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Brigada

Brigada known as Law of the Lawless, is a Russian 15-episode crime miniseries that debuted in 2002. It became popular in Russia and ex-Soviet countries as well as Eastern Europe, but received criticism for positive portrayal of criminals and aestheticization of violence; the miniseries follows the story of four best friends from 1989 to 2000, follows their rise in the world of crime from a local gang of petty thugs to a true mafia concentrating on the leader of the group, Sasha Belov, played by Sergei Bezrukov. The fifteen-part miniseries were written by Igor Porublyov and Aleksei Sidorov and were directed by Aleksei Sidorov; the film proceeds in chronological order, apart from the scene at the beginning of the first episode before the opening credits, taken from Winter 1997. The film begins in 1989 when Sergeant Alexander Belov, has finished his national service in the Soviet Border Troops, returns to his home in Moscow, he is greeted there by his three childhood friends, Kosmos Kholmogorov, Viktor Pchyolkin, Valery Filatov.

His return, shows that perestroika has transformed the Soviet Union life and both Kosmos and Pchyola have turned to criminal racket on Moscow's markets. They try to lure Sasha to join them, but Belov abruptly refuses and instead has ambitions to attain higher education in vulcanology. Belov learns that his former girlfriend, Yelena Yeliseyeva has become a prostitute. Enraged, Sasha ventures to the disco, finds her there, but an attempted conversation is interrupted by Yelena's pimp, Mukha. Having earlier prepared for a fight, Belov strikes Mukha in the face with a brass knuckle resulting in fracture. Before Mukha's fellow gangsters have time to beat up Sasha, Kosmos and Pchyola arrive and rescue their friend. What Bely did not know was that Mukha has strong ties in the Militsiya — his cousin Lieutenant Vladimir Kaverin. After Mukha's recovery, Kaverin agrees to cover the revenge against Belov, to result in death. Belov instead comes to the gang's gathering and challenges Mukha to a 1-on-1 fight, which the latter loses.

The fight ends Belov's relationship with Lenka. Unlike Pchyola and Kosmos, Fil instead is keen on pursuing a sporting career in boxing, his ambitions are lost when a doctor diagnoses him with early symptoms of Parkinson's disease and does not allow him to continue boxing, yet at the same time offers him to compete in an underground Mixed martial arts club. Fil makes his fighting début there and is supported by his three friends, but the audience includes Mukha, who decides to take his chance to avenge Belov by stabbing him, when a brawl breaks out among the supporters; the brawl is broken up by a man. The next morning Mukha's body is found in the hangar where the fight took place and Kaverin bribes the investigator to consider Belov the prime suspect. Soon, the militsiya plant a pistol in his clothes. Kosmos, who accidentally passes by, is asked to witness the discovery of the pistol; when requested to sign papers as a witness, Kosmos spots Sasha on the street approaching his apartment. Kosmos throws him in a car and explains what has happened.

Afterwards Kosmos hides Sasha in a dacha outside Moscow, his friends make separate statements to the investigator. Sasha's mother tries to recruit a lawyer and seeks help from Kosmos's father, Yuri Rostislavovich, a member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences and thus has numerous contacts among the Soviet elite. At the dacha, Sasha notices a beautiful neighbour, Olga Surikova, with whom he falls in love, he begins a courtship. The date ends abruptly when Olga, waiting for Sasha to return from repairing a broken heel on her shoe, notices a wanted poster on the train platform with his face and name. Sasha's friends decide to lift his spirits, with Fil's sport contacts "recruit" a group of four female swimmers, whom they drive to the Dacha for a party that ends with couples pairing off for sex; the music volume is so high. Having arrived too late to break up the party, he, discerns Belov's face, upon returning to his station recognizes him on the wanted poster and calls the OMON for an arrest, they arrive just after Fil and Kosmos drive off for more alcohol, Pchyola and Sasha escape the gunfire-rattled dacha into the woods, where Sasha takes a bullet.

Realising that he is out of money, Kosmos arrives home and drunkenly confronts his father and Sasha's mother, promising that everything is all right with Sasha. Returning to the country, they find the sheriff taken hostage by Pchyola and Sasha and, warning him not to report the incident, drive off without killing him. In the meantime, Kosmos' father spends a whole night on the phone and announces that he has cleared Sasha's name, it might be a year before he can return to Moscow. The 1989 story ends on top of Sparrow Hills as dawn breaks, with the four friends overlooking the panorama of Moscow; the blood-soaked Sasha swears to his friends that he will always remain loyal to them and to the Brigada. The film picks up in 1991 and the viewer learns that Sasha, after one and a half years of hiding in the Urals, decided that a criminal life would be natural after what has happened. Fil now works as the Brigada controls several auto-services and markets. Because, their income is insignificant and their prominence is low, Pchyola suggests to Sasha tha

