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Millennium: 2nd millennium

The 1130s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1130, and ended on December 31, 1139.




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=Eastern Europe=
=Western Europe=

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  • Song Dynasty Chinese general Yue Fei defeats the rebel forces of Yang Yao, by entangling his swift paddle-wheel ships with rotten logs and other debris, precariously placed in the river. Yue Fei's forces easily board their ships and win a victory.
  • The domination of Baghdad by the Seljuk Turks ends.
The Near East in 1135, showing the four Crusader states and their Muslim neighbors in shades of green.


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  • In Song Dynasty China, a fire breaks out in the new capital of Hangzhou; the government suspends the requirement of rent payments, alms of 108,840 kg (120 tons) of rice are distributed to the poor, and items such as bamboo, planks, and rush-matting are exempted from government taxation.



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  1. ^ Foster, Robert W. (2002). "Yue Fei, 1103 - 1141". In Hammond, Kenneth James (ed.). The Human Tradition in Premodern China; the Human Tradition Around the World. Number 4. Wilmington, DE: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 99. ISBN 9780842029599.
  2. ^ Jung-pang, Lo (2013). China as a Sea Power, 1127-1368: A Preliminary Survey of the Maritime Expansion and Naval Exploits of the Chinese People During the Southern Song and Yuan Periods. Singapore: NUS Press. ISBN 9789971697136.
  3. ^ Xie, Jing; Heath, Tim (2017). Heritage-led Urban Regeneration in China. Routledge Research in Planning and Urban Design. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 9781317378433.
  4. ^ Kuhn, Dieter (2011). The Age of Confucian Rule: The Song Transformation of China; the Song Transformation of China. Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press. p. 76. ISBN 9780674062023.
  5. ^ Doran, John (2016). "Two Popes: The City vs. the World". In Doran, John; Smith, Damian J. (eds.). Pope Innocent II (1130-43): The World vs the City. Church, Faith and Culture in the Medieval West. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 9781317078302.
  6. ^ Wise, Leonard F.; Hansen, Mark Hillary; Egan, E. W. (2005) [1967]. Kings, Rulers, and Statesmen. New York: Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. p. 146. ISBN 9781402725920.
  7. ^ Stroll, Mary (1987). The Jewish Pope: Ideology and Politics in the Papal Schism of 1130. Leiden, New York, Copenhagen, Cologne: BRILL. pp. 11–12. ISBN 9789004085909.
  8. ^ Dunham, Samuel Astley (1839). History of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway. Volume II. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green & Longmans and John Taylor. pp. 271–272.
  9. ^ Skórzewska, Joanna (2011). Constructing a Cult: The Life and Veneration of Guðmundr Arason (1161-1237) in the Icelandic Written Sources. Leiden and Boston: BRILL. p. 46. ISBN 9789004194960.
  10. ^ Brégaint, David (2015). Vox regis: Royal Communication in High Medieval Norway. Leiden and Boston: BRILL. p. 2. ISBN 9789004306431.
  11. ^ Wang, Yuan-kang (2012). Harmony and War: Confucian Culture and Chinese Power Politics. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231522403.
  12. ^ Jung-pang, Lo (2013). China as a Sea Power, 1127-1368: A Preliminary Survey of the Maritime Expansion and Naval Exploits of the Chinese People During the Southern Song and Yuan Periods. Singapore: Flipside Digital Content Company Inc. ISBN 9789971697136.
