Year 1139 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. July 8 or August 21 – Battle of Yancheng: Song Dynasty general Yue Fei defeats an army led by Jin Dynasty general Wuzhu, during the Jin–Song Wars. January 25 – Godfrey II, Count of Louvain becomes Duke of Brabant. April 8 – Roger II of Sicily is excommunicated by Pope Innocent II during the Second Council of the Lateran. April 9 – The Treaty of Durham is signed, between King Stephen of England and David I of Scotland. July 22 – Pope Innocent II, invading the Kingdom of Sicily, is ambushed at Galluccio and taken prisoner. July 25 By the Treaty of Mignano, Pope Innocent II proclaims Roger II of Sicily as King of Sicily, Duke of Apulia and Prince of Capua. Battle of Ourique: The independence of Portugal from the Kingdom of León is declared after the Almoravids, led by Ali ibn Yusuf, are defeated by Prince Afonso Henriques, he becomes Afonso I, King of Portugal, after calling the first assembly of the Estates-General of Portugal at Lamego, where he is given the Crown from the Bishop of Bragança, to confirm the independence.

April – Second Council of the Lateran: The Anacletus schism is settled, priestly celibacy is made mandatory within the Catholic Church. June 3 – Conon of Naso, Basilian abbot June 16 – Emperor Konoe of Japan January 25 – Godfrey I, Count of Louvain and Duke of Lower Lorraine February 18 – Prince Yaropolk II of Kiev October 20 – Henry X, Duke of Bavaria December – Roger of Salisbury, English bishop Empress Xing of China


A venomoid is a venomous snake that has undergone a surgical procedure to remove or inhibit the production of snake venom. This procedure has been used for venomous snakes kept as pets or used in public demonstrations in order to remove the risk of injury or death when handled; the removal of venom glands or fangs of exhibited animals may be by simple mutilation. Removal of fangs is uncommon, as snakes regenerate teeth, the more invasive procedure of removing the underlying maxillary bone would be fatal. Most venomoid procedures consist of either removing the venom gland itself, or severing the duct between the gland and the fang. However, the duct and gland have been known to regenerate, "safe" snakes have killed mice and envenomated humans. Advocates of this procedure state that it is done for safety reasons and have published methods for this surgery. However, this procedure is controversial among herpetologists, is considered animal cruelty by many experts on venomous snakes in reference to the procedure being performed by unlicensed hobbyists with inadequate analgesia.

For instance, a veterinarian review on reptile surgery published in 2006 stated that "such practices should be discouraged" due to both ethical and animal welfare concerns. Legal questions have been raised about amateur venomoid surgeries, since the Australian 1986 Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act states that animals must be anesthetized for the duration of an operation. In 2007, the Victoria state government amended the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1986 to ban the removal of venom glands from snakes unless performed for a therapeutic reason by a registered veterinarian. In addition, a 2008 tribunal ruled that venomoid snakes cannot be handled by members of the public in Victoria, due to the risk of the venom glands regrowing. Snake charming Docking Onychectomy

New Zealand Certificate of Identity

The New Zealand Certificate of Identity is an international biometric travel document issued by the Department of Internal Affairs to an alien resident of or visitor to New Zealand, unable to obtain a national passport, or has a national passport unacceptable to Immigration New Zealand so that they can leave New Zealand. It is not issued to a person whose government is represented in either New Zealand or Australia; the New Zealand Certificate of Identity travel document contains visa pages numbered from 4 to 24. It has a validity of two years from the date of issue, it states. It states "This travel document is valid for all countries, it is the responsibility of the holder to obtain the necessary visas for travel and to comply with the immigration regulations and laws of other countries." While New Zealand has no formal policy on stateless persons as of 2013, this document has been issued to a stateless person. The Department of Internal Affairs: Refugee Travel Documents and Certificates of Identity