List of Indian massacres

In the history of the European colonization of the Americas, an atrocity termed "Indian massacre" is a specific incident wherein a group of people deliberately kill a significant number of defenseless people — civilian noncombatants — or to the summary execution of prisoners-of-war. The term may refer to either the killing of people of European descent by Native Americans or to the killing of Native American people by people of European descent and/or the military. "Indian massacre" is a phrase whose definition has evolved and expanded over time. The phrase was used by European colonists to describe attacks by indigenous Americans which resulted in mass colonial casualties. While similar attacks by colonists on Indian villages were called "raids" or "battles", successful Indian attacks on white settlements or military posts were termed "massacres". Knowing little about the native inhabitants of the American frontier, the colonists were fearful, European Americans who had – or never – seen a Native American read Indian atrocity stories in popular literature and newspapers.

Emphasis was placed on the depredations of "murderous savages" in their information about Indians, as the migrants headed further west, they feared the Indians they would encounter.. The phrase became used to describe mass killings of American Indians. Killings described as "massacres" had an element of indiscriminate targeting, barbarism, or genocidal intent. According to one historian, "Any discussion of genocide must, of course consider the so-called Indian Wars", the term used for U. S. Army campaigns to subjugate Indian nations of the American West beginning in the 1860s. In an older historiography, key events in this history were narrated as battles. Since the late 20th century, it has become more common for scholars to refer to certain of these events as massacres if there were large numbers of women and children as victims; this includes the Colorado territorial militia's slaughter of Cheyenne at Sand Creek, the US army's slaughter of Shoshone at Bear River, Blackfeet on the Marias River, Lakota at Wounded Knee.

Some scholars have begun referring to these events as "genocidal massacres," defined as the annihilation of a portion of a larger group, sometimes to provide a lesson to the larger group. It is difficult to determine the total number of people who died as a result of "Indian massacres". In The Wild Frontier: Atrocities during the American-Indian War from Jamestown Colony to Wounded Knee, lawyer William M. Osborn compiled a list of alleged and actual atrocities in what would become the continental United States, from first contact in 1511 until 1890, his parameters for inclusion included the intentional and indiscriminate murder, torture, or mutilation of civilians, the wounded, prisoners. His list included 7,193 people who died from atrocities perpetrated by those of European descent, 9,156 people who died from atrocities perpetrated by Native Americans. In An American Genocide, The United States and the California Catastrophe, 1846–1873, historian Benjamin Madley recorded the numbers of killings of California Indians between 1846 and 1873.

He found evidence that during this period, at least 9,400 to 16,000 California Indians were killed by non-Indians. Most of these killings occurred in what he said were more than 370 massacres; this is a listing of some of the events reported or referred to now as "Indian massacre". This list contains only incidents that occurred in Canada or the United States, or territory presently part of the United States. American Indian Wars Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas List of events named massacres List of massacres in the United States List of conflicts in the United States Anderson, Gary C; the Conquest of Texas: Ethnic cleansing in the Promised Land, 1820–1875, University of Oklahoma Press, 2005, 544 pages, ISBN 978-0-89096-867-3 Baumgardner, Killing for Land in Early California – Indian Blood at Round Valley, Algora Publishing, 2006, 312 pages, ISBN 978-0-87586-364-1 Braatz, Surviving conquest: a history of the Yavapai peoples, University of Nebraska Press, 2003, 336 pages, ISBN 978-0-8032-2242-7 Churchill, Ward, A Little Matter of Genocide: Holocaust and Denial in the Americas, 1492 to the Present, City Lights, 1997, 381 pages, ISBN 978-0-87286-323-1 Heizer, Robert F.

The Destruction of California Indians, University of Nebraska Press and London, 1993, 321 pages, ISBN 978-0-8032-7262-0 Gallay, The Indian Slave Trade: The rise of the English Empire in the American South, Yale University Press, 2003, 464 pages, ISBN 978-0-300-10193-5 Gonzalez and Cook-Lynn, The Politics of Hallowed Ground: Wounded Knee and the Struggle for Indian Sovereignty, University of Illinois Press, 1998, 448 pages, ISBN 978-0-25206-669-6 Hamalainen, The Comanche Empire, Yale University Press, 2008, 512 pages, ISBN 978-0-30012-654-9 Himmel, Kelly F. The Conquest of the Karankawas and the Tonkawas, 1821–1859, TAMU Press, 1999, 216 pages, ISBN 978-0-89096-867-3 Kiernan, Ben, "Blood and Soil: a World History of Genocide and Massacre from Sparta to Darfur", Yale University Press, 2007, 768 pages, ISBN 978-0-300-10098-3 Konstantin, This Day in North American Indian History: Events in the History of North America's Native Peoples, Da Capo Press, 2002, 480 pages, ISBN 978-0-306-81170-8 Madley, Tactics of Nineteenth Century Colonial Massacre: Tasmania, California an