, he conducted long, regular interviews with de Valera, working directly in Áras an Uachtaráin for a period to have direct and easy access to de Valera's private papers. O'Neill would develop a rapport with de Valera and his family, leading to him remaining in contact with them for the rest of his life. In 1968 and 1970, the biography was published in the Irish language in two volumes, with an t-Athair Pádraig Ó Fiannachta as co-author; the English language version was published in 1970 with Lord Longford as O'Neill's co-author. The addition of Lord Longford was by the publishers, as they believed a high profile name would boost sales.

The English version of the biography differs somewhat from the Irish language version, only due to the new co-author: unlike the Irish version, it brings the story right up to events contemporary with its publication, commenting on the formation of the European Union which Ireland was planning to join. O'Neill was appointed lecturer in history at University College Galway in 1967 becoming associate professor. Due to his spontaneous lecturing style, enthusiasm for his subject and engagement with those he taught, he was popular with the students, he was heavily involved in the growth of extension or extra mural lecturing outside the college from 1970 lecturing to local history societies. O'Neill believed that local historians were of great importance, as they would find information unknown to their professional counterparts, he treated these local historians with respect, giving over time to answer their queries. After his retirement to Dublin in 1987, he remained in touch with those in involved in local journalism and the Galway Family History Project.

While based in Galway, in 1972 he participated in the controversy known as the Battle of the Books, when the Law Society of Ireland proposed and duly executed the controversial sale of contents of the King's Inns Library. Having protested vehemently against such a sell-off by the legal professional body of Ireland, he joined with, among others, Nick Robinson