SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

1147

Year 1147 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. April – Abd al-Mu'min destroys the Almoravid Empire, after capturing Marrakech and killing the last emir, Ishaq ibn Ali; the Siculo-Normans take control of Gabes. October 25 – Battle of Dorylaeum: The Seljuq Turks defeat German crusaders, under Conrad III; the Second Crusade begins. June – The Wendish Crusade fails to convert most of the Polabian Slavs; the cities of Moscow and Vologda are first mentioned in written records. July 1–October 25 – Siege of Lisbon: With the support of English and Flemish Crusaders, Afonso I of Portugal besieges and conquers Lisbon; the same year, the troops of the young Portuguese kingdom take Sintra and Santarém, sack Palmela. September – The German contingent of the Second Crusade arrives at Constantinople. Roger II of Sicily takes Corfu from the Byzantine Empire, pillages Corinth and Thebes. October 7 – Almería, one of the most important maritime and commercial centers of al-Andalus, falls into Christian hands, after two months of siege.

Almohad general Berraz ibn Mohammad al-Masufi conquers Seville. The church of San Frediano in Lucca is consecrated. Dore Abbey is founded is England. Hildegard of Bingen founds the convent of Rupertsberg near Bingen. Jedburgh Abbey is founded by David I of Scotland. May 9 – Minamoto no Yoritomo, Japanese shōgun Emperor Guangzong of Song Princess Sukeko of Japan Hugh de Kevelioc, 3rd Earl of Chester Ibn Qudamah, Islamic scholar Shōkū, Buddhist leader King Stephen III of Hungary Taira no Munemori, Japanese warrior Wada Yoshimori, Japanese military commander probable – Raimbaut of Orange, troubadour January 13 – Robert de Craon, second Grand Master of the Knights Templar April 6 – Frederick II, Duke of Swabia, April – Fannu, Almoravid Princess and warrior September 19 – Igor II of Kiev October 31 – Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester, English politician December 25 – Guy II, Count of Ponthieu date unknown John Capellanus, Scottish bishop Comita II of Arborea, ruler of Arborea Pietro Polani, 36th Doge of Venice William fitz Duncan, Scottish prince

Neck frill

A neck frill is the extensive margin seen on the back of the heads of reptiles with either a bony support such as those present on the skulls of dinosaurs of the suborder Marginocephalia or a cartilaginous one as in the frill-necked lizard. In technical terms, the bone-supported frill is composed of an enlarged parietal bone flanked by elongated squamosals and sometimes ringed by epoccipitals, bony knobs that gave the margin a jagged appearance. In the early 1900s, the parietal bone was known among paleontologists as the dermosupraoccipital; the feature is now referred to as the parietosquamosal frill. In some genera, such as Triceratops, Pentaceratops and Torosaurus, this extension is large. Despite the neck frill predominantly being made of hard bone, some neck frills are made of skin, as is the case with the frill-necked lizard of today that resides in Australia; the use of the neck frill in dinosaurs is uncertain. Indeed, during battles for territory, competing Triceratops crashed heads together with their elongated horns and the neck frill may have been employed as a kind of shield, protecting the rest of the animal from harm.

However, usage of the neck frill in modern reptiles is better documented. Two chief and disparate examples are the horned lizards with a bony frill, the frill-necked lizard with a cartilaginous frill; the frill-necked lizard's frill is made up of flaps of skin, which are coloured pink, supported by cartilaginous spines. Similar to the portrayal of the dinosaur Dilophosaurus in Steven Spielberg's Jurassic Park, frill-necked lizard puff out these neck frills on either side of its head when threatened; the lizards raise their frills when battling for territory or when coming into contact with another lizard during mating season. There is, however, no evidence that suggests that Dilophosaurus neither had nor didn't have the same abilities, as many of its features in the Jurassic Park film were fictional. Numerous other animals of both modern and prehistoric times use both skin or bone protrusions to make themselves seem more threatening, attract mates or to thermoregulate. Examples of these are the usage of dewlaps and crests in lizards and birds.

