1146 Biarmia

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1146 Biarmia
Discovery [1]
Discovered by G. Neujmin
Discovery site Simeiz Obs.
Discovery date 7 May 1929
MPC designation (1146) Biarmia
Named after
(territory in Norse sagas)[2]
1929 JF · 1941 WD1
A913 KA
main-belt · (outer)[3]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 87.88 yr (32,098 days)
Aphelion 3.8212 AU
Perihelion 2.2678 AU
3.0445 AU
Eccentricity 0.2551
5.31 yr (1,940 days)
0° 11m 7.8s / day
Inclination 17.067°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 21.59±1.52 km[4]
31.14±1.2 km[5]
32.39±0.97 km[6]
32.925±0.148 km[7]
38.567±0.735 km[8]
5.33±0.01 h[9]
5.468±0.004 h[10]
5.4700±0.0002 h[11][a]
11.514±0.004 h[12]
21.6 h (retracted)[b]
Tholen = X[1][3] · M[8][13][14]
B–V = 0.690 [1]
U–B = 0.247 [1]
9.80[1][3][4][5][6][8] · 9.99±0.33[15]

1146 Biarmia, provisional designation 1929 JF, is a metallic background asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 32 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 7 May 1929, by Russian astronomer Grigory Neujmin at the Simeiz Observatory on the Crimean peninsula.[16] The asteroid was named for the Bjarmaland mentioned in Norse sagas.

Orbit and classification[edit]

Biarmia is not a member of any known asteroid family. It orbits the Sun in the outer main-belt at a distance of 2.3–3.8 AU once every 5 years and 4 months (1,940 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.26 and an inclination of 17° with respect to the ecliptic.[1]

The asteroid was first identified as A913 KA at Winchester Observatory (799) in June 1913. The body's observation arc begins with its official discovery observation at Simeiz.[16]

Physical characteristics[edit]

Biarmia has been characterized in several observations as a metallic M-type asteroid.[13][14][8] In the Tholen classification, it is an X-type asteroid which also includes the M-types as a subgroup.[1][3]

Rotation period[edit]

The best-rated rotational lightcurves of Biarmia were obtained from photometric observations at the Etscorn Observatory (719), New Mexico, and at the S.O.S. Observatory (H39) in Minnesota, United States. Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 5.468 and 5.4700 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.22 and 0.20 magnitude, respectively (U=3/3).[10][11][a]

Other observations received a lower rating or have since been retracted.[b] Warner's period of 11.514 hours was later revised to 5.33 (U=2).[9][12]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Biarmia measures between 21.59 and 38.567 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.1436 and 0.455.[4][5][6][7][8]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link adopts the results obtained by IRAS, that is, a stony albedo of 0.2190 and a diameter of 31.14 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 9.80.[3]


This minor planet was named for the Bjarmaland mentioned in Norse sagas. This legendary territory probably refers to the Russian region around Arkhangelsk on the White Sea near the Finnish border. The official naming citation was mentioned in The Names of the Minor Planets by Paul Herget in 1955 (H 107).[2]


  1. ^ a b Lightcurve plot of 1146 Biarmia with a period of 5.47 hours. Brian D. Warner. Note by Warner: "Originally reported in MPB 27, 4-6 with P = 11.514 and A = 0.32. Reanalysis found revised period of P = 5.33, which disagrees with the 5.47 found by Durkee. The curve above is plotted to the Durkee period, which does give a better fit than with 5.33 h."
  2. ^ a b Behrend (2008) web: obs. date: 27 January 2008. Rotation period 21.6 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.07 mag. Summary figures for (1146) Biarmia at Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link (CALL). Lightcurve was removed from website by Raoul Behrend.


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1146 Biarmia (1929 JF)" (2017-03-24 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 8 September 2017. 
  2. ^ a b Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1146) Biarmia. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 97. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 8 September 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c d e "LCDB Data for (1146) Biarmia". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 8 September 2017. 
  4. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794Freely accessible. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 8 September 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 8 September 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 8 September 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645Freely accessible. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121. Retrieved 8 September 2017. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. Retrieved 8 September 2017. 
  9. ^ a b Warner, Brian D. (January 2011). "Upon Further Review: III. An Examination of Previous Lightcurve Analysis from the Palmer Divide Observatory". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 38 (1): 21–23. Bibcode:2011MPBu...38...21W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 8 September 2017. 
  10. ^ a b Klinglesmith, Daniel A., III; Hanowell, Jesse; Warren, Curtis Alan (October 2014). "Lightcurves for Inversion Model Candidates". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 41 (4): 206–208. Bibcode:2014MPBu...41..206K. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 8 September 2017. 
  11. ^ a b Durkee, Russell I. (October 2009). "The Lightcurves of 1146 Biarmia and 5598 Carlmurray". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 36 (4): 170. Bibcode:2009MPBu...36..170D. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 8 September 2017. 
  12. ^ a b Warner, B. (March 2000). "Asteroid Photometry at the Palmer Divide Observatory". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 27: 4–6. Bibcode:2000MPBu...27....4W. Retrieved 8 September 2017. 
  13. ^ a b Fornasier, S.; Clark, B. E.; Dotto, E. (July 2011). "Spectroscopic survey of X-type asteroids" (PDF). Icarus. 214 (1): 131–146. arXiv:1105.3380Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011Icar..214..131F. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2011.04.022. Retrieved 8 September 2017. 
  14. ^ a b Belskaya, I. N.; Fornasier, S.; Tozzi, G. P.; Gil-Hutton, R.; Cellino, A.; Antonyuk, K.; et al. (March 2017). "Refining the asteroid taxonomy by polarimetric observations". Icarus. 284: 30–42. Bibcode:2017Icar..284...30B. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2016.11.003. Retrieved 8 September 2017. 
  15. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 8 September 2017. 
  16. ^ a b "1146 Biarmia (1929 JF)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 8 September 2017. 

External links[edit]