Year 1141 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. February 2 – The Anarchy in the Kingdom of EnglandBattle of Lincoln: Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester and Empress Matilda wrest control of the throne of England from King Stephen. February 13 – Géza II is crowned King of Hungary and Croatia at age 11, succeeding his father. May 14 – Sephardi Jewish philosopher Judah Halevi sets off from Alexandria on a pilgrimage to Palestine. September 9 – Battle of Qatwan: Liao dynasty general Yelü Dashi, founder of the Qara Khitai, defeats the Seljuk Empire and Kara-Khanid forces. September 14 – The Anarchy in the Kingdom of England – Rout of Winchester: Empress Matilda returns to the throne, after Robert is captured by loyalist forces. November 1 – The Anarchy in the Kingdom of England – Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester is exchanged by Empress Matilda for King Stephen, who reassumes the throne of England. November – The Jin dynasty and Southern Song dynasty sign the Treaty of Shaoxing, peace in the Jin–Song Wars lasts for the next twenty years.

The Huai River is established as the boundary between them. The first German colonists arrive following grants by Geza II of Hungary; the colonization process is completed in 1162. The Italian winemaking company Ricasoli is founded. Malcolm IV, King of Scotland Nizami Ganjavi, Persian poet February 11 – Hugh of Saint Victor, Saxon philosopher and mystic February 13 – Béla II, King of Hungary and Croatia April 12 or April 13 – Engelbert, Duke of Carinthia May – Aubrey de Vere II, Lord Great Chamberlain of England June 10 – Richenza of Northeim, German empress October 18 – Leopold, Duke of Bavaria Sheikh Ahmad-e Jami, Persian Sufi writer and poet Judah Halevi, Sephardi Jewish philosopher and poet Alberich of Reims, Archbishop of Bourges

Smuttynose Brewing Company

Smuttynose Brewing Company is a craft brewery located on Towle Farm in Hampton, New Hampshire, United States. The company takes its name from one of the Isles of Shoals. Smuttynose beers are all unfiltered and known for their distinctive labels, many of which feature original photography, they distribute in 25 states and 11 countries. The Towle Farm campus has been certified LEED Gold by the U. S. Green Building Council. In March 2018, the company was sold at auction and subsequently purchased by Runnymede Investments of North Hampton, New Hampshire. Smuttynose was founded in 1994 in New Hampshire. Founder Peter Egelston and his sister Janet had opened the Northampton Brewery in 1987 and the Portsmouth Brewery in 1991, they acquired the assets of a small, short-lived microbrewery in warehouse on the southern edge of town. Early partners Paul Sylva and Jim Beauvais, founders of Ipswich Brewery, were bought out; the first Smuttynose pints were poured on July 1994, along Portsmouth's historic waterfront.

Portsmouth mayor Eileen Foley toasted the new brewery with sixteen ounces of Shoals Pale Ale, the brewery's initial offering. In 2004, Smuttynose began looking for the site of its new home in Newmarket, New Hampshire, but the deal fell through in late 2005. Subsequently, Smuttynose begins working on plans to build a new brewery on a 10-acre parcel along U. S. Route 1 in Portsmouth; the company's annual production volume surpassed 15,000 barrels in 2006. Gross sales for Smuttynose Brewing Company in 2009 reached $5.7 million. The following year, construction began on Smuttynose's new home on the historic 17-acre Towle Farm in Hampton, New Hampshire; the final capacity expansion at the original brewery was commissioned in 2012. Total production in 2012 was 40,744 barrels. Smuttynose moved to the Towle Farm headquarters in 2014; the facility was opened to the public on May 29. The facility featured a four-vessel, 100hl, automated brewhouse, state-of-the-art bottle-filling equipment, tastings and a nine-hole disc golf course.

In 2016 Smuttynose received LEED Gold certification from the U. S. Green Building Council, making it largest brewery to receive the seal at the time. On January 18, Smuttynose announced a bank auction of the brewery to be held on March 9, 2018, unless a buyer or partner were found. Key factors of the company's financial challenges were a slowdown in the growth of craft beer sales, a switch in consumer preference from beer in bottles to beer in cans. On March 9, lender The Provident Bank purchased the company at auction for $8.25 million. On March 16, Runnymede Investments said that it had purchased the company from The Provident Bank for an undisclosed amount; the Big Beer Series is a rotating line-up of beers best brewed in limited amounts. Since its inception in 1998, nearly 25 different beers have appeared in the series: Barleywine, Wheat Wine, Imperial Stout, Scotch Ale, S'muttonator Doublebock, Baltic Porter, Dunkel Lager Farmhouse Ale, Rocky Road, Tripel, S'mistletoe, Winter Porter, Kölsch, East Coast Common, Big A IPA, Farmhouse Ale, Kindest Find, Biere de'Shire, Really Old Brown Dog, Rhye IPA, Homunculus.