  13. ^ Cable, Monica (1994). "Hangzhou (Zheijang, China)". In Boda, Sharon La (ed.). International Dictionary of Historic Places. Volume 5: Asia and Oceania. London and New York: Taylor & Francis. p. 325. ISBN 9781884964046.
  14. ^ Houben, Hubert (2002). Roger II of Sicily: A Ruler Between East and West. Cambridge Medieval Texts. Cambridge, UK and New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 53–56. ISBN 9780521655736.
  15. ^ Dummett, Jeremy (2015). Palermo, City of Kings: The Heart of Sicily. London and New York: I.B.Tauris. p. 35. ISBN 9781784530839.
  16. ^ Matthew, Donald (1992). "Chapter 2: The Establishment of the Kingdom". The Norman Kingdom of Sicily. Cambridge, UK and New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 33–36. ISBN 9780521269117.
  17. ^ Peterson, Gary Dean (2007). Warrior Kings of Sweden: The Rise of an Empire in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Jefferson, NC and London: McFarland. p. 9. ISBN 9781476604114.
  18. ^ Line, Philip (2007). Kingship and State Formation in Sweden 1130-1290. Leiden and Boston: BRILL. p. 80. ISBN 9789047419839.
  19. ^ Newton, Michael (2014). Famous Assassinations in World History: An Encyclopedia. Volume I: A - P. Santa Barbara, CA, Denver, CO and Oxford, UK: ABC-CLIO. p. 92. ISBN 9781610692861.
  20. ^ a b c Fletcher 1987.
  21. ^ "Annals of Loch Cé".
  22. ^ "Chronicon Scotorum".
  23. ^ "True Origins". Retrieved 2007-11-14.
  24. ^ a b McGrank 1981.
  25. ^ a b Meynier 2010.
  26. ^ a b c Picard 1997.
  27. ^ Johns 2002.
  28. ^ Kleinhenz 2010.
  29. ^ Palmer, Alan; Palmer, Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 61–63. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
  30. ^ a b "Fires, Great", in The Insurance Cyclopeadia: Being an Historical Treasury of Events and Circumstances Connected with the Origin and Progress of Insurance, Cornelius Walford, ed. (C. and E. Layton, 1876) p26
  31. ^ Yong, Tong (2012). "Yancheng, Battle Of (1139)". In Li, Xiaobing (ed.). China at War: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA, Denver, CO and Oxford: ABC-CLIO. pp. 510–511. ISBN 9781598844153.
  32. ^ Bijsterveld, Arnoud-Jan (2007). Do Ut Des: Gift Giving, Memoria, and Conflict Management in the Medieval Low Countries. Hilversum, Netherlands: Uitgeverij Verloren. p. 112. ISBN 9789065509581.
  33. ^ Avonds, Piet (2016) [2001]. "Brabant, Duchy of". In Jeep, John M. (ed.). Routledge Revivals: Medieval Germany (2001): An Encyclopedia. New York and London: Taylor & Francis. p. 72. ISBN 9781351665407.
  34. ^ Boffa, Sergio (2004). Warfare in Medieval Brabant, 1356-1406. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell & Brewer. pp. xxvii. ISBN 9781843830610.
  35. ^ Gillespie, Alexander (2016). "Volume II: 1000 CE to 1400 CE". The Causes of War. Oxford and Portland, OR: Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 56–57. ISBN 9781782259541.
  36. ^ Houben, Hubert (2002). Roger II of Sicily: A Ruler Between East and West. Cambridge Medieval Textbooks. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 70–71. ISBN 9780521655736.
  37. ^ White, Graeme J. (2000). Restoration and Reform, 1153–1165: Recovery from Civil War in England. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 50. ISBN 9781139425230.
  38. ^ Crouch, David (2013) [2000]. The Reign of King Stephen: 1135-1154. London and New York: Routledge. p. 323. ISBN 9781317892977.
  39. ^ Dalton, Paul (2002) [1994]. Conquest, Anarchy and Lordship: Yorkshire, 1066-1154. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 196. ISBN 9780521524643.
  40. ^ Evans, G. R. (2000). Bernard of Clairvaux. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 15. ISBN 9780198028994.
