East Yorkshire Regiment
The East Yorkshire Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, first raised in 1685 as Sir William Clifton's Regiment of Foot and renamed the 15th Regiment of Foot. It saw service for three centuries, before being amalgamated with the West Yorkshire Regiment to form the Prince of Wales's Own Regiment of Yorkshire in 1958. Subsequently, the regiment amalgamated with the Green Howards and the Duke of Wellington's Regiment to form the Yorkshire Regiment on 6 June 2006. Raised in 1685 in Nottingham by Sir William Clifton, 3rd Baronet, the regiment was like many British infantry regiments, known by the name of its current Colonel, it took part in the Battle of Killiecrankie in July 1689 and the Battle of Cromdale in April 1690 during the Jacobite rising of 1689 to 1692. The regiment embarked for Flanders in spring 1694 for service in the Nine Years' War and took part in the capture of Huy in autumn 1694, the attack of Fort Knokke in June 1695 and the Siege of Namur in summer 1695 before returning home in 1697.
The regiment was sent to Holland in 1701 for service in the War of the Spanish Succession and fought at the siege of Kaiserswerth in 1702, the siege of Venlo that year and the Battle of Blenheim in August 1704. It went on to fight at the Battle of Ramillies in May 1706, the Battle of Oudenarde in July 1708 and the Battle of Malplaquet in September 1709, it returned to England in 1714. It was sent to Scotland and took part in the Battle of Glen Shiel in June 1719 during Jacobite rising; the regiment was deployed to South America, where it took part in the Battle of Cartagena de Indias in March 1741 during the War of Jenkins' Ear. It saw action at the Battle of Culloden in April 1746 during the next Jacobite rising. In 1751, when the numerical system of designation of Regiments of Foot was adopted, it became the 15th Regiment of Foot; the regiment went on to take part in the capture of Île-d'Aix in 1757 and, having sailed for North America in 1758, fought at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759 during the Seven Years' War.
In 1782 the regiment became the 15th Regiment of Foot. The regiment was sent to North America again in spring 1776 for service in the American Revolutionary War, it saw action at the Battle of Long Island in August 1776, the Battle of White Plains in October 1776 and the Battle of Fort Washington in November 1776. It took part in the Battle of Brandywine in September 1777, the Battle of Germantown in October 1777 and the Battle of White Marsh in December 1777; the regiment was deployed to the West Indies in 1795 for service in the French Revolutionary Wars and fought at attacks on Martinique and Guadeloupe before returning to England in 1796. The regiment returned to the West Indies in 1805 for service in the Napoleonic Wars and took part in the invasion of Martinique in January 1809 and the invasion of Guadeloupe in January 1810; the regiment spent most of the 19th century on garrison duty, both at home and throughout the Empire. The 1st Battalion was shipped to New Brunswick in 1862 at the time of the Trent Affair, when Britain and the United States came close to war.
The regiment was not fundamentally affected by the Cardwell Reforms of the 1870s, which gave it a depot at Victoria Barracks, Beverley from 1873, or by the Childers reforms of 1881 – as it possessed two battalions, there was no need for it to amalgamate with another regiment. Under the reforms the regiment became The East Yorkshire Regiment on 1 July 1881; the 1st battalion was stationed at Gibraltar in 1885, moved to the West Indies in 1886 to South Africa in 1888 and to Egypt in 1893. From 1895 the battalion was stationed in British India, where they had various postings, including at Belgaum and Fort St. George in Madras Presidency until late 1902 when it was posted to Shwebo in Burma; the 2nd Battalion was stationed in British India from 1875 to February 1888, fought in the Second Anglo-Afghan War. After six months in Aden that year, the battalion was back in England until November 1894, when it was stationed in Ireland; the Second Boer War started in South Africa in October 1899. After a series of defeats in the early months of the war, the British government sent large number of troops there as reinforcements in early 1900, including the 2nd Battalion East Yorkshire.
870 officers and men embarked on the SS Nile from Southampton in March 1900, arrived in South Africa the following month. The 3rd battalion, formed from the East York Militia in 1881, was a reserve battalion, it was embodied in May 1900, disembodied in December that year, re-embodied for service in South Africa during the Second Boer War. About 560 officers and men returned to Southampton on the SS Greek in early October 1902, following the end of the war, when the battalion was disembodied at Beverley. In 1908, the Volunteers and Militia were reorganised nationally, with the former becoming the Territorial Force and the latter the Special Reserve; the 1st Battalion landed at Saint-Nazaire as part of the 18th Brigade in the 6th Division in September 1914 for service on the Western Front. The 2nd Battalion landed at Le Havre as part of the 83rd Brigade in the 28th Division in January 1915 for service on the Western Front before moving to Salonika in October 1915 for service on the Macedonian Front.
