Year 1156 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. Sfax revolts against the Norman occupiers, massacres the Christians found in the city; the Hōgen Rebellion erupts in Japan. January 20 – According to legend, freeholder Lalli slays English crusader Bishop Henry with an axe, on the ice of Lake Köyliönjärvi in Finland. December 25 – King Sverker the Elder is murdered on his way to church, is soon succeeded as king of Sweden by his rival, Eric Jedvardsson. Prince Yuri Dolgorukiy fortifies Moscow; the Privilegium Minus elevates Austria to the status of a duchy, ruled by the Babenburgs family. Mosan artists create the Stavelot Triptych, a masterpiece of goldsmithing, as a reliquary to house purported pieces of the True Cross. A rebellion breaks out against William I of Sicily, the Byzantine Empire, encouraged by Pope Adrian IV, invades Apulia. William II crushes the rebellion, defeats the Byzantine armies at Brindisi, humbles the Pope at Benevento; the city of Bari is laid to waste for the coming ten years.

Raynald of Châtillon sacks Cyprus. The Carmelite Order is established. October 27 – Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse Hōjō Masako, Politically active Japanese woman, married to Minamoto no Yoritomo Matilda of England, Duchess of Saxony, daughter of Henry II of England Minamoto no Noriyori, Japanese general January 17 – André de Montbard, fifth Grand Master of the Knights Templar April – William IX, Count of Poitiers July 20 – Emperor Toba of Japan December 25 Peter the Venerable, Benedictine abbot of Cluny Sverker the Elder, king of Sweden since 1130 date unknown Bishop Henry, patron saint of Finland Hoel III, Duke of Brittany Tairrdelbach mac Ruaidri Ua Conchobair, High King of Ireland King Demetrius I of Georgia Gilbert de Gant, Earl of Lincoln Mas'ud of Rüm, Seljuk sultan of Rûm Minamoto no Tameyoshi, Japanese general

Nathan Wright (judge)

Sir Nathan Wright was an English judge, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal under King William III and Queen Anne. He offended the House of Commons by his use of habeas corpus in 1704, lost office in 1705; the eldest surviving son of Ezekiel Wright, rector of Thurcaston and son of Robert Wright, his wife Dorothy, second daughter of John Oneby of Hinckley in the same county, he was born on 10 February 1654. In 1668 he entered Emmanuel College, but left the university without a degree. In 1670 he was admitted at the Inner Temple, where he was called to the bar on 29 November 1677, elected bencher in 1692. On the death of his father in 1668 Wright inherited enough to enable him to marry early, have a standing in his native county; the recordership of Leicester, to which he was elected in 1680, he lost on the surrender of the charter of the borough in 1684, but was reinstated in office on its restoration in 1688. In the same year he was elected deputy-recorder of Nottingham, was junior counsel for the crown in the case of the seven bishops.

On 11 April 1692 he was called to the degree of serjeant-at-law. On 16 December 1696 he made his reputation with his speech as counsel for the Crown in the proceedings against Sir John Fenwick in the House of Lords. Wright opened the case against Edward Rich, 6th Earl of Warwick on his trial on 28 March 1699 for the murder of Richard Coote. In the same year he was offered the great seal, as willing to succeed Lord Somers, he accepted, was appointed lord keeper and sworn of the privy council on 21 May. He took his seat as speaker of the House of Lords on 20 June following, the oaths and declaration on 10 February 1701. Wright was one of the lords justices nominated on 27 June 1700, again on 28 June 1701, to act as regents during the king's absence from the realm, he was an ex officio member of the board of trade. Wright presided over the proceedings taken against Somers and other lords on whom it was sought to fix the responsibility for the negotiation of the Second Partition Treaty, he continued in office on the accession of Queen Anne.

Without experience of chancery business, Wright worked from a manual of practice compiled for his use. He excluded Somers with other Whig magnates from the commission of the peace, was attacked in the House of Commons, he was, considered an honest judge. The House of Commons told the serjeant-at-arms to make no return to the writs, might have proceeded to commit the lord keeper, but a prorogation terminated the affair; the coalition of autumn 1705, between Marlborough and Godolphin and the whig junto, was sealed by the dismissal of Wright, now out of favour with both parties, his replacement by William Cowper. He became a county magnate, his principal seat was at Caldecote, but he had estates at Hartshill and Brooksby in Leicestershire. Wright died at Caldecote on 4 August 1721, was buried in Caldecote church. A small but significant modification of criminal procedure, the substitution of sworn for unsworn testimony on behalf of the prisoner in cases of treason and felony, appears to have been due to Wright's initiative.

His decrees in chancery are reported by Peere Williams. In 1676, Nathan Wright married Elizabeth Ashby, second daughter of George Ashby of Quenby, Leicestershire, by whom he had six sons and four daughters. George Wright, the eldest son, purchased the manor of Gayhurst, which remained in the family until the 19th century. Rev. Nathan Wright of Englefield House, the second son, who married Ann Paulet, only daughter of Lord Francis Paulet. Dorothy Wright, who married Henry Grey, 3rd Earl of Stamford and was the mother of Harry Grey, 4th Earl of Stamford. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Wright, Nathan". Dictionary of National Biography. 63. London: Smith, Elder & Co

Lumley v. Gye

Lumley v. Gye EWHC QB J73 is a foundational English tort law case, heard in 1853, in the field of economic tort, it held that one may claim damages from a third person who interferes in the performance of a contract by another. Arising out of the same facts is Lumley v Wagner, where Mr Lumley secured an injunction from Ms Wagner against performing for Mr Gye further; the singer Johanna Wagner was engaged by Benjamin Lumley to sing at Her Majesty's Theatre for three months. Frederick Gye, who ran Covent Garden Theatre, induced her to break her contract with Mr. Lumley by promising to pay her more. Although an injunction was issued to prevent her singing at Covent Garden, Gye persuaded her to disregard it. Lumley therefore sued Gye for damages in respect of the income. Crompton J held, he observed that although the general law is there is no action, by it had become clear that a claim lay for wrongfully and maliciously enticing a person to break their contract with another. Wightman J and Erle J concurred.

UK labour law English tort law