SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

1159

Year 1159 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar. September 7 – Pope Alexander III succeeds Pope Adrian IV, as the 170th pope; the Heiji Rebellion breaks out in Japan. Tunis is reconquered from the Normans, by the Almohad caliphs.: Churchman Richard FitzNeal is appointed Lord High Treasurer in England, in charge of Henry II of England's Exchequer, an office he will hold for 40 years. Minamoto no Yoshitsune, Japanese general May 30 – Wladislaus II, the Exile of Poland August 29 – Bertha of Sulzbach, Byzantine Empress September 1 – Pope Adrian IV October 11 – William of Blois, Count of Boulogne and Earl of Surrey Joscelin II, Count of Edessa

J. Sargeant Reynolds

Julian Sargeant "Sarge" Reynolds of Richmond, Virginia was an American teacher and Democratic politician. He served in both the House and Senate of the Virginia General Assembly and served as 30th Lieutenant Governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia under Governor Linwood Holton, he died of an inoperable brain tumor at age 34. Reynolds was born into wealth in New York City, the second son of Richard Samuel Reynolds, Jr. and Virginia McDonald Sargeant Reynolds. His grandfather founded the metals company, his great-grandfather A. D. Reynolds of Bristol, Tennessee had been a successful tobacco farmer and brother of Richard Joshua Reynolds, who founded the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company. Sarge Reynolds was educated in Richmond, graduating from St. Christopher's School in 1947, from Woodberry Forest School in Orange, Virginia in 1954, he went to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to attend the Wharton School of Finance, University of Pennsylvania. In 1958 he graduated 9th in his class of 356, he married the former Elizabeth Weir Veeneman of Kentucky.

Before their divorce, they had four children: Virginia Weir, J. Sargeant, Jr. Jeanne Elizabeth and David Parham Reynolds II. Reynolds married Mary Ballou Handy Stettinius from Lynchburg, Virginia, they had Richard Roland Reynolds. In 1958 Reynolds started his business career in the Market Research Department of the family's Reynolds Metals Company. In 1961 he became Assistant Treasurer and in 1965 he became Executive Vice-President of the Reynolds Aluminum Credit Corporation, he taught economics at the University of Richmond to help him overcome shyness. Reynolds began his political career with the Young Democratic Club, as the Byrd Organization struggled with the end of Massive Resistance. Reynolds first ran for elective office in 1965 and was elected as one of eight delegates for Richmond. In that election after the reapportionment required by Davis v. Mann as well as the Civil Rights Act of 1965, incumbents George E. Allen Jr. T. Coleman Andrews Jr. Harold H. Dervishian, Junie L. Bradshaw and Edward E. Lane won re-election, Reynolds, E. B.

Pendleton Jr. and T. Dix Sutton replaced fellow Democrat Fred G. Pollard as well as Richmond's first elected Republicans in years--Louis S. Herrink Jr. and S. Strother Smith Jr.. Two years Reynolds ran for the Virginia State Senate from District 30, again representing Richmond City, Senator FitzGerald Bemiss having retired. Reynolds and incumbent fellow-Democrat Edward E. Willey thus became Richmond's two Senators. In the General Assembly, Reynolds advocated establishing the Virginia Community College System. In the 1967 election at which Reynolds moved up to the state senate, among Richmond's eight delegates, half changed. Thomas P. Bryan, Ernest W. Farley Jr. William Ferguson Reid and Richmond's first woman mayor, Republican Eleanor Parker Sheppart replaced Andrews, Dervishian and Sutton. Virginia's Democratic Party nominated Reynolds to run for Lieutenant Governor against pro-education Republican H. Dunlop Dawbarn in 1969, which proved to be a near-landslide year for Republicans; the Republicans concentrated their efforts on electing Richard Nixon President and Linwood Holton Virginia's governor, succeeded with many other offices on the ticket.

However, Reynolds broke the tide, polling 54% of the vote for lieutenant governor compared to Dawbarn's 42%, thus winning the 3-way race. In the 1969 general election, fellow Democrat L. Douglas Wilder won election to represent Richmond in the state senate alongside Willey, thus replacing Reynolds. Shortly after taking office, Reynolds was diagnosed as having an inoperable brain tumor. Weakened by attempted treatments of the tumor in New York City, Reynolds died of pneumonia. Reynolds asked to be buried at his great-grandfather's boyhood home. Dying in office, he was accorded a state funeral before being buried in accordance with that wish. J. Sargeant Reynolds Community College, which serves Henrico County and metropolitan Richmond, was named in his honor after his death in 1971; the book, "Sarge Reynolds – In the Time of His Life" by Andy McCutcheon and Michael P. Gleason, published in 1996. Both men knew Sargeant Reynolds personally. "Sarge Reynolds, a documentary" paid for by the Richard S. Reynolds Foundation in cooperation with the Center for Politics at the University of Virginia, 2006.