The 1/4th Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the York and Durham Brigade in the Northumbrian Division in April 1915 for service on the Western Front. The 2/4th Battalion served in Bermuda and the 3/4th Battalion remained at home and trained reinforcements; the 5th Battalion served as part of the Tyne Garrison. The 6th Battalion landed at Suvl
45th (Nottinghamshire) (Sherwood Foresters) Regiment of Foot
The 45th Regiment of Foot was a British Army line infantry regiment, raised in 1741. The regiment saw action during Father Le Loutre's War, the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War as well as the Peninsular War, the First Anglo-Burmese War and the Xhosa Wars. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 95th Regiment of Foot to form the Sherwood Foresters in 1881; the regiment was raised by Colonel Daniel Houghton as Houghton's Regiment in 1741 for service during the War of the Austrian Succession. It was first posted to Gibraltar in 1745, before moving to Nova Scotia in 1747 for garrison duty under the command of Warburton; the regiment was ranked as the 56th Regiment of Foot in 1747 but was re-ranked the following year as the 45th Regiment of Foot in 1748. On 1 July 1751 the regiment adopted the numerical system rather being named after the commander; the regiment fell victim to a raid on Dartmouth in May 1751 during Father Le Loutre's War when Mi'kmaq and Acadia militia from Chignecto, under the command of Acadian Joseph Broussard, raided Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, destroying the town, killing twenty British villagers and torturing and mutilating a sergeant from the 45th Foot.
The regiment defeated the local militia at the Battle of Fort Beauséjour in June 1755. The regiment took part in the Siege of Louisbourg in July 1758 during the French and Indian War; the regiment saw action in North America during the American War of Independence, fighting at the Battle of Long Island in August 1776 before returning to England in 1778. In 1779 the citizens of Nottinghamshire petitioned for the regiment to have the county name included in the regimental name: this was granted and the regiment became the 45th Regiment. In March 1786 the regiment embarked for the West Indies and garrisoned Martinique, Dominica and Îles des Saintes during the French Revolutionary Wars. In May 1801, on the home journey, some 150 French prisoners aboard the ship, the Windsor, overpowered the guard, locked the officers in their cabins and took possession of the ship. In spring 1807 the regiment embarked on the disastrous British invasion of the River Plate: it saw action at the Second Battle of Buenos Aires in July 1807 but, in the face of defeat, discipline collapsed and eleven men of the regiment disappeared.
However another unit of the regiment charged the enemy, taking two howitzers and many prisoners. The regiment embarked for Portugal in July 1808 to serve under General Sir Arthur Wellesley in the Peninsular War; the regiment fought at the Battle of Roliça in August 1808, the Battle of Vimeiro that month and the Battle of Talavera, where it won the nickname "Old Stubborns", in July 1809. The regiment went on to fight at the Battle of Bussaco in September 1810 before falling back to the Lines of Torres Vedras, it saw action again at Battle of Fuentes de Oñoro in May 1811, the Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo in January 1812 and the Siege of Badajoz in March 1812 before fighting at the Battle of Salamanca in July 1812 and the Battle of Vitoria in June 1813. It pursued the French Army into France and fought at the Battle of the Pyrenees in July 1813, the Battle of Nivelle in November 1813 and the Battle of Orthez in February 1814 as well as the Battle of Toulouse in April 1814; the regiment returned home in June 1814.
The regiment was sent to Ceylon in January 1819 and to Burma in 1824 for service in the First Anglo-Burmese War. It formed part of an army which advanced up the River Irrawaddy to the Kingdom of Ava and returned to England in March 1838. In May 1838 the regiment took part in the Battle of Bossenden Wood, a skirmish between a small group of labourers from the Hernhill and Boughton area and a detachment of soldiers of the 45th regiment sent from Canterbury to arrest the marchers' leader, the self-styled Sir William Courtenay, John Nichols Tom, a Truro maltster who had spent four years in Kent County Lunatic Asylum; the regiment was deployed to South Africa in 1843 and saw action in the Seventh Xhosa War in 1846 and the Eighth Xhosa War in 1851 before returning home in 1859. In 1866, the regiment became the 45th Regiment of Foot, it took part in the British Expedition to Abyssinia in 1867. As part of the Cardwell Reforms of the 1870s, where single-battalion regiments were linked together to share a single depot and recruiting district in the United Kingdom, the 45th was linked with the 17th Regiment of Foot), assigned to district no. 27 at Glen Parva Barracks in Leicestershire.
