The McKenna Military Operations in Urban Terrain site was an urban village built by Army engineers for urban training of soldiers on a US Army base in Fort Benning, Georgia. The site belongs to the Soldier Battlelab and was used for live and constructive experimentation on soldier systems and equipment; the McKenna MOUT site was 200 meters square, included 15 buildings resembling a European village. There was small houses, domestic residences and office-style buildings. A replica of the existing military base in Fort Benning, Georgia was designed by the Army Research Laboratory, called virtual McKenna MOUT; the software representation was modeled on the real training site at Georgia. The software was developed in the early 2000s, for use as a training aid and simulation tool to collect soldier data through sensors. Data collected included decision-making capabilities. ARL began the program in June 2002 and the software was released publicly in April 2005. In 1998, the MOUT Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration commissioned ARL to develop a realistic method to assess infantry situational awareness.
The software created a virtual world intended to simulate variables effecting cognitive performance of individuals and teams of soldiers, including situational awareness, mission planning, advanced sensors, team interaction. MOUT was a custom environment complete with precise depictions of buildings, vegetation, enemy units and real training scenarios. MOUT was developed for savings associated with collection of virtual performance data in lieu of costly field experiments, which were estimated to be up to $50,000 per day at the Fort Benning site; the first virtual representation of the McKenna MOUT site was based on the shooter PC game, Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six 3: Raven Shield1, which focused on small unit warfare in urban environments. The layout of the replica was based on a satellite photo of Fort Benning, along with photographs of interior building plans; the locations of buildings and roads within the virtual McKenna MOUT site were collected using survey data taken at the site. ARL utilized a free-play approach using freeze frames and knowledge assessment questionnaires to assess infantry situational awareness.
Two sets of questionnaires were tailored based on the scenario being used, with embedded events included to elicit specific situational awareness responses in the users. Day and night scenarios included the soldiers using their current equipment and scenarios using new technology; the same scenario was rerun with different opposing forces and obstacles. The percentage of correct questions for each freeze frame was computed for the two conditions
Argyll's Rising or Argyll's Rebellion was a 1685 attempt by a group of Scottish exiles, led by Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll, to overthrow King James II and VII. It took place shortly before and in support of the Monmouth Rebellion, led by James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth. Argyll's Rising was intended to tie down Royal forces in Scotland while Monmouth's army marched on London. Both rebellions were backed by Protestants opposed to the kingship of a Roman Catholic. Argyll, the chief of Clan Campbell, had hoped to raise several thousand men amongst his followers, while it was expected that many Presbyterians in southern Scotland would join the rebels. Argyll sailed from Holland on 2 May with around 300 men, but on landing in Scotland attracted few volunteers. Hampered by Argyll's inexperience as a commander, disagreements amongst the other leaders, by an opposing force under the Marquess of Atholl, the rebels began to disperse in mid June after an abortive invasion of Lowland Scotland.
Most of their leaders were captured, including Argyll, executed on 30 June. Southwestern Scotland had been in a state of unrest since the late 1670s, with the more militant Presbyterian faction, the Covenanters disobeying the authority of Charles II, who attempted to impose episcopacy on the country; the resulting disorder, known by Covenanters as "The Killing Time", resulted in many extrajudicial executions as Royal troops tried to enforce the King's authority. In the interim a group of Protestant exiles opposed to the Stuart regime had gathered in Holland; these included Whigs involved in the Rye House Plot, supporters of Monmouth, republican radicals. One of the most prominent figures amongst this disparate group was the Earl of Argyll, once a staunch Royalist but who had fled Scotland in 1681 after being condemned on a dubious treason charge. Others included the moderate Whig George Melville, Lord Melville, Covenanter supporter Sir Patrick Hume, Sir John Cochrane of Ochiltree, the former Cromwellian soldier Richard Rumbold, a prime mover behind the Rye House plot.
Argyll had been implicated in the Plot when coded letters from him to key conspirators were discovered. Argyll first began planning an insurrection in Scotland in early 1684. Using money subscribed amongst the exiles, he ordered 400 sets of armour from an Amsterdam armoury along with other equipment for mounted and foot soldiers, concealing them as a purchase for the Venetian Republic; the main financial contributors to the plan were identified as a Mrs Ann Smith who had supported Argyll, Sir Patience Ward, William Rumbold and, it was alleged, John Locke. The Government in Scotland seem to have been aware of Argyll's plans, as they took the precaution of appointing the Marquess of Atholl as Lord Lieutenant of Argyllshire and ordering him to march there with a strong force, occupying the one area where Argyll could count on significant personal support; the preparations became more urgent following the death of Charles II in February 1685, the accession of his Roman Catholic brother James, as the exiles saw an opportunity to strike a blow for Protestantism and against the royal absolutism James was known to favour.
Argyll encouraged the two parties to cooperate and worked to convince Monmouth of the feasibility of a joint plan. Argyll talked of being able to count on at least 3000 to 5000 men from among his former tenants, all expected that the Presbyterians of south-western Scotland would join any rebellion. In early March 1685, Monmouth came to Amsterdam to speak with Hume and others, they were joined shortly afterwards by Argyll, so anxious to commence the rising that he agreed to serve under Monmouth in Scotland, if the latter would provide weapons and ammunition. They agreed that Monmouth would take responsibility for England, the south of Ireland, foreign relations, while Argyll would deal with Scotland and northern Ireland. Argyll revealed that he had secured £10,000 in financial support, was purchasing three ships and could be ready to sail in as little as two weeks, though he agreed to postpone in order to coordinate with Monmouth's planned invasion of England. A further meeting of Argyll's associates was held on 17 April, chaired by Sir John Cochrane.
Argyll and his son Charles were present. Although it was voted to choose Argyll as their "general", the conspirators agreed that all major decisions should be discussed and approved by their committee, something, to hamper the Rising in future. In order to better coordinate the two risings, one of the leading Scottish exiles, Andrew Fletcher of Saltoun, was to accompany Monmouth to England, while two of the more prominent English plotters and John Ayloffe, agreed to accompany Argyll. After an initial few days in the Zuider Zee, Argyll's forces set sail from near Amsterdam at about 7 o'clock in the evening on 2 May; the wind changed to a favourable one shortly before departure, the exiles felt confident of success. The three boats, Anna and Sophia, carried around 300 men and a stock of modern weapons sufficient to arm up to 20,000; the vessels arrived off the entrance to the Moray Firth early on the morning of 5 May, as the breeze had reached gale force there was a suggestion that they should shelter in the Firth itself.
However, it was decided to continue north of the Orkneys to reach the western coast. The first of several misfortunes to befall the expedition came when the wind died away, a sea fog descended, the vessels missed the passage between Orkney and Shetland, finding themselves in thick fog in Scapa Flow, they anchor