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Emile Vandervelde

Emile Vandervelde was a Belgian socialist politician. Nicknamed "the boss", Vandervelde was a leading figure in the Belgian Labour Party and in international socialism. Emile Auguste Vandervelde was born into a middle-class family in Ixelles, a suburb of Brussels, in Belgium on 25 January 1866. Attracted by Liberal politics, Vandervelde entered the Free University of Brussels as a law student in 1881. However, he soon became interested in emerging socialist ideas and, in 1885, joined the small Workers' League of Ixelles. In 1886, he joined the newly formed Belgian Labour Party, he worked as an academic at the Free University. Following the extension of universal male suffrage in 1893, Vandervelde proposed a manifesto for the POB, known as the Charter of Quaregnon which would form the basis for Belgian socialist politics until the 1970s. In the 1894 elections, Vandervelde was elected to the Chamber of Representatives for the industrial city of Charleroi, he held the seat until 1890, when he transferred to Brussels which he held from 1900 to 1938.

From 1900 to 1918, he held the position of president of the Second International. Vandervelde was named Minister of State in 1914 and supported the policy of resistance to the German invasion of Belgium in World War I. In 1916, he entered the de Broqueville government, he was a delegate for Belgium at the Treaty of Versailles and subsequently involved in the League of Nations. In 1923, he helped to found the Labour and Socialist International of which he held the presidency until 1938. Vandervelde's principle political aims concerned the extension of universal suffrage and social democracy; as a theoretician, he wrote extensively on the role of the state in socialism. In 1913, he was named a corresponding member of the Classe des Lettres et des Sciences morales et politiques at the Royal Academy of Belgium becoming a titular member in 1929 and director of the Classe in 1933, he was an opponent of King Leopold II's attempts to expand his constitutional powers through the creation of the Congo Free State in the period leading up to the Free State's annexation by Belgium in 1908.

Vandervelde held the portfolio of Minister of Justice between 1918 and 1921 in which role he supported prison reform, measures against alcoholism, trade union rights and women's rights. In 1922, Vandervelde joined a group of socialist lawyers including Arthur Wauter, member of the Belgian Labour Party, Kurt Rosenfeld and Theodor Liebknecht, members of the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany, they travelled to Russia as a group of socialist lawyers where they defended members of the Socialist Revolutionary Party in the 1922 Moscow Trial of Socialist Revolutionaries. This resulted in his inclusion into a satirical poem "Mayakovsky Gallery" by the Soviet poet Vladimir Mayakovsky. From 1925 to 1927, he held the role of Minister of Foreign Affairs where he contributed to the Locarno Pact, he subsequently held a position on the Council of Ministers and Minister of Public Health in the government of Paul Van Zeeland. In 1933, Vandervelde became the POB's first president but found his internationalism and reformism challenged by a new generation of Belgian socialists.

During the Spanish Civil War, Vandervelde's desire to intervene was challenged by Henri de Man and Paul-Henri Spaak. He was a freemason, a member of the lodge Les Amis Philanthropes of the Grand Orient of Belgium in Brussels, his personal papers are held by the Institut Émile Vandervelde in Brussels. Les associations professionelles d'artisans et d'ouvriers en Belgique L'Evolution industrielle et le collectivisme. Oxford, England: Berg Publishers, 1995. "Vandervelde, Emile Guillaume". Nouvelle Biographie Nationale. 1. Brussels: Académie Royale de Belgique. 1988. Pp. 344–54. Emile Vandervelde Institut Emile Vandervelde Newspaper clippings about Emile Vandervelde in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW

Christina Aguilar

Christina Aguilar is a Thai singer of Franco-vietnamese and Filipino descent, dubbed Thai "Queen of Dance". Her debut album Ninja was certified platinum for 1 million copies sold – a first for a Thai female singer, she is the first and only Thai artist to have their first four studio albums sell over 1 million copies. Her eight solo albums have sold over 10.5 million copies. Christina Aguilar is the daughter of Filipino musician Tony Aguilar and Margaret, Christina was born in Bangkok, Thailand, she has two siblings and Theresa. Her father was one of her most important music influences and she and her family sang together. Aguilar studied at the French Institute, pursuing a bachelor in business management studies in France, she does not have Thai heritage, but sometimes is mistaken for Thai because of her fair skin and ability to speak fluent Thai. In addition to Thai, Aguilar speaks French and some Spanish, she first became known for her singing abilities while in France. During her college's annual party, she was asked by her friends to perform on stage.