On 1 July 1881 the Childers Reforms came into effect and the regiment amalgamated with the 95th Regiment to form the Sherwood Foresters. The regiment's battle honours were as follows: Louisburg, Vimiera, Busaco, Fuentes D'Onoro, Ciudad Rodrigo, Salamanca, Pyrenees, Orthes, Peninsula, South Africa 1846–47, Colonels of the regiment were: 1741–1745: Brig-Gen. Daniel Houghton 1745–1761: Gen. Hugh Warburton 1761: Maj-Gen. Andrew Robinson 1761–1767: Maj-Gen. Hon. John Boscawen 1767–1784: Gen. William Haviland 1784–1787: Maj-Gen. Sir John Wrottesley, 8th Baronet 1787–1788: Lt-Gen. James Cuninghame 1788–1802: Gen. James Whorwood Adeane 1802–1823: Gen. Frederick Cavendish Lister 1823–1837: Gen. Richard Lambart, 7th Earl of Cavan, KC 1837–1840: Lt-Gen. Sir William Henry Pringle, GCB 1840–1847: Gen. Sir Fitzroy Jeffries Grafton Maclean, Bt. 1847–1856: Gen. Sir Colin Halkett, GCB, GCH 1856–1858: Gen. Thomas Brabazon Aylmer 1858–1866: F. M. Sir Hugh Rose, 1st Baron Strathnairn, GCB, GCSI 1866–1868: Gen. Thomas Armstrong Drought 1868–1876: Gen. Frederick Horn, GCB 1876–1878: Gen. Henry Cooper 1878–
Duke of Wellington's Regiment
The Duke of Wellington's Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, forming part of the King's Division. In 1702 Colonel George Hastings, 8th Earl of Huntingdon, was authorised to raise a new regiment, which he did in and around the city of Gloucester; as was the custom in those days the regiment was named Huntingdon's Regiment after its Colonel. As Colonel succeeded Colonel the name changed, but in 1751 regiments were given numbers, the regiment was from that time known as the 33rd Regiment of Foot. In 1782 the regiment's title was changed to the 33rd Regiment, thus formalising an association with the West Riding of Yorkshire which then, had been long established; the first Duke of Wellington died in 1852 and in the following year Queen Victoria, in recognition of the regiment's long ties to him, ordered that the regiment's title be changed to the 33rd Regiment. In 1881, following the Childers Reforms, the 33rd was linked with the 76th Regiment of Foot, who shared their depot in Halifax.
The 76th had first been raised in 1745, by Simon Harcourt and disbanded in 1746, re-raised in 1756 disbanded again in 1763, before being raised again in 1777, disbanded in 1784 and re-raised, in 1787, for service in India, by the Honorable East India Company. The two regiments became the 1st and 2nd battalions of the Duke of Wellington's Regiment. In 1948 the 1st and 2nd battalions were amalgamated into the 1st Battalion. On 6 June 2006 the'Dukes' were amalgamated with the Prince of Wales's Own Regiment of Yorkshire and the Green Howards to form the 3rd Battalion, Yorkshire Regiment. Following further mergers, in 2012, the battalion was redesignated as the new 1st Battalion of the regiment. Battalions from the regiment had served in most land conflicts involving British forces since its formation, from the Wars of the Austrian and Spanish successions, through the American war of Independence and various campaigns in India and Africa, the Napoleonic Wars, the Second Boer War and many of the greatest battles of the First World War and the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919.
During the Second World War, the regiment fought as part of the British Expeditionary Force in France, forming part of the rearguard at Dunkirk. In Korea, the'Dukes' desperate defence of the Hook position halted the last major Chinese attempt to break the United Nations Line before the truce, in July 1953, brought the war to an end. In Cyprus the battalion was successful in Operation Golden Rain, destroying a major EOKA terrorist group operating in the Troodos Mountains in 1956. In 1964 the battalion joined the NATO deterrence in Germany on the front line in the Cold War and from 1971 was engaged in'the Troubles' in Ulster until 1997, they were amongst the first units to cross the border from Kuwait in the 2003 Iraq War. Nine soldiers from the regiment have been awarded the Victoria Cross, Corporal Wayne Mills of the 1st Battalion became the first recipient of the Conspicuous Gallantry Cross in 1994, whilst serving with the United Nations forces in Bosnia; the Duke of Wellington's Regiment was formed in 1702 as Huntingdon's Regiment.