  41. ^ Stroll, Mary (1987). The Jewish Pope: Ideology and Politics in the Papal Schism of 1130. Brill Studies in Intellectual History. Volume 8. Leiden, New York, Copenhagen and Cologne: BRILL. p. 80. ISBN 9789004246577.
  42. ^ Birk, Joshua C. (2016). Norman Kings of Sicily and the Rise of the Anti-Islamic Critique: Baptized Sultans. New York: Springer. p. 122. ISBN 9783319470429.
  43. ^ Takayama, Hiroshi (1993). The Administration of the Norman Kingdom of Sicily; the Medieval Mediterranean. Leiden, Boston and Köln: BRILL. p. 64. ISBN 9789004098657.
  44. ^ Thierry, Augustin (2011). History of the Conquest of England by the Normans: Its Causes, and Its Consequences, in England, Scotland, Ireland, and on the Continent. Cambridge Library Collection. Volume 2. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 203. ISBN 9781108030243.
  45. ^ Solé, Glória; Reis, Diana; Machado, Andreia (Autumn 2016). "The Potentialities Of Using Historical Fiction And Legends In History Teaching: A Study With Primary Education Portuguese Students". History Education Research Journal. 14 (1): 143. doi:10.18546/HERJ.14.1.11. The second fictional narrative, Legend Of Ourique Miracle, Gentil Marques’ version (1997), focuses on the Battle of Ourique, 1139, which was fought between Christians and Moors in the Alentejo (South of Portugal), during the Christian reconquest process. D. Afonso Henriques had planned to conquer land in the south of Portugal and also seize cattle, slaves and other booty. Despite being out numbered by Muslim forces, according to legend, the Portuguese were able in the battle, with God’s help, to capture five Moorish kings and their troops. After this resounding victory D. Afonso Henriques proclaimed himself King of Portugal (or was acclaimed by his troops still on the battlefield). Accordingly from 1140 he used the denomination Portugallensis Rex (King of Portucalian or King of the Portuguese).
  46. ^ A Handbook for Travellers in Portugal: A Complete Guide for Lisbon, Cintra, Mafra, Evora, the British Battle-fields, Santarem, Alcobaça, Batalha, Coimbra, Busaco, Oporto, Braga, Guimarães, the Caldas and Mountain-passes, &c. London, Paris and Lisbon: John Murray. 1875. pp. 54–55.
  47. ^ Lea, Henry Charles (1867). An Historical Sketch of Sacerdotal Celibacy in the Christian Church. Philadelphia, PA: J.B. Lippincott. pp. 328–329.
  48. ^ Dusil, Stephan (2018). "Chapter 7: The Emerging Jurisprudence, the Second Lateran Council of 1139 and the Development of Canonical Impediments". In Eichbauer, Melodie H.; Summerlin, Danica (eds.). The Use of Canon Law in Ecclesiastical Administration, 1000–1234. Leiden and Boston: BRILL. p. 140. ISBN 9789004387249.
  49. ^ Kelly, John Norman Davidson; Walsh, Michael J. (2010) [1986]. A Dictionary of Popes. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 169. ISBN 9780199295814.


  • Fletcher, R. A. (1987). "Reconquest and Crusade in Spain c. 1050-1150". Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. 5. 37: 31–47. JSTOR 3679149.
  • Johns, Jeremy (2002). Arabic Administration in Norman Sicily: The Royal Diwan. Cambridge Studies in Islamic Civilization. Cambridge University Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-0521816922.
  • McGrank, Lawrence (1981). "Norman crusaders in the Catalan reconquest: Robert Burdet and the principality of Tarragona, 1129-55". Journal of Medieval History. 7 (1): 67–82. doi:10.1016/0304-4181(81)90036-1.
  • Meynier, Gilbert (2010). L'Algérie cœur du Maghreb classique. De l'ouverture islamo-arabe au repli (658-1518) (in French). Paris: La Découverte. p. 86. ISBN 978-2707152312.
  • Picard, Christophe (1997). La mer et les musulmans d'occident au Moyen Âge, VIIIe-XIIIe siècle (in French). Presses Universitaires de France. ISBN 978-2130488101.