1164 Kobolda

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1164 Kobolda
Discovery [1]
Discovered by K. Reinmuth
Discovery site Heidelberg Obs.
Discovery date 19 March 1930
Designations
MPC designation (1164) Kobolda
Named after
Hermann Kobold
(German astronomer)[2]
1930 FB
main-belt · (inner)
Phocaea[3][4]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 87.01 yr (31,782 days)
Aphelion 2.7574 AU
Perihelion 1.8543 AU
2.3059 AU
Eccentricity 0.1958
3.50 yr (1,279 days)
15.684°
0° 16m 53.4s / day
Inclination 25.190°
156.96°
341.25°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 5.79±0.37 km[5]
6.34±1.15 km[6]
7.63 km (calculated)[3]
7.651±0.064 km[7]
8.751±0.066 km[8]
4.141±0.002 h[9]
4.142±0.001 h[10]
4.150±0.005 h[a]
4.154±0.011 h[11]
0.1754±0.0253[8]
0.229±0.022[7]
0.23 (assumed)[3]
0.32±0.15[6]
0.405±0.056[5]
S[3]
12.80[1][3][5][6][8]

1164 Kobolda, provisional designation 1930 FB, is a stony Phocaea asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 7 kilometers in diameter. Discovered by Karl Reinmuth at Heidelberg Observatory in 1930, the asteroid was later named after German astronomer Hermann Kobold.

Discovery[edit]

Kobolda was discovered on 19 March 1930, by German astronomer Karl Reinmuth at the Heidelberg-Königstuhl State Observatory in southwest Germany.[12] On the following night, it was independently discovered by Walter Baade at the Bergedorf Observatory in Hamburg.[2] The Minor Planet Center, however, only acknowledges the first discoverer.[12]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Kobolda is a member of the Phocaea family (701), which is a stony family of nearly 2,000 known members, named after the family's parent body 25 Phocaea.[3][4][13]:23

This asteroid orbits the Sun in the inner main-belt at a distance of 1.9–2.8 AU once every 3 years and 6 months (1,279 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.20 and an inclination of 25° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] The body's observation arc begins with its official discovery observation at Heidelberg in 1930.[12]

Physical characteristics[edit]

Kobolda is an assumed stony S-type asteroid,[3] which concurs with the overall spectral type of the Phocaea family.[13]:23

Rotation period[edit]

Several rotational lightcurves of Kobolda have been obtained from photometric observations since 2007. Lightcurve analysis gave a well-defined rotation period between 4.141 and 4.154 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.21 to 0.30 magnitude (U=3/3/3/2).[9][10][11][a]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Kobolda measures between 5.79 and 8.751 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.1754 and 0.405.[5][6][7][8]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes an albedo of 0.23 (derived from 25 Phocaea) and calculates a diameter of 7.63 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 12.8.[3]

Naming[edit]

This minor planet was named after Hermann Kobold (1858–1942), a German astronomer at the University of Kiel and long-time editor of the astronomy journal Astronomical Notes (German: Astronomische Nachrichten, after which (1155) was named). The official naming citation was mentioned in The Names of the Minor Planets by Paul Herget in 1955 (H 108).[2]

Trivia[edit]

Pluto's number[edit]

Were Pluto categorized as a minor planet when discovered in early 1930, shortly before 1164 Kobolda, the number (1164) could have been assigned to Pluto.[original research?] However, these assumptions are only speculative as there is generally only a slight correlation between the discovery date of a minor planet and its final number.[14] Another proposed number for Pluto was (10000), with the idea that (10001) and (10002) would be given to the first and second discovered Kuiper belt object. However the proposal met "stiff resistance" and the number was assigned to 10000 Myriostos instead.[15][16]:35 Eventually, Pluto was given the number (134340).

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Warner (2014l) not available at ADS. Obs. date: 16 April 2014. Rotation period 4.150±0.005 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.21±0.02 mag. Quality Code of 3. Summary figures for (1164) Kobolda at Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link (CALL)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1164 Kobolda (1930 FB)" (2017-03-24 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 7 September 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1164) Kobolda. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 98. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 7 September 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "LCDB Data for (1164) Kobolda". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 7 September 2017. 
  4. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 7 September 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 7 September 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; et al. (December 2015). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year One: Preliminary Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 814 (2): 13. arXiv:1509.02522Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015ApJ...814..117N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/117. Retrieved 7 September 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645Freely accessible. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121. Retrieved 7 September 2017. 
  8. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. Retrieved 7 September 2017. 
  9. ^ a b Higgins, David; Oey, Julian (September 2007). "Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at Hunters Hill Observatory and Collaborating Stations - December 2006 - April 2007". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 34 (3): 79–80. Bibcode:2007MPBu...34...79H. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 7 September 2017. 
  10. ^ a b Higgins, David (January 2011). "Period Determination of Asteroid Targets Observed at Hunters Hill Observatory: May 2009 - September 2010". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 38 (1): 41–46. Bibcode:2011MPBu...38...41H. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 7 September 2017. 
  11. ^ a b Sauppe, Jason; Torno, Steven; Lemke-Oliver, Robert; Ditteon, Richard (December 2007). "Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at the Oakley Observatory - March/April 2007". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 34 (4): 119–122. Bibcode:2007MPBu...34..119S. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 7 September 2017. 
  12. ^ a b c "1164 Kobolda (1930 FB)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 7 September 2017. 
  13. ^ a b Nesvorný, D.; Broz, M.; Carruba, V. (December 2014). "Identification and Dynamical Properties of Asteroid Families" (PDF). Asteroids IV: 297–321. arXiv:1502.01628Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015aste.book..297N. doi:10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816532131-ch016. Retrieved 7 September 2017. 
  14. ^ "Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – Introductory Remarks". Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 2. Retrieved 7 September 2017. 
  15. ^ Guy M Hurst (20 June 1999). "THE ASTRONOMER Electronic Circular No 1420". Retrieved 7 September 2017. 
  16. ^ Tholen, D. (December 1999). "Asteroid News Notes". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 26: 33. Bibcode:1999MPBu...26...33T. Retrieved 7 September 2017. 

External links[edit]