As regiments at that time took the name of the Colonel taking it over it became:- Henry Leigh's Regiment. It was disbanded on 25 March 1714, but was registered as the 33rd Regiment of Foot in January 1715 and re-raised on 25 March 1715, as George Wade's Regiment. In 1782 Lord Cornwallis, the Colonel of the Regiment, wrote that "The 33rd Regiment of Infantry has always recruited in the West Riding of Yorkshire and has a good interest and the general goodwill of the people in that part of the country:- I should therefore wish not only to be permitted to recruit in that county, but that my Regiment may bear the name of the 33rd or West Yorkshire Regiment". On 31 August 1782 Lord Cornwallis heard that the King had approved of the new title:- 33rd Regiment of Foot. Owing to its links with the Duke of Wellington, the title'The Duke of Wellington's Regiment' was granted to the 33rd Regiment on 18 June 1853, on the anniversary of the Battle of Waterloo in the year following Wellington's death; the 76th Regiment was raised, by Simon Harcourt as Lord Harcourt's Regiment on 17 November 1745 and disbanded in June 1746.
Following the loss of Menorca, to the French, it was reraised in November 1756 as the 61st Regiment, but renumbered to 76th, by General Order in 1758, again disbanded in 1763. A second battalion raised by that regiment in October 1758, for service in Africa, was renumbered as the 86th Regiment and disbanded in 1763. On 25 December 1777, the 76th was again re-raised, as the 76th Regiment of Foot, by Colonel John MacDonell of Lochgarry, in the West of Scotland and Western Isles, as a Scottish Light Infantry regiment, it was disbanded at Stirling Castle in March 1784. The regiment was again raised for service in India by the Honorable East India Company in 1787. In 1881 the 76th Regiment, which shared the same Depot in Halifax as the 33rd, was linked to the 33rd, under the Childers Reforms, to become the 2nd Battalion. Although retitled as the Halifax Regiment this title only lasted six months until it was changed on 30 June 1881, in a revised appendix to General order 41, to:- The Duke of Wellington's (West Riding Regimen
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
The Devonshire Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army which served under various titles and served in many wars and conflicts from 1685 to 1958, such as the Second Boer War, the First World War and the Second World War. In 1958 the regiment was amalgamated with the Dorset Regiment to form the Devonshire and Dorset Regiment which, in 2007, was amalgamated with the Royal Gloucestershire and Wiltshire Regiment, the Royal Green Jackets and The Light Infantry to form a new large regiment, The Rifles. In June 1667 Henry Somerset, Marquess of Worcester, was granted a commission to raise a regiment of foot, The Marquess of Worcester's Regiment of Foot; the regiment was disbanded in the same year. It was re-raised in January 1673 and again disbanded in 1674. In 1682, Henry Somerset was created Duke of Beaufort, in 1685 he was again commissioned to raise a regiment, The Duke of Beaufort's Regiment of Foot, or Beaufort Musketeers, to defend Bristol against the Duke of Monmouth's rebellion.
The regiment was not required to fight at the time of its formation since the Duke of Monmouth was drawn away from Bristol. Its first action came in Ireland at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690 and the Siege of Limerick in August 1691 when it fought for William III against the Irish Army of the deposed James II, it joined the armies of the Duke of Marlborough in Holland in the War of Spanish Succession in 1703, fought in the Iberian Campaign, being captured by the French at Portalegre in 1704 and part of the British army defeated at the Battle of Almansa in April 1707. Back in the United Kingdom, it helped put down the Jacobite rising of 1715, fighting the rebels at the inconclusive Battle of Sheriffmuir in November 1715 and at the Battle of Glen Shiel in June 1719; the regiment was deployed to Flanders in summer 1742 for service in the War of Austrian Succession and took part in the Battle of Dettingen in June 1743, the Battle of Fontenoy in May 1745 and the Battle of Rocoux in October 1746.