The unusual red-fan parrot has a feathery neck frill, used for display purposes. Armour Crest Dewlap Weldon Owen Pty Ltd.. Encyclopedia of animals - Mammals, Reptiles, Amphibians. Reader's Inc.. ISBN 1-875137-49-1

California Freeway and Expressway System

The California Freeway and Expressway System is a system of existing or planned freeways and expressways in the U. S. state of California. It encompasses federal highways in California, it is defined by the Streets and Highways Code, sections 250-257. The following is a list of roads defined by the Streets and Highways Code, sections 250-257, as part of the California Freeway and Expressway System; some of the routes listed may still be in the planning stages of being upgraded to freeways or expressways. State Route 1 State Route 2 State Route 3 State Route 4 Interstate 5 U. S. Route 6 State Route 7 Interstate 8 State Route 9 Interstate 10 State Route 11 State Route 12 State Route 13 State Route 14 Interstate 15 and State Route 15 State Route 16 State Route 17 State Route 18 State Route 19 State Route 20 State Route 22 State Route 23 State Route 24 State Route 25 State Route 26 State Route 27 State Route 28 State Route 29 State Route 32 State Route 33 State Route 34 State Route 35 State Route 36 State Route 37 State Route 38 State Route 39 Interstate 40 State Route 41 State Route 43 State Route 44 State Route 45 State Route 46 State Route 47 State Route 48 State Route 49 U.

S. Route 50 State Route 51 State Route 52 State Route 53 State Route 54 State Route 55 State Route 56 State Route 57 State Route 58 State Route 59 State Route 60 State Route 61 State Route 62 State Route 63 State Route 65 State Route 66 State Route 67 State Route 68 State Route 70 State Route 71 State Route 72 State Route 73 State Route 74 State Route 75 State Route 76 State Route 77 State Route 78 State Route 79 Interstate 80 State Route 81 State Route 82 State Route 83 State Route 84 State Route 85 State Route 86 State Route 87 State Route 88 State Route 89 State Route 90 State Route 91 State Route 92 State Route 93 State Route 94 U. S. Route 95 State Route 96 U. S. Route 97 State Route 98 State Route 99 State Route 100 U. S. Route 101 State Route 102 State Route 103 State Route 104 Interstate 105 State Route 107 State Route 108 State Route 109 Interstate 110 and State Route 110 State Route 111 State Route 113 State Route 114 State Route 115 State Route 116 State Route 118 State Route 120 State Route 121 State Route 122 State Route 123 State Route 124 State Route 125 State Route 126 State Route 127 State Route 128 State Route 129 State Route 130 State Route 131 State Route 132 State Route 133 State Route 134 State Route 135 State Route 136 State Route 137 State Route 138 State Route 139 State Route 140 State Route 142 State Route 144 State Route 145 State Route 146 State Route 147 State Route 148 State Route 149 State Route 150 State Route 151 State Route 152 State Route 153 State Route 154 State Route 155 State Route 156 State Route 158 State Route 160 State Route 161 State Route 162 State Route 163 State Route 164 State Route 165 State Route 166 State Route 167 State Route 168 State Route 169 State Route 170 State Route 172 State Route 173 State Route 174 State Route 175 State Route 177 State Route 178 State Route 179 State Route 180 State Route 181 State Route 182 State Route 183 State Route 184 State Route 185 State Route 186 State Route 187 State Route 188 State Route 189 State Route 190 State Route 191 State Route 192 State Route 193 State Route 195 State Route 197 State Route 198 U.

S. Route 199 State Route 200 State Route 201 State Route 202 State Route 203 State Route 204 Interstate 205 State Route 207 Interstate 210 and State Route 210 State Route 211 State Route 213 Interstate 215 State Route 216 State Route 217 State Route 218 State Route 219 State Route 220 State Route 221 State Route 222 State Route 223 State Route 225 State Route 227 State Route 229 State Route 230 State Route 232 State Route 233 State Route 236 State Route 237 Interstate 238 and State Route 238 State Route 241 State Route 242 State Route 243 State Route 244 State Route 245 State Route 246 State Route 247 State Route 253 State Route 254 State Route 255 State Route 259 State Route 261 State Route 262 State Route 263 State Route 265 State Route 266 State Route 267 State Route 269 State Route 270 State Route 271 State Route 273 State Route 275 Interstate 280 State Route 281 State Route 282 State Route 283 State Route 284 State Route 299 State Route 330 State Route 371 Interstate 380 U. S. Route 395 Interstate 405 Interstate 505 Interstate 580 Interstate 605 Interstate 680 Interstate 710 and State Route 710 Interstate 780 Interstate 805 Interstate 880 State Route 905 Interstate 980 California Roads portal California Highways