Some Big Beers have grown into other parts of the Smuttynose line-up. Smuttlabs evolved from the Short Batch series of single brew batches of classic beers styles, experimental techniques, or unusual ingredients; when Smuttynose moved to the Towle Farm brewery, Smuttlabs took over the original Portsmouth facility, giving it a range of options for batch size, contract brewing capacity and the ability to allow Smuttlabs beer the time they need to age and condition. Smuttlabs beers, like the Short Weisse beers, can move to other parts of the portfolio; as of early 2016, all Smuttlabs releases are allocated through the Beer Vault, where bars and restaurants can choose any available beers in the available. List of microbreweries Haefer, Todd. "Smuttynose Gets Mixed Results with Barleywine Ale". Green Bay Press-Gazette. P. B6. Retrieved March 10, 2018 – via Sullivan, Max. "Positive outlook as Smuttynose moves forward". Foster's Daily Democrat. Dover, New Hampshire. Retrieved March 24, 2018.

Official site


The Korean language is an East Asian language spoken by about 77 million people. It is a member of the Koreanic language family and is the official and national language of both Koreas: North Korea and South Korea, with different standardized official forms used in each country, it is a recognised minority language in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County of Jilin province, China. It is spoken in parts of Sakhalin and Central Asia. Historical and modern linguists classify Korean; the linguistic homeland of Korean is suggested to be somewhere in Manchuria. Modern Korean descends from Middle Korean, which in turn descends from Old Korean, which descends from the Proto-Koreanic language, suggested to have its linguistic homeland somewhere in Manchuria. Whitman suggests that the proto-Koreans present in northern Korea, expanded into the southern part of the Korean Peninsula at around 300 BC and coexisted with the descendants of the Japonic Mumun cultivators.

Both had influence on each other and a founder effect diminished the internal variety of both language families. Chinese characters arrived in Korea together with Buddhism during the Proto-Three Kingdoms era in the 1st century BC, it was adapted for Korean and became known as Hanja, remained as the main script for writing Korean through over a millennium alongside various phonetic scripts that were invented such as Idu and Hyangchal. Privileged elites were educated to read and write in Hanja. However, most of the population was illiterate. In the 15th century, King Sejong the Great developed an alphabetic featural writing system known today as Hangul, he felt that Hanja was inadequate to write Korean and that this was the cause of its restricted use. Introduced in the document "Hunminjeongeum", it was called "eonmun" and spread nationwide to increase literacy in Korea. Hangul was used by all the Korean classes but treated as "amkeul" and disregarded by privileged elites, whereas Hanja was regarded as "jinseo".

Official documents were always written in Hanja during the Joseon era. Since most people couldn't understand Hanja, Korean kings sometimes released public notices written in Hangul as early as the 16th century for all Korean classes, including uneducated peasants and slaves. By the 17th century, Korean elites Yangban and their slaves exchanged Hangul letters. Today, Hanja is unused in everyday life due to its inconvenience, but it is still important for historical and linguistic studies. Neither South Korea or North Korea opposes the learning of Hanja, though they are not used in North Korea anymore, their usage in South Korea is reserved for specific circumstances, such as newspapers, scholarly papers, disambiguation. Since the Korean War, through 70 years of separation, North–South differences have developed in standard Korean, including variations in pronunciation and vocabulary chosen, but these minor differences can be found in any of the Korean dialects and still mutually intelligible.

The Korean names for the language are based on the names for Korea used in both South Korea and North Korea. The English word "Korean" is derived from Goryeo, thought to be the first Korean dynasty known to Western nations. Korean people in the former USSR refer to themselves as Koryo-saram and/or Koryo-in, call the language Koryo-mal. In South Korea, the Korean language is referred to by many names including hanguk-eo, hanguk-mal and uri-mal. In "hanguk-eo" and "hanguk-mal", the first part of the word, "hanguk" was taken from the name of the Korean Empire; the "Han" in Hanguk and Daehan Jeguk is derived from Samhan, in reference to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, while "-eo" and "-mal" mean "language" and "speech", respectively. Korean is simply referred to as guk-eo "national language"; this name is based on the same Han characters, meaning "nation" + "language", that are used in Taiwan and Japan to refer to their respective national languages. In North Korea and China, the language is most called Joseon-mal, or more formally, Joseon-o.

This is taken from the North Korean name for Korea, a name retained from the Joseon dynasty until the proclamation of the Korean Empire, which in turn was annexed by the Empire of Japan. In mainland China, following the establishment of diplomatic relations with South Korea in 1992, the term Cháoxiǎnyǔ or the short form Cháoyǔ has been used to refer to the standard language of North Korea and Yanbian, whereas Hánguóyǔ or the short form Hányǔ is used to refer to the standard language of South Korea; some older English sources use the spelling "Corea" to refer to the nation, its inflected form for the language and people, "Korea" becoming more popular in the late 1800s according to Google's NGram English corpus of 2015. Korean is considered by most linguists to be a language isolate, though it is included by proponents of the now rejected Altaic family. Al