The regiment embarked for the continent in spring 1760 for service in the Seven Years' War. After the war, it garrisoned the island of Menorca; the regiment served under the name of its various Colonels until it was numbered as the 11th Regiment of Foot when the numerical system of regimental designation was adopted in 1751. It was given the additional county title of 11th Regiment of Foot in 1782; the 11th Regiment spent the early years of the French Revolutionary Wars serving as detachments in the Mediterranean with the Royal Navy. It took part in an abortive raid on the port of Ostend in 1798, it was deployed to the West Indies in 1801 where it captured Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin that year. A 2nd Battalion took part in the disastrous Walcheren Campaign; the 1st battalion returned to Europe in July 1809 to fight in the Peninsular War. It took part in the Battle of Bussaco in September 1810 and fell back to the Lines of Torres Vedras, it took part in the Siege of Badajoz in April 1811, the Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo in January 1812 and earned its nickname, The Bloody Eleventh, at the Battle of Salamanca in July 1812.
It fought at the Siege of Burgos in September 1812 and pursued the French Army into France taking part in the Battle of the Pyrenees in July 1813, the Battle of Nivelle in November 1813 and the Battle of the Nive in December 1813 as well as the Battle of Orthez in February 1814 and the Battle of Toulouse in April 1814. In the 19th century, the regiment spent most of the 19th Century on garrison duty throughout the Empire; the regiment was not fundamentally affected by the Cardwell Reforms of the 1870s, which gave it a depot at Topsham Barracks in Exeter from 1873, or by the Childers reforms of 1881 – as it possessed two battalions, there was no need for it to amalgamate with another regiment. Under the reforms the regiment became the Devonshire Regiment on 1 July 1881. At the same time it merged with the rifle volunteer units of the county of Devon, it took part in the Tirah Campaign in 1897 and the Second Boer War in 1899. The 2nd Battalion fought in the Second Anglo-Afghan War, the Anglo-Ashanti wars and the Second Boer War.
In 1908, the Volunteers and Militia were reorganised nationally, with the former becoming the Territorial Force and the latter the Special Reserve. The 1st Battalion, Devonshire Regiment was a Regular Army unit and, after absorbing some 500 reservists, departed for France, landing at Le Havre on 21 August 1914, just 17 days since Britain's entry into the war, as part of the British Expeditionary Force; the battalion joined the 8th Brigade of the 3rd Division in early September 1914, transferred to the 14th Brigade of the 5th Division in the month. The battalion served on the Western Front throughout the war, seeing action first during the Battle of La Bassée in October where they helped in the capture of Givenchy Ridge, followed by the First Battle of Ypres, where the battalion, in common with most of the rest of the British Regular Army, sustained heavy casualties; the 1st Devons lost in the battle a third of the other ranks. The battalion took part in the Winter operations 1914–1915, occupying trenches in deep mud and snow before, in April 1915, suffering 200 casualties from shelling and German counterattacks after holding Hill 60 after its capture a few days before.
The 2nd Battalion, assigned to the 23rd Brigade, 8th Division, was another Regular Army unit, th
Queen's Royal Regiment (West Surrey)
The Queen's Royal Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the English and the British Army from 1661 to 1959. It was the senior English line infantry regiment of the British Army, behind only the Royal Scots in the British Army line infantry order of precedence. In 1959, the regiment was amalgamated with the East Surrey Regiment, to form a single county regiment called the Queen's Royal Surrey Regiment which was, on 31 December 1966, amalgamated with the Queen's Own Buffs, The Royal Kent Regiment, the Royal Sussex Regiment and the Middlesex Regiment to form the Queen's Regiment. Following a further amalgamation in 1992 with the Royal Hampshire Regiment, the lineage of the regiment is continued today by the Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment; the regiment was raised in 1661 by Henry Mordaunt, 2nd Earl of Peterborough as The Earl of Peterborough's Regiment of Foot on Putney Heath to garrison the new English acquisition of Tangier, part of Catherine of Braganza's dowry when she married King Charles II.