When she graduated, she was recruited by a French advertising agency where she worked as an assistant account executive. She returned to Thailand and worked in a travel agency; the turning point in her career was when she met Rewat Bhuddhinan chief producer for GMM Grammy, who enticed her into the music industry. Aguilar first appeared on radio in 1990, her debut single "Ninja", taken from the album of the same name, became a hit among Thai listeners. It was followed by the release of some other pop dance singles, including "Plik Lock" and "Prawatsart", some ballads, like "Hua Jai Kor Ma" and "Plao Rok Na". Aguilar broke records by being the first female artist with a million-seller album in Thailand. Arwut Lab was released in 1992; the video of the album's lead single, "Jing Mai Klua", won MTV Asian Viewers Choice Award in Los Angeles, USA. It was the second music video by a Thai artist to win this award after Thongchai McIntyre. In the album's second video, "Wela Mai Chuai Arai", Aguilar costarred with a Chinese-American actor Michael Wong.

The album has sold like its predecessor. In 1994, Aguilar released her third album "Red Beat". With a faster beat and a modern and sexy appearance, it became her most successful album to date, containing two of her most successful singles. One is the dance single "Mai Yag Rok" and the other is the love ballad "Rak Thur Thee Sood"; this was the third time. The album reached the mark of three million copies sold, being the only female album to do so in Thailand; this album became the third biggest-selling album of all time in Thai music history, only behind two albums of Thongchai McIntyre. A year she was one of five guests of Thailand's most successful singer, Thongchai McIntyre, in the album Khon Nok Gub Dok Mai, she sang with Thongchai in Asanee-Wasan' s Rak Thur Samur. In the same year, with other five popular Thai artists at that time, Jetrin Wattanasin, Patipan Pataweekarn, Tata Young, UHT, Myria Benedetti, she was included on the album 6-2-12. Both albums sold over a million copies. Golden Eye was released three years later.

She mature image. She co-wrote a song named "Tai Pa Hom Oun" for this album; the album spawned hits such as "Ya Mong Trong Nan", "Fak Kwam Yin Dee", "Mai Tong Khob Jai", "Tai Pa Hom Oun" and the gay anthem "Pood Eek Thee". Moreover, Golden Eye contains Thai-French lyrics in the song "Bai Mai", written by Aguilar; the album was still popular. In 1999, Aguilar explored a more colorful image with her fifth album 5th Avenue, it spawned the hit single "Oon Jai". It has been sold a million copies. In the same year, Aguilar released her first English-language album; the album features Sarah Jane Fearnley, an English singer who sang backup for Spice Girls and on the soundtrack of the movie Evita. This album consists of re-arranged songs in English. However, it was not as successful overseas as her second studio album, her sixth album Dancing Queen was released in 2001. It was met with moderate reception, it was the first time. However, "Kid Pid Kid Mai", has managed to top several radio charts. Due to heavy piracy situation during that time, the album became her smallest-selling album since her debut, selling 670,000 copies.

In 2003, Aguilar released Paradise. The album contained Latin sound, it spawned three singles: "Sawan Yoo Thee Jai", "Hong Derm", "Yak Fung Kum Nun Talod Pai". Paradise received well receptions. Four years Aguilar released her eighth album C. Space, featuring singles "Koh Khoom Laew", "An Everlasting Love", "Wang Meed Dai Rue Yung"; this was during an important change in Thai music industry. Aguilar has not released any studio albums since C. Space, she has focused on live performances and concerts. In late 2008, she started working on a project, Mai – Tina: Beauty on the Beat, collaborating with Mai Ch