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1132

Year 1132 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. Summer – Imad al-Din Zengi, Seljuk governor of Aleppo and Mosul, marches on Baghdad to add it to his dominions, he is defeated by the forces of Caliph Al-Mustarshid near Tikrit. Zengi flees and escapes with help of Tikrit's governor Najm ad-Din Ayyub who conveys him across the River Tigris. July 24 – Battle of Nocera: Rebel Normans under Count Ranulf II defeat the Sicilian forces led by King Roger II. Seven hundred knights are captured and Roger is forced to retreat to Salerno. Barnwell Castle is erected in Northamptonshire. June – A fire breaks out in the Chinese capital of Hangzhou, destroying 13,000 houses and forcing many to flee to the nearby hills. Due to large fires as this, the government installs an effective fire fighting force for the city. Items such as bamboo and rush-matting are temporarily exempted form taxation, 120 tons of rice are distributed among the poor; the government suspends the housing rent requirement of the city's residents.

The Southern Song court establishes the first permanent standing navy, with the headquarters of the Chinese admiralty based at Dinghai. Diarmait Mac Murchada has the abbey of Kildare in Ireland burned, the abbess raped, he becomes king of the province of Leinster. Malachy is appointed archbishop of Armagh in Ireland, to impose the Roman liturgy on the independent Irish Church. Fountains Abbey and Rievaulx Abbey are founded in Yorkshire. February 2 – William of Norwich, English martyr April 21 – Sancho VI, king of Navarre Andronikos Kontostephanos, Byzantine aristocrat Ephraim of Bonn, German Jewish rabbi and writer Philip of France, French prince and archdeacon Rhys ap Gruffydd, Welsh prince of Deheubarth Vladimir III Mstislavich, Kievan Grand Prince February 9 – Maredudd ap Bleddyn, king of Powys March 26 – Geoffrey of Vendôme, French abbot April 1 – Hugh of Châteauneuf, bishop of Grenoble April 14 – Mstislav I, Kievan Grand Prince June 6 – Taj al-Muluk Buri, Seljuk governor and regent October 26 – Floris the Black, Dutch count of Holland Conrad von Plötzkau, margrave of the Northern March Hugh III of Le Puiset, French nobleman and crusader William of Zardana, French nobleman

Judah HeHasid (Jerusalem)

See Judah he-Hasid for other people who used this name. Judah he-Hasid Segal ha-Levi was a Jewish preacher who led the largest organized group of Jewish immigrants to the Land of Israel in the 17th and 18th centuries. Judah traveled from one Jewish community to another throughout Poland, urging repentance, physical mortifications, calling for aliyah. In 1697, he and 31 families of his followers made a stop at Nikolsburg. Judah spent a year traveling throughout Moravia gaining followers. Many joined the group, influenced by his fervor. By the time the whole group gathered in Italy, they numbered about 1,500. A third of the pilgrims died of hardships and illnesses during the trip. On the way, they contracted debts, in exchange for permission to enter the Ottoman Empire they were forced to give the Turkish authorities financial guarantees in the name of Jerusalem's Jewish community; the group arrived in Jerusalem on October 14, 1700. At that time, about 200 Ashkenazi and about 1,000 Sephardi Jews lived in the city on charities from the Jewish diaspora.

The sudden influx of between 500 and 1,000 Ashkenazim produced a crisis: the local community was unable to help such a large group. In addition, some of the newcomers were suspected to be Sabbateans, whom the local Jews viewed with hostility; the situation grew worse. He is buried on the Mount of Olives. Emissaries were sent to the Council of the Four Lands for aid; the newcomers went deeper into debt to build a small synagogue. In 1720, Arab creditors broke into the synagogue, set it on fire, took over the area; the Turkish authorities blamed all Ashkenazi Jews for the mess, refused to make a distinction between the old Jerusalem community and the newcomers, held them collectively responsible for the debts, banned all Ashkenazim from the area. Some of the Ashkenazi Jews moved to other cities. Others started to dress like Sephardi Jews; the synagogue, called Hurvat Yehudah He-Hasid, was rebuilt in 1864 by the Perushim, becoming the chief Ashkenazi synagogue in Jerusalem. The building was destroyed by the Arab Legion in 1948.

It was rebuilt and rededicated in 2010. The Land of Promise: The Return to Zion March 27, 2003 Pre-Zionism

Stephen Tanzer

Stephen Tanzer is an American wine critic and editor at Vinous. From 1985 until he joined Vinous in 2014, Tanzer was the publisher of the critically acclaimed bimonthly International Wine Cellar, an independent journal read by wine professionals and other wine lovers in all 50 U. S. states and 34 countries, the first American wine periodical to be translated into French and Japanese. Tanzer has particular expertise on the wines of Bordeaux, as well as other prominent wine regions, including Burgundy, Washington State, South Africa. Tanzer has written wine columns for Food & Wine Magazine and Forbes FYI. Among his books are The WineAccess Buyer's Guide and Food and Wine Magazine's Official Wine Guide. Tanzer's International Wine Cellar, which employed a modern wine rating system on a 70-100 point quality scale, was considered in direct competition with Robert Parker's The Wine Advocate, though Tanzer's "controlled prose" is in contrast to the more flamboyant style of Parker. Tanzer still uses this scale in his reviews with Vinous.

In February 2010, Tanzer launched the website "Winophilia" in the wine blog format, which published short articles by Tanzer, IWC collaborator Josh Raynolds, other IWC contributors. Tanzer's wine reviews are available to CellarTracker users who are subscribers to Vinous. On November 18, 2014 Vinous, founded by Antonio Galloni, announced it had agreed to acquire Stephen Tanzer's IWC and in late 2014 IWC's archive had been transferred in a combined site home, available to both Vinous and IWC readers. IWC team members Ian D'Agata and Josh Raynolds are part of the Vinous team. Tanzer samples well over 10,000 wines annually, spending several months each year tasting and discussing wines with their makers, both in the U. S. and abroad. List of wine personalities Stephen Tanzer's International Wine Cellar official site "A Critic Who Favors Finesse Over Power", Jay McInerney, The Wall Street Journal, 28 December 2012