J. Sargeant Reynolds Community College

Dura Parchment 24

Dura Parchment 24, designated as Uncial 0212, is a Greek uncial manuscript of the New Testament. The manuscript has been assigned to the 3rd century, palaeographically, though an earlier date cannot be excluded, it contains some unusual orthographic features. It is the only surviving manuscript of the Greek Diatessaron, unless Papyrus 25 is a witness to that work; the text of the fragment was reconstructed by Welles. Dura Parchment 24 is housed at Yale University, New Haven catalogued there as Dura Parch. 10. On March 5, 1933, during the excavations conducted by Clark Hopkins amongst the ruins of a Roman border-town, Dura-Europos, on the lower Euphrates, under the embankment which filled in the street inside the wall and covered the Christian church and the Jewish synagogue, the parchment fragment now known as Dura Parchment 24 was found. Susan Hopkins was the first to recognize it as a portion of the Gospel; the fragment was examined by Carl H. Kraeling, who published its text in 1935, with an extensive discussion.

Kraeling concluded. It was re-edited, with a minor corrections, by C. Bradford Welles in 1959. According to Plooij "There is no reasonable doubt that the fragment is Tatian". According to Parker and Goodacre it is another harmony of the four Gospels, different to Diatessaron, much closer to the text of the Gospels. Jan Joosten criticised the methods employed by Taylor and Parker, according to him, these methods would have eliminated many other Tatianic witnesses because of diversity and variability in these witnesses. Dura Parchment does not constitute evidence of non-Diatessaronic composition; the manuscript was added to the list of the New Testament manuscripts by Kurt Aland in 1953. It is not speaking, a manuscript of the New Testament — it contains only phrases from the text of the Gospels. On a single parchment leaf, the following texts were copied: Matthew 27:56–57, it has been regarded as a fragment of Tatian's Diatessaron. Only one side of the leaf has been used, may well have come from a scroll.

The text was written one column per page, 15 lines per page, 30–35 letters per line, in uncial letters. Parts of the leaf have decayed, resulting in some loss from the text — the first five to seven letters of each line. Additionally, some other letters are not legible. Classic nomina sacra abbreviations were employed with the typical linear superscript; the text is written in a good book-hand. There are three kinds of alpha: the older capital, the uncial, the 3rd-century-cursive–type; the letters tau and eta have unusual characters, were written with ligatures. The letter mu is characterized by a deep saddle; the text of the manuscript has some unusual orthographic features, which have been found nowhere else. For example, the letter upsilon appears at several points in the text, but not connected with it in any way that has yet been understood. In Luke 23:49 it contains a unique reading: "the wives of those, his disciples". In Matthew 27:57, the city Arimathea spelled Αριμαθαια, is spelled Ερινμαθαια.

The text twice agrees with Codex Bohairic against everything else. There are two agreements with Codex Bezae, in line 4 it has ην δε η ημερα παρασκευη for και ημερα ην παρασκευη, in line 9 και ανηρ is omitted; the fragment has two agreements with Syriac Sinaitic. First Syriac Sinaitic shares with Codex Bezae the reading ην δε η ημερα for και ημερα ην, secondly it describes Arimathaea as "city of Judea" instead of "city of the Jews"; the last reading is supported by other Syriac authorities, by Old-Latin Codex Veronensis and the Arabic Harmony, against the entire Greek tradition. The fragment does not agree with the Syriac reading Ramtha for Arimethaea; the text-type of this manuscript is no longer classifiable, because of the Diatessaric character of text. So, Aland placed it in Category III; the Greek text and references follow Kraeling, the translation is according to C. Badford Welles. Both the reconstruction of the text and the translation follow C. Badford Welles; the surviving leaf of the scroll or codex described here, was found in 1933, during excavations among the ruins of Dura-Europos, known to have been destroyed by Shapur I King of Persia in 256.

This means the manuscript must have been written before 256. The time between Tatian's original composition and the production of this copy could not have been longer than 80 years. Before this find, the only copies of the Diatessaron known to modern scholarship were translations into languages other than Greek—notably Latin and Armenian; this fragment is much more direct evidence that Tatian composed his Diatessaron with great diligence. "Probably he worked from four separate manuscripts, one for each of the Gospels, and, as he brought together phrases, now from this Gospel and now that, he would no doubt cross out those phrases in the manuscripts from which he was copying."The fragment does not help in the discussion of a Greek or Syriac origin of the Diatessaron. Burkitt pointed two differences between its text of Luke 23:51 and the Old Syriac manuscripts of the Gospels, in agreement with the accepted Greek text. Baumstark, on the other hand, identified several