From this service, it was known as the Tangier Regiment. As was usual at the time, it was named after its current colonel, from one of whom, Percy Kirke, it acquired its nickname Kirke's Lambs. In 1685, it was given the Royal title the Queen Dowager's Regiment of Foot and in 1703 became The Queen's Royal Regiment of Foot. In 1715, it was renamed The Princess of Wales's Own Regiment of Foot after Caroline of Ansbach Princess of Wales, was re-designated The Queen's Own Regiment of Foot in 1727 when the Princess became Queen, it was ranked as 2nd Foot in the clothing regulations of 1747, was renamed 2nd Regiment of Foot by Royal warrant in 1751. In the Childers reforms of 1881 it became the county regiment of West Surrey, named The Queen's. In 1921, its title was altered to The Queen's Royal Regiment. By 1950 it was known as The Queen's Royal Regiment. In 1959, it was amalgamated with the East Surrey Regiment, to form the Queen's Royal Surrey Regiment; the regiment shipped to Tangier where it remained until the port was evacuated in 1684, when it returned to England.
It took part in the suppression of the Monmouth Rebellion, fighting at the Battle of Sedgemoor, where it earned a widespread reputation for brutality. After the Glorious Revolution, it fought in Ireland for the new King, William III, defending the besieged Londonderry in 1689 and at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690. From 1692 to 1696 it fought in Flanders in the Nine Years' War, at the Battle of Landen and the recapture of Namur in 1695. During the War of Spanish Succession it served in the Iberian campaign, at Cadiz, the sieges of Valencia de Alcantara, Badajoz and Ciudad Rodrigo, was destroyed in the disastrous Battle of Almansa. In the campaign in the Low Countries in 1703, it defended Tongres against overwhelming odds, giving Lord Overkirk time to re-group his forces, until it was captured, it was for this action that it was awarded its mottoes. It spent most of the remainder of the 18th Century on garrison duty, being one of the regiments involved in putting down the Gordon Riots. On the outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars, detachments were in the West Indies and acting as marines in the Channel Fleet, notably at the battle of the Glorious First of June in 1794, where they served on Howe's flagship, Queen Charlotte and on board Russell, Royal George and Majestic.
In recognition of the regiment's service, it was granted the distinction of wearing a Naval Crown superscribed 1 June 1794 on its colours. The regiment was reunited and sent to the West Indies where it took part in the capture of Guadeloupe in 1794, although the occupation was short-lived owing to outbreaks of disease yellow fever, among the troops, the capture of Trinidad in 1797. A second battalion was formed in 1795 and stationed in Guernsey before being shipped to Martinique, where it was disbanded in 1797, its personnel being absorbed by 1st Battalion; the regiment was transferred to Ireland in 1798 where it helped put down the Irish rebellion and took part in the unsuccessful 1799 Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland. In 1800, it was part of the abortive expedition to Belle Isle, from which it sailed to Egypt where it fought at the Battle of Alexandria, the Siege of Fort Julien and the Siege of Alexandria. During the Napoleonic Wars, the regiment first fought in the Peninsular War at the battles of Vimeiro and Corunna.
It took part in the disastrous Walcheren Campaign before returning to the Peninsula to fight at the Battle of Fuentes de Oñoro, the second Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo, the Battle of Salamanca and the unsuccessful Siege of Burgos. By the winter of 1812, the regiment was so depleted by casualties and disease that four companies were amalgamated with the weakened 2nd Battalion, 53rd Foot, to form the 2nd Provisional Battalion. Six cadre companies returned home to re-form; as part of the 4th Division, the Provisional Battalion took part in the Wellington's triumph at the Battle of Vittoria on 21 June 1813, followed by the Siege of San Sebastián and, 1814, the battles of Orthes and Toulouse. The regiment was on garrison duty in Baluchistan when the First Afghan War broke out in 1839, it formed part of the force that attacked the previously-impregnable city of Ghazni, taking the city by storm because the army lacked siege equipment, opening the way to Kabul. It returned to India in November 1839, storming the city of Khelat en route, avoiding destruction along with the rest of Elphinstone's army.
The regiment was shipped to the Cape Colony during the Eight
King's Own Royal Regiment (Lancaster)
The King's Own Royal Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army. It served under various titles and fought in many wars and conflicts, including both World War I and World War II, from 1680 to 1959. In 1959, the regiment was amalgamated with the Border Regiment to form the King's Own Royal Border Regiment; the regiment was raised on 13 July 1680 by Charles FitzCharles, 1st Earl of Plymouth as the 2nd Tangier Regiment or Earl of Plymouth's Regiment of Foot. It saw action at the Battle of Sedgemoor in July 1685 during the Monmouth Rebellion. In April 1690, the regiment embarked for Ireland, where it took part in the Williamite War, fighting at the Battle of the Boyne in July and in the sieges of Cork and Limerick in September, before returning to England in 1691; the regiment embarked for the Netherlands in March 1692 for service in the Nine Years' War. It saw action at the Battle of Steenkerque in August 1692, the Battle of Landen in July 1693 and at the Siege of Namur in summer 1695.
