1130 Skuld

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1130 Skuld
Discovery [1]
Discovered by K. Reinmuth
Discovery site Heidelberg Obs.
Discovery date 2 September 1929
MPC designation (1130) Skuld
Named after
Skuld (Norse mythology)[2]
1929 RC · 1928 FJ
1949 UD · 1962 LA
A906 VC
main-belt · Flora[3]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 110.38 yr (40,316 days)
Aphelion 2.6701 AU
Perihelion 1.7864 AU
2.2282 AU
Eccentricity 0.1983
3.33 yr (1,215 days)
0° 17m 46.68s / day
Inclination 2.1677°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 9.63±0.44 km[4]
9.99 km (derived)[3]
10.125±0.092 km[5]
10.24±0.64 km[6]
11.009±0.091 km[7]
4.73±0.02 h[8]
4.807±0.002 h[9]
4.8079±0.0005 h[10]
4.810 h[a]
0.24 (assumed)[3]
12.0[1][4] · 12.10[6] · 12.17[3][7] · 12.17±0.02[9]

1130 Skuld, provisional designation 1929 RC, is a stony Florian asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 10 kilometers in diameter. It was named after Skuld from Norse mythology.[2]


Skuld was discovered on 2 September 1929, by German astronomer Karl Reinmuth at Heidelberg Observatory in southwest Germany.[11] The body was independently discovered by astronomers and fellow countrymen Arnold Schwassmann and Arno Wachmann at the Hamburger Bergedorf Observatory ten nights later.[2]

It was first identified as A906 VC at Heidelberg in 1906, extending the asteroid's observation arc by 23 years prior to its official discovery observation.[11]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Skuld is a member of the Flora family, one of the largest groups of stony S-type asteroids in the main-belt. It orbits the Sun in the inner main-belt at a distance of 1.8–2.7 AU once every 3 years and 4 months (1,215 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.20 and an inclination of 2° with respect to the ecliptic.[1]

Physical characteristics[edit]

Rotation period[edit]

In January 2004, the first rotational lightcurves of Skuld were obtained by Henk de Groot and by a group of Polish and French astronomers. Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 4.73 and 4.8079 hours with a brightness variation of 0.46 and 0.40 magnitude, respectively (U=2+/3-).[8][10]

In 2009 and 2011, astronomers Robert Buchheim and Larry Robinson obtained two well-defined lightcurves from photometric observations. They gave a refined period of 4.810 and 4.807 hours with an amplitude of 0.50 and 0.26 magnitude, respectively (U=3/3).[9][a]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Japanese Akari satellite and NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission, Skuld measures between 9.63 and 11.009 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.1995 and 0.302.[4][5][6][7] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes an albedo of 0.24 – derived from 8 Flora, the largest member and namesake of this orbital family – and calculates a diameter of 9.99 kilometers with an absolute magnitude of 12.17.[3]


This minor planet was named after Skuld, one of the three Norns in Norse mythology. The asteroids 167 Urda and 621 Werdandi are named after the other two Norns.[2] Naming citation was first mentioned in The Names of the Minor Planets by Paul Herget in 1955 (H 110).[2]


  1. ^ a b Robinson (2011) web: rotation period 4.810 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.5 mag. Summary figures for (1130) Skuld at 2=Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link (CALL)


  1. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1130 Skuld (1929 RC)" (2017-03-29 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d e Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1130) Skuld. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 96. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "LCDB Data for (1130) Skuld". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  4. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  5. ^ a b Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  7. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  8. ^ a b Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (1130) Skuld". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  9. ^ a b c Buchheim, Robert K. (April 2010). "Lightcurve and Phase Curve of 1130 Skuld". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 37 (2): 41–42. Bibcode:2010MPBu...37...41B. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  10. ^ a b Kryszczynska, A.; Colas, F.; Polinska, M.; Hirsch, R.; Ivanova, V.; Apostolovska, G.; et al. (October 2012). "Do Slivan states exist in the Flora family?. I. Photometric survey of the Flora region". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 546: 51. Bibcode:2012A&A...546A..72K. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201219199. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  11. ^ a b "1130 Skuld (1929 RC)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 12 February 2017.

External links[edit]