SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

1158

Year 1158 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. Emperor Nijō formally succeeds Emperor Go-Shirakawa on the throne of Japan. January 11 – Vladislav II becomes king of Bohemia. November 29 – Eleanor of Aquitaine arrives in Salisbury, Wiltshire on royal business; the Diet of Roncaglia is convoked by Frederick Barbarossa. The newborn Margaret of France is shipped to England, as the future wife of the three-year-old Henry the Young King; the Vexin region is promised as her dowry, is put under the care of the Knights Templar, until her future husband is old enough to take control of it. Margrave Ottokar III of Styria inherits the County of Pitten; the Portuguese conquer Palmela, Alcácer do Sesimbra from the diminished Almoravids. Spain: Raymundo, abbot of the Fitero Abbey, pledges to defend the fortress of Calatrava from incoming Muslim raiders, it is the founding moment of the Order of Calatrava, the spearhead of the Iberian armies during the Reconquista. English Pound Sterling is introduced.

The University of Bologna is granted its first privileges by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. The Diocese of Derry is founded in Ireland. September 23 – Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany Yvette of Huy, Roman Catholic prophet and anchorite Taira no Shigehira, son of Taira no Kiyomori April 26 – Martyrius, Archbishop of Esztergom, Hungarian prelate July 27 – Geoffrey VI, Count of Anjou August 20 – Rögnvald Kali Kolsson, Earl of Orkney and Saint August 31 – King Sancho III of Castile September 22 – Otto of Freising, German bishop and chronicler Oda of Brabant and prioress Anselm of Havelberg, German-born bishop and papal legate

Hans Dons

Hans Fleischer Dons was a Royal Norwegian Navy officer. He is most associated with the first manned flight in Norway. Dons was born in Norway, he was the son of Johanne Marie Fleischer. He attended Technische Hochschule Charlottenburg. From 1909, he served in the Royal Norwegian Navy as second in command on board Norway's first submarine HNoMS Kobben, he was a naval attache at the Norwegian Legacy in Washington, D. C. and held the same position at Paris. Dons served in the Admiral Staff. On 1 June 1912 Dons performed the first manned flight in Norway in a monoplane named Start; the fixed-wing aircraft was made in Germany by Edmund Rumpler. A few days 7 June, Dons flew from Borre over Horten, crossing Oslofjord to Moss and Fredrikstad – covering a distance of 48 km in 35 minutes. In 1935 Dons published his book: Start: En norsk flyvehistorie fra 1912-13. Start is on display at the Norwegian Armed Forces Aircraft Collection located at Gardermoen, north of Oslo, Norway. Aviation in Norway John Andreas Olsen European Air Power: Challenges and Opportunities ISBN 978-1612346816

Serafima Amosova

Serafima Amosova was the Deputy Regimental Commander of the 46th Guards Night Bomber Aviation Regiment during the Second World War. Serafima Amosova was born in central Siberia on 20 August 1914 to a working family, her grandfather, Anton Amosov, had moved to Siberia in the late 19th century from Byelorussia. After graduating from school in 1929 she joined the Komsomol and found work as the leader of a pioneer detachment. In 1933 she was a delegate to the All-Union Conference of Pioneer Workers in Moscow. With dreams of becoming a pilot, she entered the OSOAVIAHIM but crashed her glider on the day she was due to graduate flight training. After recovering from her injuries she attended the Tambov Aviation School. In 1936 she graduated with honors and received her pilot's license, after she worked for Aeroflot as a pilot a Moscow - Irkutsk route. After escalation of the Second World War in January 1941 she was appointed squadron commander to train military-aged men at Yanaul Airport in Bashkortostan.

Just several days after the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 Amosova and several other female instructors sent a letter requesting to be sent to the warfront. While male students were deployed to the warfront the female flight instructors were told to remain in Bashkortostan to train new cadets. After further persistence they were referred to Marina Raskova, the founder of three women's aviation regiments. After receiving that letter she flew to Moscow to meet with Raskova, who accepted her into the regiment. After graduating from Engels Military Aviation School in May 1942 with the rank of lieutenant she was deployed to the Southern Front as a squadron commander. Due to being one of the most experienced pilots of the regiment she rose through the ranks and was awarded the Order of the Red Banner in September 1942, becoming among the first members of the regiment to receive the award, she was described as an excellent and cautious pilot by her colleagues who remembered she never raised her voice or got angry.

On her first sortie she flew as with navigator Larisa Litvinova who became a Hero of the Soviet Union following the plane of regimental commander Yevdokia Bershanskaya and Sofya Burzaeva. On one mission when Amosova was flying as pilot to bomb an Axis headquarters, she delayed dropping her bombs because of the lack of anti-aircraft fire when she flew over the target, having expected anti-aircraft fire from such an important target. Suspecting they were over the wrong location she flew back to an aerial checkpoint and made another approach but was again met by a lack of anti-aircraft fire. Shocked that such an important target for bombing would not be protected by antiaircraft artillery, she returned to the checkpoint again and made a third approach, after which they released the bombs and waiting to see if there would be any counterattacks. Only after dropping the bombs did the Axis launch anti-aircraft fire because they did not want to indicate the position of the target. In addition to flying bombing sorties she trained navigators to become certified pilots and was appointed to be the Deputy Regimental Commander and maintained strict discipline in the regiment.

She made a total of 555 missions in the war, having participated in night bombing campaigns in the North Caucasus, Kuban, Crimea, Kerch and Poland as well as airdropping supplies for the Eltigen landing and daylight missions in search of areas to use as airfields because the Po-2 light bombers were not assigned airports. Throughout the war she was awarded two Orders of the Red Banner, the Order of Alexander Nevsky, the Order of the Red Star, an Order of the Patriotic War. Not long after the end of the war she married fellow airforce pilot Ivan Andreevich Taranenko and took his surname. Together the couple raised three sons, all them grew up to work in aviation or serve in the military, she spoke to youth about patriotism. She died in Moscow on 17 December 1992. Yevdokia Bershanskaya Yevdokia Rachkevich