Soon after, it was reformed as a regiment of marines and fought at the Battle of Vigo Bay in October 1702 and the capture of Gibraltar in August 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession. It ceased to be a regiment of marines in 1711; the regiment fought at the Battle of Falkirk Muir in January 1746 and received most of the government casualties at the Battle of Culloden in April 1746 during the Jacobite rising. In 1751, after various name changes, the regiment was titled the 4th Regiment of Foot, it embarked for the West Indies in autumn 1758 for service in the Seven Years' War and took part in the capture of Guadeloupe in January 1759, the capture of Martinique in January 1762 and the capture of Saint Lucia in February 1762 before returning home in July 1764. The regiment embarked for North America in April 1774 for service in the American Revolutionary War, it fought at the Battles of Lexington and Concord in April 1775, the Battle of Bunker Hill in June 1775 and the Battle of Long Island in August 1776.
It saw action at the Battle of Fort Washington in November 1776, the Battle of Germantown in October 1777 and the Battle of White Marsh in December 1777. The regiment was transferred to the West Indies, where it fought at the Battle of St. Lucia in December 1778 during the Anglo-French War; the regiment was sent to Nova Scotia in May 1787 and took part in the capture of Saint Pierre and Miquelon in May 1793. After returning to England, it embarked for the Netherlands in September 1799 and fought at the Battle of Alkmaar in October 1799 during the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland; the regiment was sent to Portugal in August 1808 for service in the Napoleonic Wars and fought under General Sir John Moore at the Battle of Corunna in January 1809, before being evacuated to England that month. It returned to the Peninsula in October 1810 where it fought at the Siege of Badajoz in March 1812, the Battle of Salamanca in July 1812 and the Battle of Vitoria in June 1813 as well as the Siege of San Sebastián in September 1813.
It pursued the French Army into France and saw action at the Battle of the Nivelle in November 1813 and at the Battle of the Nive in December 1813. It embarked for North America in June 1814 for service in the War of 1812 and saw action at the Battle of Bladensburg in August 1814, the Burning of Washington in August 1814 the Battle of Baltimore in September 1814, the Battle of New Orleans in January 1815, as well as the capture of Fort Bowyer in February 1815, it returned to England in May 1815, before embarking for Flanders a few weeks to fight at the Battle of Waterloo in June. Detachments of the regiment were used as guards upon convict ships travelling to Australia, with the detachments arriving from 1832. Detachments were stationed in Sydney, Victoria, South Australia and Swan River; the regiment was headed to India. During the Crimean War, the regiment fought at the Battle of Alma in September 1854 and Battle of Inkerman in November 1854 and took part in the Siege of Sevastopol in winter 1854.
It saw action in Abyssinia in 1868, in South Africa in 1879. The regiment was not fundamentally affected by the Cardwell Reforms of the 1870s, which gave it a depot at Bowerham Barracks in Lancaster from 1873, or by the Childers reforms of 1881 – as it possessed two battalions, there was no need for it to amalgamate with another regiment. Under the reforms the regiment became the King's Own on 1 July 1881; the 2nd Battalion embarked for South Africa in December 1899, to serve in the Second Boer War, saw action at the Battle of Spion Kop in January 1900. A 3rd, Militia Battalion, was embodied in January 1900, embarked for South Africa the following month. In 1908, the Volunteers and Militia were reorganised nationally, with the former becoming the Territorial Force and the latter the Special Reserve; the regiment raised 14 New Army battalions during the First World War. The 1st Battalion landed at Boulogne in August 1914 as part of the 12th Brigade in the 4th Division of the British Expeditionary Force.
It was nearly destroyed as a fighting unit at the Battle of Le Cateau on 26 August 1914, when it suffered some 400 casualties in a single two minute burst of machine gun fire. It served on the Western Front for the rest of the war; the 2nd Battalion returned from India in December 1914 and landed at Le Havre in January 1915 as part of the 83rd Brigade in the 28th Division. It took heavy casualties at the Battle of Frezenberg in May 1915 before moving to Egypt in October 1915 and to Salonika; the 3rd Battalion remained in the United Kingdom throughout the war and supplied drafts of trained infantrymen as replacements to the regular battalions