Giraavaru people

The Giraavaru people are the indigenous people of Giraavaru Island, part of the Maldives. They are one of the earliest settlers of the island country, they were relocated due to erosion on their island to other parts of the Kaafu Atoll, including the Hulhulé Island and the capital city of Malé. The name Giraavaru is thought to be derived from the words Gira meaning eroding and varu meaning people or islanders; the Giraavaru origins are descendant of ancient Tamils from southwestern coast of India and northwestern shores of Sri Lanka, who settled on the island around the Sangam period They are mentioned in the legend about the establishment of the capital and kingly rule in Malé, where the Giraavaru people granted permission to a visiting king Koimala Kalo prior to the foundation of his kingdom on Malé. They mixed with Indo Aryan speakers to create Modern Dhivehi people's. Although the Giraavaru was much larger and civilized at the time, most of the island has eroded due to changing weather; until the twentieth century the Giraavaru people displayed recognisable physical and cultural differences to the nearby islands.

Their culture and language were of clear Tamil-Malayalam extraction. They were monogamous and prohibited divorce, their folklore was preserved in dance. Their music was audibly different from that of the other islanders; the most distinct items were the necklaces of tiny blue beads. It is said that the Giraavaru people were always headed by a woman and that throughout Maldivian history, a woman, represented the Sultan's civil authority in Giravaru Island; the Sultans of the Maldives used to recognise the autonomy of the Giraavaru people and did not apply quite the same laws on them as they did on the rest of their realm. The Giravaru people never seemed to recognise the sovereignty of the Sultans. Ordinary Maldivians were required to address the Malé nobility in a different level of speech. However, the Giravaru people did not observe this custom and addressed the Malé nobility as they would address themselves, it was believed. Things changed since 1932; the customary rights of the indigenous Giraavaru people were not recognised in that document.

Any rights they seemed to have enjoyed under the absolute rule of the Sultans were extinguished by default. In 1968, due to heavy erosion of the island and as a result, reduction of the community to a few members, they were forced to abandon their island under an Islamic regulation that did not recognise communities with less than 40 adult males, the minimum required for the regular performance of Friday prayers; the Giraavaru people were resettled there. When the airport there was extended they were shifted across to Malé and housed in a few blocks in newly reclaimed areas in the Maafanu district; the distinct Giraavaru culture swiftly disappeared when the Giraavaru young people were assimilated into the wider Malé society through intermarriage. "Pure" Giraavaru are now thought to be extinct. The Giraavarus were isolated and thus an endogamous society with a low population for more than a millennium; as a result, the population showed a number of heritable genetic disorders when they were forcibly assimilated with a larger population in the forties.

Tivaru Maldivians Lakshadweep H. C. P. Bell, The Maldive Islands. Reprint Colombo 1940. Council for Linguistic and Historical Research. Male’ 1989 Xavier Romero-Frias, The Maldive Islanders, A Study of the Popular Culture of an Ancient Ocean Kingdom. Barcelona 1999, ISBN 84-7254-801-5 Ahmed Mauloof, The Giraavaru people

Massacre Rocks State Park

Massacre Rocks State Park is a history-focused public recreation area in the Northwest United States featuring the Massacre Rocks, a famous spot along the Oregon Trail and California Trail during the middle 19th century. The state park is located along the Snake River, ten miles southwest of American Falls, in Power County, Idaho; the park features a configuration of boulders along the south bank of the Snake River, known alternatively as Massacre Rocks, "Gate of Death", or "Devil's Gate". Emigrants gave this name to the narrow passage of the trail through the rocks, from the fear of possible ambush by Native Americans. According to diaries of emigrants, settlers in five wagons clashed with Shoshone just east of the rocks on August 9–10, 1862. Ten emigrants died in the fight; the skirmishes took place east of the park and not at Devil's Gate as believed. Some confrontations may have occurred there; the Clark Massacre of 1851 occurred just west of Massacre Rocks, closer to the Raft River. The rocks were used as campsite for wagon trains along the trail.

Many emigrants carved their names and dates on Register Rock, now protected by a shelter. The actual passage through the rocks is now the route of Interstate 86 along the south edge of the park. Geologically, the park was created during the repeated volcanic activity on the Snake River Plain; the rocks themselves were deposited in their present location at the end of the last ice age 14,500 years ago, during the catastrophic flood known as the Bonneville Flood, when much of Lake Bonneville surged down the Snake River. A notch in the cliff on the north bank of the Snake opposite the park was the site of an ancient waterfall of a side channel of the waters in the aftermath of the flood. Massacre Rocks became a state park in 1967, following earlier status as a roadside park managed by the Idaho Department of Transportation; this state park is home to various birds which are Canada goose, great blue heron, pelican, bald eagle. The only residential mammals are beaver, cottontail and coyote; the park is accessible by automobile on Interstate 86 and by foot using a trail from the rest areas just east of the park on Interstate 86.

The footpaths provide access to remnants of the original Oregon Trail on the south side of the highway. Exhibits in the park's visitor center describe the geology of the park; the park offers trails for hiking and biking, disc golf course and access to the Snake River. Massacre Rocks State Park Idaho Parks and Recreation Massacre Rocks State Park Map Idaho Parks and Recreation